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Examines the impact of convergence on the various rules and agreements, administered by the WTO and vice versa. Concludes there is need to review provisions of some rules administered by the WTO to enable the multilateral trading system to deal adequately with convergence, and to ensure benefits are spread wide enough. Recommends the WTO should encourage policy reforms leading to widespread and efficient communications.
The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small…
The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small countries in the region as they are challenged in ways notably different from large countries with large domestic markets for media content. It discusses the differences between the AV media industries in the Nordic and Baltic countries and suggests that while in the first case long-term welfare society policies and conscious policy-driven system building have conditioned growth and international success then also in the second case innovation policy rationales have facilitated recent growth and dynamics. It then discusses the specific challenges, especially platformisation to small media industries in contemporary globalising media markets, and suggests that opportunities to resist these challenges may be in local inter-sectoral cooperation, that is, in building cross-innovation systems.
Audiovisual works – especially cinematographic works – are at the heart of the changes resulting from the development of the information society. Media convergence…
Audiovisual works – especially cinematographic works – are at the heart of the changes resulting from the development of the information society. Media convergence radically changed the way traditional audiovisual content is produced, distributed, consumed and eventually archived. Film producers slowly started to experiment with new ways of digital production such as the shortening of release windows to favor new on demand services. How does this translate to European film policy? Due to the unique double nature of cinematographic works which are both economic and cultural goods at the same time, the European film policy is at the crossing point of media, culture, competition and heritage. This paper seeks to address these issues.
In this research paper the authors assessed to what extent the adoption of digital technologies is stimulated throughout the value chain of film making and more precisely to what degree the distribution of a European culturally diverse catalogue of films is encouraged.
For the first time in history, European producers have the tools at their disposal to collaborate, promote and distribute internationally, at lower transaction costs and at a higher speed, and to look beyond their national market. The fast‐evolving technological developments provided the European legislator with the opportunity to strengthen and support the promotion of the European cultural identity in all its diversity. But is this also reflected in the current legislative framework? It is clear that different hurdles still need to be tackled.
In this research paper an overview is given of the regulatory steps that have been taken so far in the field of European film policy to stimulate the digital production and distribution of European film productions. In the context of new unfolding alliances between stakeholders and experiments with premium video‐on‐demand or shorter cinema release windows, the relevance of digital production and distribution schemes can no longer be neglected. The emergence of web‐based services including cloud computing is likely to accelerate this trend.
This chapter discusses the various ways in which audiovisual (AV) media industries have cooperated with the tourism industry and explores the emergent areas for…
This chapter discusses the various ways in which audiovisual (AV) media industries have cooperated with the tourism industry and explores the emergent areas for cross-innovation. It demonstrates the gradual mediatisation of tourism, but also how the added value from location tourism has started to affect, for instance, the operation of the film industry. It then discusses the emergence of tourism gamification that came about with the arrival of smartphones equipped with an ever-increasing variety of sensors relevant to location and mobility awareness. The chapter finishes by discussing the affordances and forms of augmented reality being used in the service of the cultural heritage sector and the broader tourism sector.
Using the example of audiovisual materials, this paper aims to illustrate how records-related and archival legislation lags behind advances in technology. As more…
Using the example of audiovisual materials, this paper aims to illustrate how records-related and archival legislation lags behind advances in technology. As more audiovisual materials are created on the cloud, questions arise about the applicability of national laws over the control, ownership, and custody of data and records.
This paper analyses court cases relating to audiovisual materials in the cloud and archival legislation from three Commonwealth countries: Canada, Australia, and Singapore – representing North America, the Pacific, and Asia respectively.
Current records-related and archival legislation does not effectively address the creation, processing, and preservation of records and data in a cloud environment. The paper identifies several records-related risks linked to the cloud – risks related to the ownership and custody of data, legal risks due to transborder data flow, and risks due to differing interpretations on the act of copying and ownership of audiovisual materials.
The paper identifies the need for records professionals to pay greater attention to the implications of the emerging cloud environment. There is a need for further research on how the concept of extraterritoriality and transborder laws can be applied to develop model laws for the management and preservation of records in the cloud.
