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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Mauro Dini and Tonino Pencarelli

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually examine the phenomenon of wellness tourism under a holistic and systemic lens, focusing on the offer system and the main…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conceptually examine the phenomenon of wellness tourism under a holistic and systemic lens, focusing on the offer system and the main components necessary for the staging of wellness experiences. This approach to holistic wellbeing within the tourism sector has led to a broadening of the type of services and experiences that make up the value propositions that can positively contribute to people’s wellbeing.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identifies and defines the components of wellness tourism (including sectors not traditionally associated with it) through a review and analysis of the extant literature on “wellness tourism” and “wellbeing tourism” of the past two decades; the components were classified through an open coding process.

Findings

Wellness tourism, as a broad multidimensional concept, is composed by ten different components of the offer system: hot springs, spas, medical tourism, care of the body and mind, enogastronomy, sports, nature and environment, culture, spirituality and events. Each of these categories may represent a single touristic offer targeted to specific market segments, but they may also be one of several components within an integrated mix of tourism products proposed.

Originality/value

A holistic view of wellness tourism has implications for strategic marketing processes. Destination Management Organizations and company managers should segment their demand according to more innovative criteria than what has traditionally been adopted for wellness in terms of health care and medical procedures. Value propositions for tourists should be wellness-driven to satisfy the growing demand for wellness/well-being and should involve the participation of all the various actors and producers within the wellness tourism offer system at wellness destinations.

康养旅游及其组成元素:一个全方位的视角

目的

此一论文会以全面和有系统的目光, 谈及康养旅游的现象, 并集中于康养旅游的供应系统和主要组成元素。此一以全面身心健康为目的的旅游行业, 使不同服务的覆盖范围和经验得以扩而充之, 提供有利条件正面地影响着人们的身心健康。

研究方法

本研究会分辨和定义康养旅游的组成元素(以及其他在传统定义上被排除的行业), 透过重新审视和分析近20年有关于康养旅游(Wellness tourism)和健康旅游(Wellbeing tourism)的现存文献。同时, 所有元素会以开放式译码 (open coding)来分类。

成果

康养旅游, 作为一个多元概念, 基本上与十个不同的供应行业相关:温泉, 水療, 医疗旅游, 身心护理, 饮食, 运动, 自然环境, 文化, 灵修和特办活动。不同类别的行业可以在代表市场上不同供需关系的同时, 也可以代表供应上可以有一种混合套餐供应。

研究建议

以全面的目光去看康养旅游可以为市场策略定下基础。目的地管理公司(DMO)和不同的公司经理应该在分辨服务需求的时候, 多采用新颖的标准, 摒弃只包括医疗的传统健康观念。为游客订立的价值主张(Value propositions)应以全面身心健康为主导, 以满足对康养(Wellness)和健康(Wellbeing)不断上升的需求; 亦应大力度地提升所有安康旅游工作人员与顾客的互动和参与。

El turismo de bienestar y los componentes de su sistema de oferta: una perspectiva holística

Propósito

Este artículo examina conceptualmente el fenómeno del turismo de bienestar desde una perspectiva holística y sistémica, centrándose en el sistema de oferta y los principales componentes necesarios para la puesta en escena de experiencias de bienestar. Este enfoque de bienestar integral dentro del sector turístico ha propiciado una ampliación del tipo de servicios y experiencias que integran las propuestas de valor que pueden contribuir positivamente al bienestar de las personas.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Este estudio identifica y define los componentes del turismo de bienestar (incluidos los sectores no asociados tradicionalmente con él), a través de una revisión y análisis de la literatura existente sobre “turismo de bienestar” de las dos últimas décadas; los componentes se han clasificado mediante un proceso de codificación abierto.

Conclusiones

El turismo de bienestar está compuesto conceptualmente por diez componentes diferentes de ofertas: aguas termales, spas, turismo sanitario, cuidado de cuerpo y mente, enogastronomía, deportes, naturaleza y medio ambiente, cultura, espiritualidad y eventos. Cada una de estas categorías puede representar una única oferta turística para segmentos de mercado específicos, pero también pueden ser uno de los varios componentes de una combinación integrada de productos turísticos.

Originalidad/valor

Esta concepción holística del bienestar sugiere que, en el contexto de los procesos de marketing estratégico, las DMO y los gerentes de negocio deben segmentar la demanda con criterios innovadores respecto a los tradicionales de salud y médicos. Además, deben formular propuestas de turismo orientado al bienestar, valorizando los componentes de la oferta capaces de interceptar la creciente demanda de bienestar e implicando a los distintos productores del sistema de oferta de wellness que operan en los destinos de bienestar

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2011

Cornelia Voigt, Graham Brown and Gary Howat

The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the benefits sought by three different types of wellness tourists: beauty spa, lifestyle resort, and spiritual retreat visitors.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore and compare the benefits sought by three different types of wellness tourists: beauty spa, lifestyle resort, and spiritual retreat visitors.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the findings from 27 semi‐structured interviews with wellness tourists a benefits of wellness tourism scale (BWTS) was developed. It was used to measure 46 benefit items and was mailed to people included on the client/member lists of three Australian wellness tourism organisations.

