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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Crystal C. Lewis and Cristina H. Jönsson

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new…

Abstract

Purpose

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new experiences. This has led to a highly competitive sport tourism market and as a result destinations engage in various marketing techniques and promotional tools to gain an advantage. For that reason this research was undertaken to acquire a greater understanding of the importance of promotional tools to successfully and efficiently market sport tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

The construct of this study comprises of two stages. The aim of the first stage is to evaluate the specific tools used to promote sport tourism and sport tourism experiences in Barbados by examining the responses of various sporting and tourism bodies. The second stage of this research was conducted to present and analyze how marketing/promotional tools could contribute to better market sport tourism experiences.

Findings

The research found that many of the promotional tools implemented in Barbados during their marketing process correspond with those used internationally. However, problems of poor and insufficient sporting facilities as well as little collaboration between tourism and sporting entities, hamper the success of Barbados as a sport tourism destination. This further minimized Barbados’ ability to market favorable tourism experiences. This therefore shows that while promotional tools are essential in attracting tourists, other elements must also be taken into consideration to ensure sport tourists have positive experiences which would lead to a successful sport tourism destination.

Originality/value

Few studies in this area have been undertaken in the Caribbean. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining the implementation of sport tourism offerings to attract visitors to Barbados.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1999

Sanda Weber

County strategic tourism marketing plans have appeared as a relatively new instrument in the conceptualisation of the development of tourism destinations in Croatia. This…

Abstract

County strategic tourism marketing plans have appeared as a relatively new instrument in the conceptualisation of the development of tourism destinations in Croatia. This paper illustrate methodology issues and problems that emerged from drawing up the plans (internal and external). The methodology elaborated upon is based on several basic footholds: multidisciplinary approach, state‐of‐the‐art in destination marketing, applicability, simplicity and straightforwardness, bottom‐up approach and unique methodological framework (taking specifics into account). The current experiences of the Institute for Tourism (Zagreb) point out the importance of the continuous monitoring of the SMPs implementation in practice and further methodology improvements.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1983

Gordon E. Greenley and Alan S. Matcham

Concerned with marketing of services but focuses on the service of incoming tourism as it is applied to the UK. States this study is in four sections. First, briefly…

Abstract

Concerned with marketing of services but focuses on the service of incoming tourism as it is applied to the UK. States this study is in four sections. First, briefly examines the nature of services; second, examines the survey results; third, discusses the consequences of these results relative to the marketing problems; section four summarises the content herein. Sums up that the focus has been on problems involved in the marketing of services and on problems associated with the marketing of incoming tourism. States survey results were reported also the relationship of these results with the problem of marketing incoming tourism.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Book part
Publication date: 4 September 2003

Arch G. Woodside and Marcia Y. Sakai

A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same…

Abstract

A meta-evaluation is an assessment of evaluation practices. Meta-evaluations include assessments of validity and usefulness of two or more studies that focus on the same issues. Every performance audit is grounded explicitly or implicitly in one or more theories of program evaluation. A deep understanding of alternative theories of program evaluation is helpful to gain clarity about sound auditing practices. We present a review of several theories of program evaluation.

This study includes a meta-evaluation of seven government audits on the efficiency and effectiveness of tourism departments and programs. The seven tourism-marketing performance audits are program evaluations for: Missouri, North Carolina, Tennessee, Minnesota, Australia, and two for Hawaii. The majority of these audits are negative performance assessments. Similarly, although these audits are more useful than none at all, the central conclusion of the meta-evaluation is that most of these audit reports are inadequate assessments. These audits are too limited in the issues examined; not sufficiently grounded in relevant evaluation theory and practice; and fail to include recommendations, that if implemented, would result in substantial increases in performance.

Details

Evaluating Marketing Actions and Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-046-3

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Kyung-Hyan Yoo and Ulrike Gretzel

To analyze and discuss the role of ICTs and the emerging trends and issues in marketing tourism experiences.

Abstract

Purpose

To analyze and discuss the role of ICTs and the emerging trends and issues in marketing tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

Previous conceptual frameworks are reviewed and key issues and trends are identified as central for ICT-based tourism marketing. Case studies are presented to illustrate how the marketing issues could be translated into practical tourism marketing strategies.

Findings

(1) Based on the literature, a conceptual model that outlines a technology-empowered marketing approach for co-created tourism experiences is presented. (2) The identified key trends in marketing tourism experiences include the changing overall role of marketers, a growth in mobile marketing opportunities, the emergence of smart destinations and their varied implications for marketing. (3) The case studies show the integrated and strategic role of social media platforms, hashtags, photography, location-based geofilters, augmented reality and videography in marketing tourism experiences.

Originality/value

This chapter conceptually outlines the technology-empowered tourism marketing approach and the role of marketers and various other players in tourism experience co-creation. The case studies provide practical implications for ICT-based tourism marketing.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Book part
Publication date: 25 July 2008

Arch G. Woodside and Marcia Y. Sakai

The present chapter includes a case study that describes and analyzes three performance audit reports over a three decade period for one U.S. state government's…

Abstract

The present chapter includes a case study that describes and analyzes three performance audit reports over a three decade period for one U.S. state government's destination management organization's (DMO) actions and outcomes. This report extends prior studies (Woodside & Sakai, 2001, 2003) that support two conclusions: (1) the available independent performance audits of DMOs’ actions and outcomes indicate that frequently DMOs perform poorly and fail to meaningfully assess the impacts of their own actions and (2) the audits themselves are shallow and often fail to provide information on DMOs’ actions and outcomes relating to these organizations largest marketing expenditures. The chapter calls for embracing a strategy shift in designing program evaluations by both government departments responsible for managing destinations’ tourism marketing programs and all government auditing agencies in conducting future management performance audits. The chapter offers a “tourism performance audit template” as a tool for both strategic planning by destination management organizations and for evaluating DMOs’ planning and implementing strategies. The chapter includes an appendix – a training exercise in using the audit template and invites the reader to download a tourism performance audit report of a destination marketing organization and to apply the template after reading the report.

