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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Bernard Owens Imarhiagbe, David Smallbone, George Saridakis, Robert Blackburn and Anne-Marie Mohammed

This article examines access to finance for SMEs in the Baltic States and the South Caucasus countries following the financial crisis of 2007 and is set within the context…

Abstract

Purpose

This article examines access to finance for SMEs in the Baltic States and the South Caucasus countries following the financial crisis of 2007 and is set within the context of the rule of law for businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The article uses the cross-sectional dataset from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS) for 2009 to examine access to finance for SMEs and the court system in the Baltic States and the South Caucasus countries. An ordered probit estimation technique is used to model access to finance and the court system in the Baltic States and the South Caucasus countries. The analysis draws upon institutional theory to explain access to finance for SMEs.

Findings

The results show variations from one Baltic State and South Caucasus country to another in relation to fairness, speed of justice and enforcement of court decisions. The analysis suggests that if access to finance is not an obstacle to business operations and the court system is fair, impartial and uncorrupted, it determines the likelihood of strength in entrepreneurship. Additionally, the results show that, within the Baltic region, businesses experiencing constraints in accessing finance are more likely to have females as their top managers. However, for the South Caucasus region, there was no gender difference.

Research limitations/implications

This research is based on evidence from the Baltic States and the South Caucasus region. However, the findings are relevant to discussions on the importance of the context of entrepreneurship, and more specifically, the rule of law. The institutional theory provides an explanation for coercive, normative and mimetic institutional isomorphism in the context of access to finance for SMEs. Coercive institutional isomorphism exerts a dependence on access to finance for SMEs. In coercive institutional isomorphism, formal and informal pressures are exerted by external organisations such as governments, legal regulatory authorities, banks and other lending institutions. These formal and informal pressures are imposed to ensure compliance as a dependency for successful access to finance goal.

Practical implications

This research creates awareness among entrepreneurs, potential entrepreneurs, business practitioners and society that reducing obstacles to access finance and a fair court system improve entrepreneurial venture formation. This has the potential to create employment, advance business development and improve economic development.

Originality/value

This paper makes an original contribution by emphasising the significance of access to finance and a fair court system in encouraging stronger entrepreneurship. The institutional framework provides a definition for coercive institutional isomorphism to show how external forces exert a dependence pressure towards access to finance for SMEs.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Jelena Barbir, Walter Leal Filho and Jovanka Spiric

This paper aims to describe some trends on climate change in the Baltic Sea region, along with current and future expected actions to cope with climate change in the region.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe some trends on climate change in the Baltic Sea region, along with current and future expected actions to cope with climate change in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The elements that influence climate change in the Baltic Region countries are analysed and co‐operation efforts among the Baltic countries as well as their individual policy and political decisions considering this issue are described.

Findings

Climate change is one the biggest problems faced today and a major threat to society. There is a need for political measures as well as a change in socio‐economic trends in order to meet the challenges of climate change in the Baltic Sea Region.

Originality/value

Climate change is a matter of common concern in the 11 Northern European countries, which either are on the Baltic Sea coast or are influenced by the Baltic Sea by being in the catchment area. The importance of international co‐operation is outlined and some recommendations and possible solutions are provided.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

Open Access
Book part
Publication date: 4 April 2019

Indrek Ibrus and Ulrike Rohn

The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small…

Abstract

The chapter discusses the characteristics of audiovisual (AV) media sectors in the Baltic Sea region. Therein it focuses on the specifics of media industries in small countries in the region as they are challenged in ways notably different from large countries with large domestic markets for media content. It discusses the differences between the AV media industries in the Nordic and Baltic countries and suggests that while in the first case long-term welfare society policies and conscious policy-driven system building have conditioned growth and international success then also in the second case innovation policy rationales have facilitated recent growth and dynamics. It then discusses the specific challenges, especially platformisation to small media industries in contemporary globalising media markets, and suggests that opportunities to resist these challenges may be in local inter-sectoral cooperation, that is, in building cross-innovation systems.

Details

Emergence of Cross-innovation Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-980-9

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Article
Publication date: 11 September 2009

Colin C. Williams

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate in the Baltic Sea region the prevalence of an illegitimate wage arrangement whereby formal employers pay their formal employees…

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1940

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate in the Baltic Sea region the prevalence of an illegitimate wage arrangement whereby formal employers pay their formal employees both an official declared wage as well as a supplementary undeclared (envelope) wage.

Design/methodology/approach

A 2007 Eurobarometer survey is reported that evaluates envelope wage practices in 27 European Union (EU) member states. This paper focuses upon the 4,031 face‐to‐face interviews conducted in four countries from the Baltic Sea region that are now member states of the EU, namely Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland.

