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Book part
Publication date: 2 May 2018

Kate Pride Brown

This paper uses three case studies of urban water conflict in the United States in order to identify and compare solutions. Coupling qualitative data with a unique index…

Abstract

This paper uses three case studies of urban water conflict in the United States in order to identify and compare solutions. Coupling qualitative data with a unique index of municipal water conservation policy, I examine the different approaches that these three cities adopted in the face of water stress and conflict, as well as the relative strength each approach brought to water conservation. Based on 31 qualitative interviews with water stakeholders in three selected cities (Phoenix, San Antonio, Tampa) and qualitative comparative case histories drawn from newspaper accounts and secondary sources, I find that entrenched conflict over local water resources usually requires action from a higher governing authority, in accordance with theories of multilevel governance. However, multilevel governance is not sufficient to produce strong urban water conservation policies. It is also critical that policy be targeted to meet specific minimum environmental indicators to prevent continued resource depletion. Moreover, a breach of that environmental indicator must trigger some penalty for noncompliance to sustain the resource into the future.

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Environment, Politics, and Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-775-1

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2019

Omneya A. Marzouk

The study aims to investigate the differences among urban and rural consumers in terms of their energy and water sustainable consumption behaviour levels and drivers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the differences among urban and rural consumers in terms of their energy and water sustainable consumption behaviour levels and drivers and also empirically blueprint conceptual frameworks highlighting urban and rural consumer drivers to consume sustainably.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows an exploratory design using a qualitative approach; 14 in-depth interviews followed by one focus group were conducted with urban consumers; on the other hand, 18 in-depth interviews followed by one focus group were conducted with rural consumers.

Findings

The findings show that no differences exist among urban and rural consumers in terms of both their sustainable consumption levels and their drivers to consume sustainably; such findings were encapsulated in the form of one conceptual framework pertinent to both urban and rural consumers; it has the following relevant factors: consumers’ attitudes toward conservation, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, self-preference, public media influence, perceived economic value and perceived moral obligation to be relevant antecedents of conservation behaviour, which – in turn – drives sustainable purchase behaviours with the moderating effect of socio-demographic variables.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to extant literature as it provides evidence for the drivers of sustainable consumption behaviours of urban versus rural consumers in emerging countries; it also tentatively answers the question of whether the socio-demographic variables infer a difference in consumers’ sustainable consumption; finally, it studies sustainable consumption from a novel perspective with a focus on the relationship between its two pillars.

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Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2017

K.G.A.S. Waidyasekara, Lalith De Silva and Raufdeen Rameezdeen

Water conservationists have been promoting a hierarchy of measures to preserve water resources in the face of decreasing freshwater availability in the world. However…

Abstract

Purpose

Water conservationists have been promoting a hierarchy of measures to preserve water resources in the face of decreasing freshwater availability in the world. However, applicability of water hierarchy to the construction industry is yet to be investigated. To fill this knowledge gap, the purpose of this paper is to investigate water usage, water use efficiency, and conservation measures relevant to the construction operations.

Design/methodology/approach

A triangulation-based mixed-methods approach was adopted for the collection and analysis of data. First, four case studies were carried out to explore the current practices and the possibilities of applying the water hierarchy to the construction operations. This was followed by a questionnaire survey, administered among construction professionals to obtain their views and to verify the findings of case studies.

Findings

Strategies such as reuse and recycling were found to be less applicable and least preferred by the construction professionals compared to reduce, replace, and eliminate. Based on the research findings, three enabling measures, namely, regulation, responsibility, and reward, were found to enhance the effectiveness of these conservation strategies.

Practical implications

Knowledge on preferences of different water conservation measures among the construction professionals and their effectiveness on construction site could help the construction companies to device strategies to mitigate water wastage and enhance water use efficiency. It could also help policy-makers to develop guidelines that would have higher probability of acceptance among construction stakeholders.

Originality/value

The study proposes an extended water hierarchy (3R.6R) by integrating three enabling measures discussed above for the construction project sites.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 7 December 2020

Kasimu Sendawula, Vincent Bagire, Cathy Ikiror Mbidde and Peter Turyakira

This study aims to examine the relationship between environmental commitment and environmental sustainability practices of manufacturing small and medium enterprises…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the relationship between environmental commitment and environmental sustainability practices of manufacturing small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Uganda.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employed a cross-sectional and correlational design using evidence from 106 manufacturing SMEs in Uganda. Data was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 23.

Findings

Results show that environmental commitment is a significant predictor of environmental sustainability practices and its dimensions which comprise of eco-friendly packaging, energy efficiency, waste management and water conservation of the manufacturing SMEs in Uganda.

