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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2018

GuÐný Björk Eydal and Tine Rostgaard

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as…

Abstract

The Nordic welfare model is known in the literature for its explicit support of the equal treatment of men and women in both family and gender equality policies as well as its achievements in these policy areas. Policy arguments have to promote gender equality and act in the best interest of the child, ensuring that the child access to care from both parents as well as to early childhood education and care. However, the knowledge of how the Nordic welfare states frame and promote active fatherhood remains fragmented.

The chapter asks whether the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) have developed similar policies on fatherhood or have taken different paths. Hence, the chapter examines three main policy areas affecting fatherhood: family law, family cash benefits and paid parental leave. Comparative perspective is applied and the chapter asks how the policies frame and promote active fatherhood while also looking into how fatherhood is shaped in interaction between policies, cultures and the daily practices of fathers.

Results show that while all Nordic governments promote a dual-earner/dual-carer social democratic welfare state model emphasizing the active participation of fathers in the care of their children, variations exist in policy and practices. Care policies and entitlements to a father quota of paid parental leave are a defining factor for enhancing fathers’ role in care of their children and the findings show that Nordic fathers are making use of their quota and gradually increasing their share in taking leave for the care of young children.

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Fathers, Childcare and Work: Cultures, Practices and Policies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-042-6

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Book part
Publication date: 8 October 2018

Carsten Greve, Per Lægreid and Lise H. Rykkja

The chapter summarises findings from a study on administrative reforms covering all central government ministries and agencies in 19 countries, examining reform…

Abstract

The chapter summarises findings from a study on administrative reforms covering all central government ministries and agencies in 19 countries, examining reform trajectories seen from the top of the central administrative apparatus. Core structural features of the central bureaucracy are described, along with role perceptions, values and motivation of administrative executives. Reform processes, trends, content and management tools are addressed, leading up to similarities and differences between the Nordic countries and between them and other European families of countries. A main finding is that the Nordic bureaucracy represents a layered, complex and hybrid system combining different reform trends and that there is a clear North–South divide in Europe when it comes to administrative reforms.

Details

Bureaucracy and Society in Transition
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-283-3

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Hogne Lerøy Sataøen

Ideas related to “the Nordic” are important in the reconstruction of national identities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and these countries’ modern…

Abstract

Purpose

Ideas related to “the Nordic” are important in the reconstruction of national identities in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, and these countries’ modern national narratives are structurally highly similar. At the same time, there are clear differences between the Nordic countries regarding their national images. The purpose of this study is to a examine the relationship between ideas of the Nordic and national images through a qualitative study of brand manifestations on Nordic web portals for foreign visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

The two guiding research questions are: How do Nordic branding strategies and national stereotypes impact on nation-branding content toward visitors in the Nordic region? What traces of the Nordic as a supranational concept can be found when the Nordic is translated into concrete national brand manifestations? The analysis focuses on brand manifestations such as brand visions, codes of expression, differentiation, narrative identity and ideologies.

Findings

The analysis shows that clichés about the nations prevail in contemporary brand material and that Nordic branding strategies impact on the portals in diffuse and implicit ways. There are, however, some important common denominators, pointing toward a new Nordic brand related to exotic, untouched yet easily accessible nature, with a focus on pure, fresh and clean food with new tastes, in combination with happy and welcoming people.

Originality/value

The results from the study contribute with insight in how ideas of the Nordic on a supranational level transform when used in concrete and practical branding material. Further, this paper proposes a new Nordic branding focus, which contests traditional Nordic ideas.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2007

Ann‐Kristina Løkke, Jacob K. Eskildsen and Troels Wendelboe Jensen

The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of absenteeism and gives information of the relationship between absenteeism and personal and organizational…

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3985

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of absenteeism and gives information of the relationship between absenteeism and personal and organizational characteristics in the Nordic countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical assumptions are tested empirically on data from a survey carried out in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland. 10.748 employees from randomly selected households participated. Differences were examined using analysis of variance.

Findings

Among the findings are that Danish employees are less absent than employees in Norway, Finland and Sweden. Employees working in the public sector, more specific the municipalities, have a higher level of absence compared to the private sector. According to the personal characteristics, women are more absent than men in all Nordic countries, but the effect of age differs according to the country in question. If the manager however is a woman and the employee likewise, then the level of absence is higher in Denmark, Norway and Finland compared to the other gender constellations.