Details

Advances in Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-522-2

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Danielle Eiseman

At the core of understanding the practice of marketing sustainable tourism lies an appreciation not only of the evolution of the concept of sustainability, but also of the…

Abstract

At the core of understanding the practice of marketing sustainable tourism lies an appreciation not only of the evolution of the concept of sustainability, but also of the co-productive process between consumer and producer. This chapter establishes a conceptual overview on sustainable tourism and its alternative terms (ecotourism, responsible tourism, soft tourism, ethical tourism). Its origins stem from the pivotal works of the Brundtland Report. The author considers the complex structures that interact with the tourism industry, such as the social, environmental and economic impacts of tourism in vulnerable or sensitive climates. For example, in Central Thailand, cities such as Bangkok have experienced rapid urbanisation as well as burgeoning tourism. This has resulted in high levels of air pollution from traffic congestion and manufacturing, while escalation in the tourism industry places burdens on waste management systems. Further strains on waste management in both the Eastern and Southern regions, particularly along the coastlines, which suffer from high levels of coastal litter, are attributed to the rising tourism industry – a process other popular destinations have undergone, such as Costa Rica. Examination of cases such as Thailand will elicit further discussion of public awareness of the impacts of the tourism industry in vulnerable climates. Lastly, the chapter will look at cases of demotion or de-marketing of tourism in certain regions in order to limit the number of visitors, such as that of the Blue Mountains National Park in Australia. In addition to the case studies reviewed in this chapter, there is a practice exercise in developing an environmental performance index, based on existing data on country-specific environmental performance.

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Book part
Publication date: 11 July 2018

Hongfei Bao

This chapter’s aim is to present the key elements of marketing of tourism services and experiences by taking the perspective of a new tourism entrepreneur. The chapter’s…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter’s aim is to present the key elements of marketing of tourism services and experiences by taking the perspective of a new tourism entrepreneur. The chapter’s focus is on better understanding and efficient implementation of marketing principles.

Methodology/approach

This chapter was built on literature review of marketing of tourism services at business level. A practical approach has been adopted and implemented in illustrating the variables of marketing mix.

Findings

This chapter highlights the fact that in order to be successful in the field of marketing, tourism entrepreneurs should consider and implement all elements of marketing mix as an integral and comprehensive set; all marketing variables are interlinked and interrelated.

Research limitations

This chapter is explorative in nature, based on a literature review. It takes more entrepreneurial/practical than academic approach.

Managerial/practical implications

A marketing plan for tourism services/experiences constitutes a chain of strong bonds that guide the tourism business forward in making the chain stronger and more efficient. When an entrepreneur/manager is considering adding a new feature or changing existing elements, he/she has to consider the whole picture of the actions and the resulting outputs.

Originality/value

This chapter discusses an extended marketing model; the model of 10 Ps – Product, Place, Pricing, Promotion, Partners, Presentation, People, Process, Physical evidence and Passion under two stages, before and during the experience consumption/encounter.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Entrepreneurship in Tourism, Travel and Hospitality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-529-2

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Lee Jolliffe

This chapter identifies issues in the development and marketing of culinary tourism experiences with the goal of determining the value of collaborative forms of product…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter identifies issues in the development and marketing of culinary tourism experiences with the goal of determining the value of collaborative forms of product development and marketing.

Methodology/approach

A literature review examines approaches to marketing of culinary experiences identifying a gap in the study of collaborative approaches such as networking, partnering, and alliances. A case study investigates these themes.

Findings

Through the analysis of an in-depth case study of an experiential culinary tourism event in a small city in Eastern Canada (a Restaurant Week) it is determined that informal collaboration in the form of partnership is essential to building and marketing collaborative culinary tourism products and experiences.

Practical implications

This investigation has value for academics studying culinary tourism development and for practitioners implementing collaborative forms of the development and marketing of such tourism offerings and experience.

Originality/value

In the context of culinary tourism, a case study illustrates the value of collaboration in developing and marketing experiential culinary products. Findings indicate informal collaborative partnerships are essential to building and marketing culinary tourism products and experiences, addressing a gap in the literature and providing value for practitioners.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Hsien-Cheng Lin, Xiao Han, Tu Lyu, Wen-Hsien Ho, Yunbao Xu, Tien-Chih Hsieh, Lihua Zhu and Liang Zhang

Research in tourism and hospitality industry marketing has identified many highly effective applications of social media. However, studies in the existing literature do…

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Abstract

Purpose

Research in tourism and hospitality industry marketing has identified many highly effective applications of social media. However, studies in the existing literature do not enable a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon because they lack a theoretical foundation. Therefore, this study systematically reviewed the literature from the perspective of the task-technology fit (TTF) theory. The purpose of this paper is to map out what is known about social media use in tourism and hospitality marketing and what areas need further exploration.

Design/methodology/approach

A descriptive cumulative review of the literature obtained 99 articles published in tourism and hospitality journals from 2010 to 2019.

Findings

The analysis suggests that to understand social media use in tourism marketing, researchers and practitioners in the industry must clarify the following four issues: the control variables, longitudinal analyzes and TTF concepts that should be used in future studies; the fitness of social media platforms for tourism marketing; how various social media platforms differ in terms of performance outcome; and the digital divide in the use of social media for tourism.

Originality/value

An integrated framework was developed to identify constructs and to understand their relationships. Recent studies in this domain are discussed; theoretical and practical suggestions and implications for future research are given.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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