Findings

In total, six benefit factors emerged from a principal axis factor analysis: transcendence; physical health and appearance; escape and relaxation; important others and novelty; re‐establish self‐esteem; and indulgence. A one‐way MANOVA, followed by a series of ANOVAS, revealed significant differences between the three types of tourists regarding the importance attributed to each of the six benefit factors. While all participants in the study sought transformation of the self, each identifiable group of tourists placed different emphasis on physical, psychological or spiritual transformations. Moreover, each group differed significantly in terms of demographic and travel behaviour characteristics.

Originality/value

The relevance of this paper lies in its adoption of a comprehensive approach to the investigation of the potential differences between three wellness tourist groups regarding the socio‐demographic profile, travel behaviour, and the benefits sought. Previous studies have focused on a single particular wellness tourist group. Furthermore, the BWTS may be applicable for use in future comparative studies of wellness tourist motivation.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 66 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Joohyun Lee and Hong-bumm Kim

– The purpose of this paper is to delineate a clear definition of health tourism, and to explain it in two sub-categories, namely, medical tourism, and wellness tourism.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to delineate a clear definition of health tourism, and to explain it in two sub-categories, namely, medical tourism, and wellness tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Grounded theory approach through an in-depth literature review and practical data from three different cities were researched to support the study.

Findings

Determinants of travelers’ decision making for the destination of health tourism, such as distance, cost, language, economy, competency of medical technology, and culture, in each classification of health tourism, were identified.

Originality/value

This study suggests an inductive research model to synthesize and structure a logical relationship of determinants that affect health tourists’ decision to visit specific health tourism destinations. The results of this study are quite revealing to governments, industrial practitioners, and potential customers of health tourism in terms of the context of health tourism and the behavior of health tourists.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 19 March 2021

Lishan Xie, Xinhua Guan, Yingxin He and Tzung-Cheng Huan

This study aims to evaluate the process of value co-creation within wellness tourism by constructing a structural equation model of customer interactions with the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the process of value co-creation within wellness tourism by constructing a structural equation model of customer interactions with the environment, service employees and other customers relating to customer-perceived value and customer engagement.

Design/methodology/approach

Questionnaires, including wellness tourists’ customer-environment interaction, customer-service employee interaction, customer-customer interaction, customer-perceived value, customer engagement and demographic background, were developed and distributed at well-known wellness tourism destinations around Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province, China. This study collected 528 valid questionnaires from hot spring resorts, national forest parks, mountain parks and spa wellness facilities located in Guangdong Province, China. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the obtained data.

Findings

The results reveal that all three types of interactions, which include the customer-environment interaction (CEI), the customer-service employee interaction (CSI) and the customer-customer interaction (CCI), have positive effects on customer-perceived value (CPV) and that CPV positively affects customer engagement (CE). Based on these findings, recommendations for the management of wellness tourism service enterprises are given.

Originality/value

The causes and effects of CPV in wellness tourism, from the perspective of value co-creation, is a rather unexplored area of study. It contributes not only to knowledge about factors that foster CPV but also to the understanding of connections between CPV and CE.

目的

本研究通过构建顾客与环境、服务员工和其他顾客之间互动对顾客感知价值和顾客契合的结构方程模型, 探究养生旅游中的价值共创过程。

设计/方法/步骤

本研究在中国广东省广州市附近知名的养生旅游目的地发放问卷, 问卷内容包括养生旅游者的顾客-环境互动, 顾客-服务员工互动, 顾客-顾客互动, 顾客感知价值, 顾客契合和人口统计学背景。本研究从广东省温泉度假区、国家森林公园、山脉等旅游目的地收集了有效问卷528份, 使用结构方程模型(Structural Equation Modeling, SEM)对所获得的数据进行分析。

研究结果

本研究数据分析结果显示, 顾客与环境互动、顾客与服务人员互动和顾客与顾客互动三种互动类型均对顾客感知价值有正向影响, 而顾客感知价值正向影响顾客契合。在此基础上, 本文针对养生旅游服务企业提出了管理建议。

独创性/价值

本研究从价值共同创造的角度对养生旅游中顾客感知价值的因果关系进行了一项未被探索的研究, 这不仅有助于我们识别并培育影响顾客感知价值的因素, 而且有助于我们理解顾客感知价值与顾客契合之间的联系。

Objetivo

Este estudio evaluó el proceso de la creación conjunta de valor dentro del turismo de bienestar, mediante la construcción de un modelo de ecuación estructural de las interacciones de los clientes con (1) el medio ambiente, (2) los empleados de servicio y (3) otros clientes relacionados con el valor percibido por el cliente y el compromiso del cliente.