The paper identifies record-related risks linked to the cloud by analyzing court cases and archival legislation. The paper examines maritime law to find useful principles that the archival field could draw on to mitigate some of these risks.
This chapter addresses the forms of co-innovation between the audiovisual (AV) industries and the health care sector. It gives a brief overview of how media have been used…
This chapter addresses the forms of co-innovation between the audiovisual (AV) industries and the health care sector. It gives a brief overview of how media have been used in health promotion, medical training and treatment by drawing on selected examples from television, entertainment and video game industries. Informed by an array of case-studies, this literature review suggests that the emergence of the new digital audiovisual media and online technologies bears a great potential to improve health care services in multiple ways, while it also recognises the risks associated with the crumbling of medical authority in thoroughly mediatised worlds. Therefore, it maintains that a successful adoption of entertainment-oriented media formats in health care always requires a close relationship with professional medical expertise.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the merger arranged in the audiovisual sector between Antena 3 and La Sexta, and specifically the pre- and post-merger factors…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the merger arranged in the audiovisual sector between Antena 3 and La Sexta, and specifically the pre- and post-merger factors. This study adopts a comprehensive approach for the analysis of the reasons behind this strategic decision and the role that structural and human integration and the decision on the right momentum and integration speed played in the merger success.
A single case study research method is used. This qualitative methodology provides richer data to understand complex transactions such as mergers and acquisitions (M&As). According to the data triangulation technique, two research methods were used, in-depth interviews and archival secondary data, including confidential reports and archival trade press.
The merger involving Antena 3’s takeover of La Sexta in October 2012 has been seen as one of the most successful operations ever undertaken in Spain’s audiovisual industry. The main motivation was to increase the organisation’s size to make it more competitive in the market, thus reducing costs, generating synergies and improving performance. Structural and human integration has provided the backbone for this success, all at a time marked by the global financial crisis and its knock-on effect on the downturn in the advertising market. Another of the key factors of success was that the changes in the organisational systems and processes were designed and partially implemented before the incorporation of La Sexta.
This work has highlighted the need for proper planning and a suitable choice of timing in M&A operations. Management should pay special attention to the integration of human and productive resources to generate synergies on the road to success.
This paper’s main contribution is to highlight an example of a successful M&A in the audiovisual sector in Spain by adopting a holistic perspective. While there are scarce studies in this industry, previous research on this topic is mostly quantitative and, moreover, the rate of success in M&A is quite low.
This article focuses on Brazil’s migration to digital television. It shows how, in the case of Brazil, unicasting solely reflected the interests of commercial…
This article focuses on Brazil’s migration to digital television. It shows how, in the case of Brazil, unicasting solely reflected the interests of commercial broadcasters. Comparing Brazil to France and the United Kingdom, it explains why the European choice for multicasting is one of the reasons for the success of digital television penetration in these two countries.
By analyzing viewing shares and the financial relevance of the public broadcasters, BBC, and France Televisions, to the national broadcasting spaces, the study concludes that these European traditional broadcasters profited from digital television, despite their exposure to a more competitive environment.
As I will discuss, the model chosen in Brazil continues to hamper Public Service Broadcasting (PSB) and national audiovisual industries’ developments, as well as slowing digital take-up. In Brazil, public broadcasting continued to play a marginal role in the national broadcasting space and the audiovisual market, concentrated in a few local companies.
The findings of this comparative study, developed from a political economy perspective, provide important insights into both Brazilian and European telecommunications policy.
This chapter is based on the findings of the empirical material gathered in Finland and Sweden through interviews with education and audiovisual (AV) media actors and…
This chapter is based on the findings of the empirical material gathered in Finland and Sweden through interviews with education and audiovisual (AV) media actors and policymakers in 2017–2018. The aim of the chapter is to discuss the innovation systems of the education sector and Finland and Sweden in general, compare the sectoral innovation models of the two sectors, and conclude with discussing the resulting challenges for policymakers. Our results show that a new EdTech sector employing the competences of the education, information and communication technology, and AV media sectors has begun to emerge and actors in the both countries have eagerly taken actions to boost its development as a business and export field. We discuss the reasons and consequences of this development.