Findings

Some one in eight formal employees in these four countries from the Baltic Sea region received an undeclared “envelope” wage from their formal employer during the past 12 months which on average amounted to 45 per cent of their gross wage packet. Although this practice is concentrated in smaller businesses, the construction industry, and amongst younger people, manual workers and lower income groups in these four countries, it is by no means confined to specific pockets of the economic landscape. Rather, it exists throughout these countries in all business types and employee groups.

Research limitations/implications

The existence and commonality of envelope wages reveals the need to transcend the dichotomous depiction of formal and informal jobs as always separate and discrete and to recognise how they can be inextricably interwoven.

Practical implications

This paper outlines a range of potential policy measures for tackling envelope wages and calls for their piloting and evaluation.

Originality/value

The first cross‐national evaluation of the incidence and nature of envelope wages in the Baltic Sea region and what needs to be done to tackle this practice.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 4 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Carol J. Johnson, Curtis M. Grimm and Valdis Blome

The goal of this research is to identify which service activities contribute most to customer satisfaction in the technical wholesale industry in the Baltic States.

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1260

Abstract

Purpose

The goal of this research is to identify which service activities contribute most to customer satisfaction in the technical wholesale industry in the Baltic States.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to obtain an understanding of customer service in the countries of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, a mail survey was done to investigate customer service obtained by 184 customers of a large technical wholesale firm doing business in the Baltic States.

Findings

The overall results of this research indicate that in the technical wholesale industry of the Baltic countries customer service contributes to customer satisfaction. Of the six dimensions tested, all of the relationships were in the expected direction. Only one did not contribute significantly to customer satisfaction. In order of importance to customer satisfaction the dimensions are: process quality, product quality, delivery quality, communication, availability and product support.

Research limitations/implications

To obtain more generalizable results, future research areas should include investigating the model using other firms within the same industry, and testing the model in additional industries within the Baltics. Additional research may include testing the model in other countries in Northern and Central Europe such as the well‐developed Scandinavian countries, and the lesser developed countries of Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and Poland as well as other areas of the world. This model was tested using data from the technical wholesale industry and additional research may focus on testing the model across different industries in different countries as well.

Practical implications

The results are of relevance to practitioners, in particular for firms expanding to the Baltic area. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that the level and number of customer service activities provided by technical services firms in the Baltic area of Northern Europe are based solely on management judgment or practices borrowed from competitors without considering the impact of service provision on customer satisfaction. Instead practitioners should consider the process used to deliver services and products.

Originality/value

This is the first empirical work measuring the impact of customer service dimensions on customer satisfaction using data from the Baltic States.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Book part
Publication date: 28 May 2013

Jaanika Meriküll, Tairi Rõõm and Karsten Staehr

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm…

Abstract

Purpose — The chapter assesses the linkages between unreported economic activities and different individualistic and non-individualistic motives as perceived by firm management.Design/methodology/approach — The empirical research is based on a survey of the management of firms operating in the Baltic States. The survey contains information on the perceived extent of unreported activities and on a large number of firm-, sector-, and country-specific factors. A principal component analysis identifies clusters of motives for unreported activity. Regression analyses ascertain the importance of motives individually and as principal components on the extent of unreported activities.Findings — Both individualistic and non-individualistic motives are important for the prevalence of unreported activities. The individualist motives refer to the management being solely profit-oriented and self-interested. Among possible non-individualist motives, measures of government performance and perceptions of reciprocity towards the government appear to play important roles for the extent of unreported activities, but broader societal norms may also play a role.Research limitations/implications — The study considers the perceptions that managers have of unreported activities and other features. These perceptions are subjective and subject to substantial uncertainty. All results should be interpreted in light of the subjective nature of the survey answers.Social implications — Taken literally, the results suggest that stronger government performance is associated with a reduction in unreported activities, at least as perceived by the management. Broader societal developments may also be of importance.Originality/value — The inclusion of variables capturing individualistic as well as non-individualistic motives gives a comprehensive picture of factors behind unreported activities. We employ principal component analysis which allows us to cluster individual survey answers and to produce composite measures of different explanatory factors.

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2009

Tõnu Roolaht and Urmas Varblane

The purpose of this paper is to show how the inward‐outward dynamics in the internationalisation of Baltic banks have led towards higher incorporation into Nordic banking…

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1198

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show how the inward‐outward dynamics in the internationalisation of Baltic banks have led towards higher incorporation into Nordic banking groups and subsequently towards diminishing autonomy.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents two case studies, which characterise the evolution of international inward‐outward connections in two major Baltic banking groups – Hansabank Group and Skandinaviska Enskilda Banken (SEB) Group.

