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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2020

Xiaohui Huang, Qian Lu and Fei Yang

This paper aims to build a theoretical model of the impact of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures on the agricultural output to analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to build a theoretical model of the impact of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures on the agricultural output to analyze the impact of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures on agricultural output.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the field survey data of 808 farmers households in three provinces (regions) of the Loess Plateau, this paper using the endogenous switching regression model to analyze the effect of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures on agricultural output.

Findings

Soil erosion has a significant negative impact on agricultural output, and soil erosion has a significant positive impact on farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Farmers adopt soil and water conservation measures such as engineering measures, biological measures and tillage measures to cope with soil erosion, which can increase agricultural output. Based on the counterfactual hypothesis, if farmers who adopt soil and water conservation measures do not adopt the corresponding soil and water conservation measures, their average output per ha output will decrease by 2.01%. Then, if farmers who do not adopt soil and water conservation measures adopt the corresponding soil and water conservation measures, their average output per ha output will increase by 12.12%. Government support and cultivated land area have a significant positive impact on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures.

Research limitations/implications

The research limitation is the lack of panel data.

Practical implications

Soil erosion has a significant negative impact on agricultural output, and soil erosion has a significant positive impact on farmers’ adoption of soil and water conservation measures. Farmers adopt soil and water conservation measures such as engineering measures, biological measures and tillage measures to cope with soil erosion, which can increase agricultural output.

Social implications

The conclusion provides a reliable empirical basis for the government to formulate and implement relevant policies.

Originality/value

The contributions of this paper are as follows: the adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures and agricultural output are included into the same analytical framework for empirical analysis, revealing the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures and their output effects, enriching existing research. Using endogenous switching regression model and introducing instrumental variables to overcome the endogenous problem between the adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures and agricultural output, and to analyze the influencing factors of farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation measures and its impact on agricultural output. Using the counter-factual idea to ensure that the two matched individuals have the same or similar attributes, to evaluate the average treatment effect of the behavior of soil and water conservation measures, to estimate the real impact of adaptation measures on agricultural output as accurately as possible and to avoid misleading policy recommendations.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sekar Chellappan and R Sudha

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of participation of farmers in soil conservation projects in the Western Ghats of India.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, multistage purposive sampling was followed. The sample respondents were identified for the survey in all the five categories of watersheds (very high, high, medium, low and very low priority watersheds) in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu at the rate of 50 farm respondents in each category. Since the investment among the five categories of watersheds did not show any significant differences, the sample farmers were post stratified as marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on farm size for further analysis.

Findings

The investment analysis showed a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.03 for staggered trenches for tea to 1.40 for bench terrace for carrot. For annual crops, the BCR for bench terrace varied from 1.03 for cabbage to 1.32 for carrot. Among the soil conservation technologies, in tea plantation, stone wall had the highest net present value (NPV) of Rs. 74,335. Staggered trench had the lower NPV Rs. 19,237 among all conservation structures. The results of the contingent valuation showed that cropped area, farm size, on-farm income positively and significantly influenced the willingness to pay (WTP) towards soil conservation. Family size and age of the farmer negatively influenced the WTP of the respondents significantly. The multinomial logit model indicated that staggered trench had direct impact on productivity. In tea plantation, staggered trench adoption was influenced by area under plantation crops, farm size, educational level and land slope. The participation index was very low (<30), indicating the poor participation of farmers in soil conservation programmes.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study reveal the appropriateness of the soil conservation technologies for the select soil type as well as the specific socioeconomic conditions of the farmers undertaking conservation compliance programs in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Understanding the farmer’s perceptions and adoption behaviour is important in making the whole programme a successful one. Hence the results of the study may not be generalized for other study zones, unless otherwise, the agro-ecological zone is similar to the site where the study was conducted.

Practical implications

The study suggested that adoption of conservation technologies should be promoted in a big way to conserve natural resources like soil and enhance economic returns. It is also advocated that institutions should provide only guidance for community participation not on community governance and the role should be involving the real stakeholders/beneficiaries under participatory mode to achieve the goal of soil conservation. The bottom-up approach should be adopted to address the real issues involved in conservation compliance programmes.