Originality/value

This study offers initial evidence on the association between environmental commitment and environmental sustainability practices using evidence from a developing country’s perspective. The results also provide new insights on the relationship between environmental commitment and the dimensions of environmental sustainability practices which comprise of eco-friendly packaging, energy efficiency, waste management and water conservation.

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Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2018

Janna M. Parker, Doreen Sams, Amit Poddar and Kalina Manoylov

The purpose of this study (mixed-method) was to examine the effectiveness of two types of marketing interventions on water conservation behavior and to compare behaviors…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study (mixed-method) was to examine the effectiveness of two types of marketing interventions on water conservation behavior and to compare behaviors to self-reported conservation claims.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper consists of four phases (advertisement selection focus group, behavioral trace field study, self-report survey and follow-up focus group). In the USA, residing in a dormitory typically includes a fee for water without quantity restrictions. The subjects for this research were college students who lived in dormitories at a medium-sized university in southeastern USA where metering individual water consumption is not possible.

Findings

The results of the field study phase of student water conservation behaviors were not congruent with the participants’ self-reported behaviors. Phase 2 yielded results contrary to published laboratory experimental research in which cause-related claims were effective.

Research limitations/implications

This research was limited by a single sample (one university), time (13 weeks) and the inability to measure individual consumption behavior. However, valuable findings were obtained, and suggestions surfaced for future research.

Practical implications

Using eco-feedback technology and advertisements may result in significant cost savings. While findings were somewhat inconclusive, there was evidence that the use of the eco-feedback technology could result in cost savings for the subject university.

Originality/value

The behavioral trace study is one of the first field research studies in the marketing discipline designed to examine resource conservation behavior in an impactful way. Further, this research used a single sample triangulated methodology across Phases 2, 3 and 4.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sekar Chellappan and R Sudha

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of participation of farmers in soil conservation projects in the Western Ghats of India.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, multistage purposive sampling was followed. The sample respondents were identified for the survey in all the five categories of watersheds (very high, high, medium, low and very low priority watersheds) in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu at the rate of 50 farm respondents in each category. Since the investment among the five categories of watersheds did not show any significant differences, the sample farmers were post stratified as marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on farm size for further analysis.

Findings

The investment analysis showed a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.03 for staggered trenches for tea to 1.40 for bench terrace for carrot. For annual crops, the BCR for bench terrace varied from 1.03 for cabbage to 1.32 for carrot. Among the soil conservation technologies, in tea plantation, stone wall had the highest net present value (NPV) of Rs. 74,335. Staggered trench had the lower NPV Rs. 19,237 among all conservation structures. The results of the contingent valuation showed that cropped area, farm size, on-farm income positively and significantly influenced the willingness to pay (WTP) towards soil conservation. Family size and age of the farmer negatively influenced the WTP of the respondents significantly. The multinomial logit model indicated that staggered trench had direct impact on productivity. In tea plantation, staggered trench adoption was influenced by area under plantation crops, farm size, educational level and land slope. The participation index was very low (<30), indicating the poor participation of farmers in soil conservation programmes.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study reveal the appropriateness of the soil conservation technologies for the select soil type as well as the specific socioeconomic conditions of the farmers undertaking conservation compliance programs in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Understanding the farmer’s perceptions and adoption behaviour is important in making the whole programme a successful one. Hence the results of the study may not be generalized for other study zones, unless otherwise, the agro-ecological zone is similar to the site where the study was conducted.

Practical implications

The study suggested that adoption of conservation technologies should be promoted in a big way to conserve natural resources like soil and enhance economic returns. It is also advocated that institutions should provide only guidance for community participation not on community governance and the role should be involving the real stakeholders/beneficiaries under participatory mode to achieve the goal of soil conservation. The bottom-up approach should be adopted to address the real issues involved in conservation compliance programmes.

Social implications

The outcome of the study advocates the economic viability of conservation technologies adopted by the crop farmers. The project results also advised the farmers, institutions and the enforcements authorities, the strategies to be adopted to minimize soil loss and increase crop productivity by adopting the appropriate conservation compliance programs. The results also revealed that conservation of soil and water not only conserved the precious natural resources but also had far reaching effect on the yield of croplands, which would be reflected on the food and nutritional securities of the local communities at the micro level and the nation as a whole at the macro level.

Originality/value

The research outcome is based on the field level research done by the authors in the Western Ghats of India. The primary data collected from the respondents were analysed and used for drawing inferences and conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Kevin Lo

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the focuses, motivations and challenges of achieving campus sustainability in Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the focuses, motivations and challenges of achieving campus sustainability in Chinese higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/methodology/approach

A multisite case study was conducted in Changchun City, Jilin, where eight HEIs of various types were examined. Structured interviews with school managers, students and government officials were accompanied with analysis of relevant documents.