Originality/value

Because of the lack of international comparative studies of absenteeism in the Nordic countries, this paper brings new and a deeper understanding of the area as a basis of further empirical research and/or management concern.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Markku Sippola

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between…

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between Nordic and Baltic countries from the principal firm to the subsidiary. It also looks into explanations as to why model transfer occurs – or does not occur – from the perspective of the Nordic industrialist's labour management strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study comprising three clothing manufacturers and three engineering shops in different Baltic States: Estonia (population 1.4 million), Latvia (2.3 million) and Lithuania (3.4 million). These production sites have headquarters in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Semi‐structured (thematic) interviews are carried out among managers, shop stewards and employees of the subsidiaries.

Findings

There is little model transfer between the Nordic principal firm and the Baltic subsidiary, whereas the Nordic employer prefers local forms of employee relations. Modest model transfer derives from the desire for controlling the labour process, where the Nordic investor seeks to utilise differences between the regimes.

Social implications

The Nordic industrialists' search for the distinction between different regimes and the Baltic drive at liberal market economy (LME) together may prove fatal for labour conditions. Such production policy will not improve the position of the Baltic worker.

Originality/value

The findings question the very idea of model transfer: where any labour management strategy existed, there was either an unambiguous assertion of indigenous solutions or adoption of “best practices” not peculiar to the Nordic labour relations regime.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Book part
Publication date: 11 April 2013

Karina A. Branum, Laura E. Cepeda, Cody Howsmon and Anatoly Zhuplev

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to compare trends, drivers, and best sustainable development (SD) practices in the Nordic region and California…

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this research is to compare trends, drivers, and best sustainable development (SD) practices in the Nordic region and California, USA.Design/methodology/approach – Four research propositions are explored: (1) SD is driven by governmental, economic, and social/cultural influences. (2) Social democracy and mixed economies in the Nordic region influence SD differently than the free market system of the United States. (3) The profit-centered, short-term view in the United States impacts SD differently than the longer-term approach in the Nordic region. (4) The egalitarian culture in the Nordic region influences SD differently than the entrepreneurial culture in the United States. The study incorporates a comprehensive literature review, 34 field interviews and research observations in the United States and the Nordic region.Findings – California and the Nordics have similar market economies where SD is largely driven by private sector; however, the role of government more directly influences SD in the Nordic region. Also, the profit-centered, entrepreneurial view of the United States drives innovation in SD based on short-term profitability gains, which ultimately hinders long-term solutions. Alternatively, the egalitarian culture in the Nordic region manifests in more focused and quicker adoption of SD policies. Lastly, the Nordics have a broad range of SD goals and a competitive advantage in key SD technologies. Conversely, California pursues a large variety of technologies without clearly defined goals that tend to be less effective than the Nordic countries.Originality/value of chapter – The chapter identified similarities and differences in SD trends, best practices, policies, and attitudes: California compared to Nordic countries.

Details

Principles and Strategies to Balance Ethical, Social and Environmental Concerns with Corporate Requirements
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-627-9

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2017

Ondřej Dvouletý

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of entrepreneurial activity in the Nordic countries over the period of years 2004-2013 to provide supportive…

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1062

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the determinants of entrepreneurial activity in the Nordic countries over the period of years 2004-2013 to provide supportive material for the Nordic entrepreneurial policy makers with specific focus on the role of necessity/opportunity-driven entrepreneurship, administrative barriers and the research and development (R&D) sector.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative study employed panel regression analysis with fixed effects estimator to test the impact of determinants on entrepreneurial activity operationalized as a rate of registered business activity and as an established business ownership rate.

Findings

The results obtained for the both dependent variables did not substantially differ from each other or the supported hypothesis stating a positive relationship between unemployment rate, GDP per capita and entrepreneurial activity. Also a negative impact of administrative barriers was found. However, no statistically significant positive impact of the R&D sector was observed.

Practical implications

Nordic entrepreneurial policy makers should put more effort into the reduction of administrative barriers towards founding enterprises and support entrepreneurship during the times of higher unemployment rates. Further evaluation of Nordic R&D policies is strongly needed, since no positive impacts towards entrepreneurship were found.