Social implications

The outcome of the study advocates the economic viability of conservation technologies adopted by the crop farmers. The project results also advised the farmers, institutions and the enforcements authorities, the strategies to be adopted to minimize soil loss and increase crop productivity by adopting the appropriate conservation compliance programs. The results also revealed that conservation of soil and water not only conserved the precious natural resources but also had far reaching effect on the yield of croplands, which would be reflected on the food and nutritional securities of the local communities at the micro level and the nation as a whole at the macro level.

Originality/value

The research outcome is based on the field level research done by the authors in the Western Ghats of India. The primary data collected from the respondents were analysed and used for drawing inferences and conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 September 2019

Xiaohui Huang, Qian Lu, Lili Wang, Maosen Cui and Fei Yang

Based on the survey data of 1,152 households in three provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia on the Loess Plateau, this paper aims to empirically analyze the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on the survey data of 1,152 households in three provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia on the Loess Plateau, this paper aims to empirically analyze the impact of aging and off-farm employment on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. This paper analyzes the moderating effect of social network and the mediating effect of technological cognition in this impact relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the above analysis, the second part of this paper is based on relevant theories and constructs a theoretical model of the relationship of aging, off-farm employment, social network, technology cognition and farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. The third part introduces research methods, variable selection and descriptive statistics analysis of variables. The fourth part, based on the data of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces in the Loess Plateau in 2016, empirically analyzes the impact of aging, off-farm employment and social network on the farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. This paper further examines the moderating effect of social network and the mediating effect of technology cognition in this influence relationship. Finally, based on the findings of the empirical study, this paper puts forward countermeasures and suggestions.

Findings

First, aging and off-farm employment have a significant negative impact on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology, while social network has a significant positive effect. Second, social network has alleviated the effect of aging and off-farm employment on restraining farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. Third, aging and off-farm employment have restrained farmers’ cognition of soil and water conservation technology. Social network has promoted farmers’ cognition of soil and water conservation technology. Social network plays a moderating role in the impact of aging and off-farm employment on farmers’ cognition of soil and water conservation technology. Technology cognition plays a mediating role in the impact of social network on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology.

Originality/value

This paper integrates the aging, off-farm employment and social network into the same analytical framework and reveals their impact on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology and its action mechanism, which enriches the impact of human capital and social network on farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. Then taking the social network as a moderator variable, the paper verifies its moderating effect on the relationship of aging, off-farm employment and farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology. Farmers’ technology cognition should be included in the analysis framework to examine the impact of aging, off-farm employment and social network on farmers’ cognition of soil and water conservation technology. Taking the technology cognition as a mediator variable, the paper verifies its mediating effect on the relationship of aging, off-farm employment and farmers’ adoption behavior of soil and water conservation technology.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Ailton Moisés Xavier Fiorentin, Renato Billia Miranda, Dalva Maria de Castro Vitti, Gustavo D’Almeida Scarpinella and Frederico Fabio Mauad

Erosion is the main cause of soil and water degradation, which demands investments for the recovery of such natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and…

Abstract

Purpose

Erosion is the main cause of soil and water degradation, which demands investments for the recovery of such natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to quantify and spatialize soil losses in a municipality with large areas of monoculture of sugarcane.

Design/methodology/approach

The Universal Soil Loss Equation was applied for the identification of areas susceptible to erosion in the municipality of Jahu, SP, Brazil. Soil maps, statistical census data from Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, radar images from SRTM, rainfall data from Fatec-Jahu hydrometeorological station and digital satellite images from Landsat 5 TM were used for the analyses. Four basic parameters were evaluated: topography of the terrain, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility, and soil use and management factors. The analyses were conducted in the Geographic Information System (ArcView software).

Findings

The results show most of the municipality (91 percent) consists of areas of erosion potential. However, the remaining 9 percent can potentially produce 40 percent of the sediment load, which indicates the need for conservation practices and environmental recovery for a reduction in the erosion process acceleration.