Findings

The focuses of sustainability among the studied HEIs were on water and energy conservation and on non-technical initiatives. The focuses can be explained by motivations and challenges. The HEIs are motivated by government and financial pressures and face challenges in limited accessibility to funding. The reliance of non-technical initiatives has negatively impacted student welfare and has become unpopular among students.

Practical implications

The government is advised to increase funding to HEIs in relation to sustainability and to make the funding more equitable. The HEIs are advised to modify sustainability practices that severely affect the daily lives of students, to share the benefits of water and energy conservation with their students and to involve students in sustainability governance.

Originality/value

This paper adds to the existing literature in two ways. First, it expands the geographical reach of the literature to developing countries, in general, and to China, in particular. Second, it adopts the multisite case study research approach to study the whole spectrum of Chinese HEIs and highlights the differences among these HEIs when it comes to sustainability.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1999

K.C. Roy and C.A. Tisdell

Economic development requires the use of natural resources. Increasing population makes increasing demand on such resources thereby leading to the degradation of the…

Abstract

Economic development requires the use of natural resources. Increasing population makes increasing demand on such resources thereby leading to the degradation of the environment. Excessive use of resources can lead to a situation where declining supply can no longer satisfy the demand. Hence, without conservation and prudent management of resources the environment cannot be preserved. This paper examines the case of water supply, which is the fundamental requirement for the sustenance of all life forms on earth. The human population is expected to double to at least 8 billion in the next 30 years and the worldwide demand for water is estimated to increase by a staggering 650 percent. However, the total supply of fresh water in the world is limited as 99 percent of the earth’s water is either saline or frozen. Of the remaining 1 percent most is ground water and soil moisture. The net availability of fresh water for human consumption is one‐hundredth of 1 percent. And not even all of that can be used. Hence, how can the continued availability of fresh water resources to satisfy the growing need of the rising population be satisfied? Conservation of fresh water can be achieved to some extent by reducing the demand by imposing a price/or raising the prevailing price on the use of water. However, while conservation can stretch the supply by reducing demand, for ensuring the long‐run adequacy of supply, it is necessary to apply a prudent environmental management policy which will prevent the destruction of forests and natural resources and apply a policy of active regeneration of forests. While the supplies of water make the forests survive and grow, preservation of forests allows water resources to survive. Forests cannot be preserved unless the destruction of hundreds and thousands of wetlands to make way for human settlement and industrial development is prevented and property rights of landless people are recognised. Thus for a prudent and efficient management of water resources to be effective, the state must adopt the ecologically sustainable approach to development. This paper examines these issues.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 1/2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2012

Michael Wilson

There is a connection between cotton production and the Aral Sea disaster in Uzbekistan. Large-scale cotton production utilizes the practices of conventional agriculture…

Abstract

There is a connection between cotton production and the Aral Sea disaster in Uzbekistan. Large-scale cotton production utilizes the practices of conventional agriculture and has severe environmental consequences in arid regions. Some of these problems, such as salinization, currently exist in Uzbekistan as a result of cotton production and these conventional farming practices. This chapter is a review of cotton production, the environmental consequences of conventional agriculture, and its relationship to the Aral Sea Disaster. Storm water management with biofiltration, sustainable farming practices, efficient irrigation, ecological horticultural practices, and a water conservation program are remedies that can help to reduce the environmental degradation caused by cotton production and restore some of the water resources in Uzbekistan.

Details

Disaster by Design: The Aral Sea and its Lessons for Sustainability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-376-6

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Gerasimos A. Gianakis and XiaoHu Wang

Local governments are often forced to purchase expertise for non-recurring analyses, such as rate setting for water and sewer services, because it is not cost-effective…

Abstract

Local governments are often forced to purchase expertise for non-recurring analyses, such as rate setting for water and sewer services, because it is not cost-effective for these governments to maintain such expertise in-house or because independent analyses are preferred by watch-dog agencies or mandated by state statutes. However, like many ostensibly value-neutral analytical studies, these studies inevitably entail policy choices of which elected policy makers may not be aware. External analysts may not be aware of idiosyncratic factors, and they apply boilerplate perspectives that may not be responsive to local preferences. These perspectives limit policy options, although they may appear to be value-neutral. Policy makers must take an active role in these analytical studies in order to ensure that local preferences and specific factors are considered. Citizen committees comprised of residents with the necessary expertise, or experts from local colleges and universities may be able to provide the necessary oversight.

Details

Journal of Public Procurement, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1535-0118

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