Diseño/Metodología/Enfoque

Los cuestionarios fueron distribuidos en destinos de turismo de bienestar conocidos cerca de la ciudad de Guangzhou, provincia de Guangdong, China. El contenido del cuestionario incluye: interacción cliente-medio ambiente, interacción cliente-empleado de servicio, interacción cliente-cliente, valor percibido por el clientes, compromiso del clientes y el contexto demográficos. Este estudio recopiló 528 cuestionarios válidos de centros turísticos de aguas termales, parques forestales nacionales, montañas y spas de bienestar localizados en la provincia de Guangdong,China. Se utilizó el modelo de la ecuación estructural (Structural Equation Modeling, SEM) para analizar los datos obtenidos.

Resultados

Los resultados revelan que los tres tipos de interacciones, que incluyen la interacción cliente-medio ambiente (ICMA), la interacción cliente-empleados de servicio (ICES), y la interacción cliente-cliente (ICC), tienen efectos positivos en el valor percibido por el cliente (VPC), y que el VPC afecta positivamente el compromiso del cliente (CC). Con base en estos resultados, se dan recomendaciones de gestión para las empresas de servicios de turismo de bienestar.

Originalidad/Valor

Este es un estudio bastante inexplorado sobre la causa y el efecto del VPC en el turismo de bienestar, desde la perspectiva de la creación conjunta de valor (CCV). Este estudio no solo contribuye al conocimiento sobre los factores que fomentan el VPC, sino también a la comprensión de las conexiones entre el VPC y el CC.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 30 March 2020

Louisa Yee-Sum Lee, Kitty Yuk-Ching Lam and Margaret Y.C. Lam

The purpose of this paper is to advocate the emerging trend of wellness tourism in an urban setting. Cities, with dense population and hectic pace of living, pose some…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to advocate the emerging trend of wellness tourism in an urban setting. Cities, with dense population and hectic pace of living, pose some challenges on mental health to dwellers. Meanwhile, the populated characteristic of cities opens up opportunities for economic activity, in particular wellness tourism. To comply with the “travel to feel ‘well” trend, product offerings and demand of wellness tourism in urban tourism destinations are yet to be enumerated. The trend paper offers research insights for future investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

The ideas presented in the trend paper are inspired by the personal observation of the author from both scholarly and grey literature.

Findings

The research directions are delineated in the supply and demand facets. In the demand side, the motivations and behaviors of wellness tourist exerted rooms for examination. Their experiences on wellness tourism could possibly extend to the long-term influence on the cognitive, affective and behavioral changes of individuals. From the supply perspective, the current demarcation of wellness tourism is yet to be explored. Intangible supply associated with wellness tourism, namely, event and dining experiences have been ignored in scholarly studies. A fresh review of the topic from socio-cultural perspective is also viable.

Originality/value

The rise of urbanization and visitor arrivals to cities is expected in foreseeable future. To the best of the author’s knowledge, research insights on wellness tourism in the urban context are still at infancy. The insights on the trend paper are consolidated from a wide range of scholarly and grey literature in a holistic manner.

Details

Journal of Tourism Futures, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-5911

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

Sethumadhavan Meera and A. Vinodan

Recently, wellness tourism has gained popularity in alternative medicinal practices. Alternative medicinal practices are mostly endemic and have evolved through…

Abstract

Purpose

Recently, wellness tourism has gained popularity in alternative medicinal practices. Alternative medicinal practices are mostly endemic and have evolved through generations, transmitted and propagated through formal and informal modes. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possibility of developing alternative medicinal practices in the wellness tourism market in the context of Kalari practices – oldest martial art system of the world based at Kerala, India.

Design/methodology/approach

Study employed an exploratory sequential method consisting of in-depth interviews with practitioners and questionnaire survey with 356 tourists. Confirmatory factor analysis has been done to confirm the latent variables of attitude towards alternative medicinal practices in wellness market.

Findings

Study results indicate that there are five latent constructs consisting of physical, psychological, emotional, social and personal evolved around 26 indicators.

Practical implications

This study will introduce an innovative product line for customers as it will provide enhanced opportunities for wellness and will result in indigenous knowledge protection and marketing.

Social implications

The present study gives immense scope for appreciation of effectiveness of martial art practices across world and promotion of wellness tourism through alternative medicinal practices, which could be slightly modified and replicated by considering local specific medicinal practices.