Originality/value

The empirical analysis was conducted based on the research gap in the studies related to the Nordic entrepreneurial policies and perceived need for the policy recommendations that are provided.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2007

Håkan Johansson and Bjørn Hvinden

To clarify the core characteristics of Nordic activation policies in the context of typologies of European activation governance.

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1601

Abstract

Purpose

To clarify the core characteristics of Nordic activation policies in the context of typologies of European activation governance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper analyses activation governance in the light of the basic values and beliefs behind the formation of the Nordic social protection systems in the mid‐20th century. Recent model‐building efforts see the Nordic countries as being close to a “universalistic” and egalitarian type of activation policy that does not systematically submit citizens to work requirements. The authors ask whether this model captures the actual scope and contents of Nordic activation governance.

Findings

The Nordic countries‐based relatively generous income security systems on a strong work ethic and ambitions to maximise labour market participation of the working‐age population. Citizens's rights to income security were generally linked to the fulfilment of work requirements. Although this active governance of unemployed citizens eroded in the 1970s and 1980s all the Nordic countries revived it after 1990. Largely reflecting the dual structure of the income protection system, Nordic active approaches to activation are not egalitarian.

Research limitations/implications

Nordic countries are currently implementing major administrative reforms in social protection, possibly creating more unified and egalitarian governance of activation. Future research needs to assess the impact of these reforms.

Originality/value

The article presents an analysis of activation policies that so far has been missing from comparative research and that will be of particular value for non‐Nordic readers who may have received a biased view of Nordic activation policies.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 27 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Arto Haveri

The Nordic narrative on local government highlights municipalities’ role in social consumption, a model, which is often considered a success story. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The Nordic narrative on local government highlights municipalities’ role in social consumption, a model, which is often considered a success story. The purpose of this paper is to apply Gerry Stoker’s (2011) theory on local government roles in society to critically analyse the sustainability of the Nordic model.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on literature review, documents and statistics of Nordic public authorities’, the author formulates exploratory theoretical propositions on the sustainability of the Nordic model of local government.

Findings

The emphasis placed on welfare task has made Nordic local government overloaded and vulnerable to central government intervention and reforms, resulting in a cumulative process towards an ever narrowing conception of local government.

Research limitations/implications

The research results are exploratory. Comparative empirical research is needed to verify the idea.

Social implications

The legitimacy of Nordic local government may be challenged because of municipalities’ weakening possibilities to discharge their welfare role in a manner that would satisfy citizens’ growing needs.

Originality/value

The paper is a critical analyses of the sustainability of local government system in Nordic countries. It discusses the possible negative consequences of the overemphasis of the welfare role of local government.

Details

International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2017

Anja Johnsen, Gaby Ortiz-Barreda, Guro Rekkedal and Anette Christine Iversen

The purpose of this paper is to summarise and analyse empirical research on protective factors that promote academic resilience in ethnic minority children mainly aged…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to summarise and analyse empirical research on protective factors that promote academic resilience in ethnic minority children mainly aged between 13 and 18 years attending schools in the Nordic countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was opted for a literature review of 23 peer-reviewed quantitative articles published between 1999 and 2014. The analysis entailed protective factors at both the personal and environmental levels in ethnic minority children.

Findings

Some minority children’s school performance may be just as good if not better than majority children when having similar or even lower socioeconomic status than majority children. Protective factors at the personal level included working hard, having a positive attitude towards school, and having high educational aspirations. Protective factors at the environmental level included supportive school systems, supportive schools, and supportive networks including parental qualities and support. The findings are comparable to the findings outside the Nordic countries with one exception; minority children in the Nordic countries performed better than expected despite socioeconomic disadvantages.

Research limitations/implications

Protective factors affecting academic resilience need further attention in a time with an increased global migration. Research implications may be related to how schools and policy makers develop supportive school systems, supportive schools, and supportive networks to contribute to making a difference for minority children’s educational opportunities in the Nordic countries.

Originality/value

Academic resilience is a relatively new research field in the Nordic countries. This review is the first review which has summarised and analysed existing findings on academic resilience in the Nordic countries in minority children.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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