Findings

Acquisitions by Swedish banks in 1998 had a different impact on the internationalisation of the two leading Baltic banking groups. Inward‐outward connections in the case of the Hansabank Group meant that they obtained strong autonomy in controlling Swedbank's activities in the Baltic. In the case of Eesti Ühispank, Latvijas Unibanka and Vilniaus Bankas inward‐outward linkages meant that they lost autonomy about the further expansion to other Baltic countries and were eventually transformed into Baltic subsidiaries of SEB. These differences in strategies between Swedish banks could be explained by the background of the companies (especially their previous internationalisation experience). However, latest developments point towards growing similarities between two groups via incorporation of Hansabank into Swedbank group.

Research limitations/implications

The case study has inherently limited the capacity to offer generalisations concerning other service companies.

Practical implications

These results indicate the inward‐outward development pattern of international service companies. The managers of similar companies can use this development pattern to project the dynamics of market entry strategies.

Originality/value

The paper introduces original experience allocation framework in the context of inward‐outward internationalisation and outlines the dynamic nature of the strategic relations between the foreign owner and its subsidiary.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Agita Livina, Galina Bukovska, Ilgvars Abols and Gavinolla Mahender Reddy

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has created shock and turbulence for the tourism industry in Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. To recover from the…

Abstract

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic has created shock and turbulence for the tourism industry in Baltic states such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. To recover from the situation, tourism service providers had to act accordingly to maintain and sustain the tourism sector during and after the pandemic. The objective of the study is to analyse strategies adopted by Baltic states during and post pandemic times to recover the tourism industry.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The qualitative research method is based on survey and expert opinion of stakeholders of tourism in Baltic states. Further authors used content analysis of country and industry statements, articles, video stories, lectures and meetings.

Findings: Conclusion shows that there are several similarities in the recovery tactics of tourism by the government and other stakeholders amid the COVID-19 pandemic which include opening of borders among three countries for travellers, ability to jointly seek a solution for transformation, a common understanding between various tourism service providers. Non-governmental organisations demonstrated their power in influencing political decisions to adopt recovery strategies of tourism.

Originality/Value: This study provides a greater understanding of the state of tourism in Baltic states during the pandemic in general and the role of stakeholders in the process of recovery of tourism. The study provides the basement for continuing deeper research of COVID-19 influence on tourism in the Baltic states.

Details

Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-511-0

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Article
Publication date: 28 June 2011

Markku Sippola

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between…

Abstract

Purpose

This research seeks to ask to what extent model transfer in employee relations (in terms of employee representation, participation and workplace bargaining) occurs between Nordic and Baltic countries from the principal firm to the subsidiary. It also looks into explanations as to why model transfer occurs – or does not occur – from the perspective of the Nordic industrialist's labour management strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a case study comprising three clothing manufacturers and three engineering shops in different Baltic States: Estonia (population 1.4 million), Latvia (2.3 million) and Lithuania (3.4 million). These production sites have headquarters in three Nordic countries: Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Semi‐structured (thematic) interviews are carried out among managers, shop stewards and employees of the subsidiaries.

Findings

There is little model transfer between the Nordic principal firm and the Baltic subsidiary, whereas the Nordic employer prefers local forms of employee relations. Modest model transfer derives from the desire for controlling the labour process, where the Nordic investor seeks to utilise differences between the regimes.

Social implications

The Nordic industrialists' search for the distinction between different regimes and the Baltic drive at liberal market economy (LME) together may prove fatal for labour conditions. Such production policy will not improve the position of the Baltic worker.

Originality/value

The findings question the very idea of model transfer: where any labour management strategy existed, there was either an unambiguous assertion of indigenous solutions or adoption of “best practices” not peculiar to the Nordic labour relations regime.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Pervez N. Ghauri and Karin Holstius

Identifies how western companies make successful entries in East European transition economies by studying the establishment process of Nordic companies in the Baltic

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3004

Abstract

Identifies how western companies make successful entries in East European transition economies by studying the establishment process of Nordic companies in the Baltic States. Applies a model based on the network approach and the concept of matching and analyses the entry process of three Norwegian case companies. At global and macro levels the entry was facilitated by assistance for economic restructuring from international institutions and the Nordic governments, and by building up good relationships with central and local authorities. In the final establishment phase difficulties occurred in establishing trust and relationships with actors at the micro level and in matching company functions. Finds that market entry in transition economies differs from entry into traditional developing countries, where more problems are faced at the beginning of the establishment process, whereas, appropriate matching activities undertaken at different levels can facilitate the entry into transition economies.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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