Originality/value

This study makes the first attempt to investigate attitude towards alternative medicinal practices, especially martial art practices, in the context of wellness market.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Kaung-Hwa Chen, Feng-Hsiang Chang and Chihkang Wu (Kenny)

This study aims to establish customer service factors for wellness tourism from both service providers and customer perspectives, and to determine whether gender and age…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to establish customer service factors for wellness tourism from both service providers and customer perspectives, and to determine whether gender and age factors affect older tourist opinions of customer service.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors interviewed 13 experts in the hot spring hotel industry and more than 469 hot spring hotel visitors who are over 50 years of age. Content validity and homogeneity reliability as proposed by Aiken were used to confirm customer service factors. This study uses the verbal-linguistic evaluation to assess customer service factors and each service item associated with these factors.

Findings

Eight crucial customer service factors, from high to low, are personnel services, environments, healthy diet, relaxation, health promotion treatments, experience of unique tourism resources, social activities, and mental learning.

Research limitations/implications

This study implicated allocation and management of input resources as the service factors that are used for determining the preferences of older consumers in wellness tourism.

Originality/value

Numerous countries are currently facing an aging population and market opportunities for wellness tourism are popular with the tourism industry. Studies show that enhanced customer service increases competitive advantage in the tourism industry. However, customer service differs from what customers prefer. For this study, the authors compiled the viewpoints of older consumers, hotel personnel, and expert opinions in the hotel industry to identify customer-service factors in wellness tourism. The analytical results of this study suggest that hot spring hotels in Taiwan can focus on critical customer-service items, resource management, and resource allocation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 25 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part
Publication date: 13 August 2012

Tak-Kee Hui, Weerapon Thomgma, Kuan-Ying Chen and Huai-Chen Wang

Medical tourism has started to receive more attention from tourism marketers and researchers but wellness tourism remains relatively unfamiliar to most people. This…

Abstract

Medical tourism has started to receive more attention from tourism marketers and researchers but wellness tourism remains relatively unfamiliar to most people. This concept of wellness tourism has bred a special niche of hotels – wellness hotels. Such hotels are specialized hotels which provide professional health know-how and health packages/services to their guests. This paper therefore seeks to conduct an exploratory study in wellness-hotel visitors by performing a market segmentation analysis. By identifying the different market segments existing in this industry, marketing strategies can be made more focused, further refined, and consequently, more effective. Based on the systematic random sample of size 184 and the 10 identified variables, the result of the cluster analysis reveals that there are three clusters, namely, independent, undemanding, and demanding guests. Managerial implications are also discussed.

Details

Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-936-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Simon Hudson, Karen Thal, David Cárdenas and Fang Meng

This study aims to examine the direct relationships between behavioral intention and factors driving the growth of the wellness tourism industry in the USA. Relationships…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the direct relationships between behavioral intention and factors driving the growth of the wellness tourism industry in the USA. Relationships were hypothesized based on alternative explanations for the rise in popularity of wellness tourism in research streams.

Design/methodology/approach

Two models were estimated and tested using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), each incorporating two constructs – Life stress and involvement in health – in addition to theoretically stipulated precursors to Behavioral Intention.

Findings

Both constructs were found to be significant predictors of behavioral intention. However, involvement proved a much stronger predictor than life stress. Implications for the management and marketing of this subsector are discussed in the paper.

Originality/value

This study extends the understanding of travelers’ behavioral intentions in the context of wellness tourism by using an extended TPB, with life stress and involvement in health and wellness considered. The study compares general travelers with current/potential wellness travelers (excluding those whose sole purpose was wellness) and the factors that influence their travel behavior.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 21 August 2019

Ana Težak Damijanić

This paper aims to examine the concept of wellness as a form of healthy lifestyle in tourism settings.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the concept of wellness as a form of healthy lifestyle in tourism settings.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a self-complete questionnaire administered to a sample of guests staying in wellness hotels in Croatia. These data were processed using univariate statistics (general description of the sample), cluster analysis (segmentation purposes), multinomial regression analysis (profiling the clusters) and confirmatory factor analysis (confirmation of wellness-related lifestyle).

Findings

Six wellness-related lifestyle dimensions (diet, fitness, social interactions, cultural diversity, health awareness and personal development) were confirmed, and four segments emerged (high-level wellness, diet- and health-oriented, fitness-oriented and low-level wellness clusters). They differed in their travel motivation.

Originality/value

This paper suggests a wellness-related lifestyle scale that integrates the elements of wellness intervention models and healthy lifestyle, confirms the link between healthy lifestyle and travel motivation and establishes the importance of the social, intellectual and spiritual dimensions of a tourist’s lifestyle.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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