Originality/value

In view of the expansion of sugarcane culture in the cities of São Paulo, the results show the importance of a master plan for new areas of sugarcane planting and the need for restoration of riparian vegetation in the surrounding streams and springs for the reduction of erosion.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article
Publication date: 21 March 2016

Wondimagegn Tesfaye and Lemma Seifu

The purpose of this paper is to analyze smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change and its adverse effects, identify major adaptation strategies used by farmers…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze smallholder farmers’ perceptions of climate change and its adverse effects, identify major adaptation strategies used by farmers and analyze the factors that influence the choice of adaptation strategy by smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of 296 sample households selected from three districts in east Ethiopia. Data were collected with the aid of a semi-structured questionnaire and review of literature, documents and databases.

Findings

The study provides empirical evidence that majority of farmers in the study area are aware of climate change patterns and their adverse effect on income, food security, diversity, forest resources, food prices and crop and livestock diseases. In response to these adverse effects, major adaptation strategies used by farmers include cultivating different crops, planting different crop varieties, changing planting dates, use of soil and water conservation techniques, conservation agriculture practices and engaging in non-farm income activities. Choice of adaptation strategies are influenced by gender of household head, household size, farm size, distance from market and number of farm plots.

Practical implications

The study suggests that developing more effective climate change adaptation strategies need support from the government. Such an effort needs provision of the necessary resources such as credit, information and extension services on climate change adaptation strategies and technologies, and investing in climate smart and resilient projects.

Originality/value

The study adopts multivariate probit model that models farmers’ simultaneous adaptation choice behavior which has been rarely addressed by previous researches.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1991

Hsioh‐yu Hou

In order to resolve the problems of water shortage in China, oneshould consider the integration of irrigation projects, waterconservation and economical utilisation of…

Abstract

In order to resolve the problems of water shortage in China, one should consider the integration of irrigation projects, water conservation and economical utilisation of water. Irrigation projects mean exploiting water resources. To transport water from rivers beyond their own flowing reaches, it is necessary to prove its applicability before undertaking construction work. Sinking wells can be done only in areas with a plentiful amount of groundwater. Reservoirs also should be constructed only in areas with sufficient water resources and where less arable land has to be irrigated. Water conservation is connected closely with afforestation or protection of forests as well as protection from industrial pollution. Economic utilisation of water resources includes using water wisely to grow crops, and economising on its use in industry and for domestic purposes.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 18 no. 8/9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 January 2009

Guang Jin and A.J. Englande

The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate five erosion control measures at a residential development area in Louisiana, USA in order to provide Best…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate five erosion control measures at a residential development area in Louisiana, USA in order to provide Best Management Practices (BMPs) that have been tested in the field with demonstrated cost‐effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of six testing sites at a nine‐degree slope were used in parallel to study five erosion control measures with one being the control site (no protection). Soil erosion rate was quantified using the erosion bridge method. Soil underlying the study area was analyzed for surface runoff potential. Precipitation was monitored using a Sigma rain gauge. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student Newman‐Keuls Post‐Hoc ANOVA analysis were conducted to evaluate statistical significance of erosion control effectiveness. Ratio of soil erosion rate reduction to cost of each control measure is also analyzed.

Findings

All erosion control measures studied were very effective in reducing soil erosion for soils with high runoff potential, ranging from 75 percent to about 100 percent reduction in soil erosion rate. The most effective soil erosion protection was observed by Geojute fabric and Curlex blanket with greater than 90 percent reduction in soil erosion rate. However, after factoring‐in cost, straw bedding was observed to be five times as cost‐effective as Geojute fabric and Curlex blanket. The most cost‐effective measure is temporary seeding using perennial rye grass. For each dollar spent, about 12 tons of soil per acre per year will be prevented from eroding.

Originality/value

The study evaluated erosion control measures in the field with quantitative cost‐effectiveness analyzed. Besides enforcement, providing practical and cost‐effectiveness control measures that have been tested in the field is critical for actual implementation of erosion control measures.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Tamagn Urgo Woyesa and Satinder Kumar

This is a conceptual study to analyze the potential of enset-based culinary tourism for sustainable rural development and to obtain a place as a niche tourism market in…

Abstract

Purpose

This is a conceptual study to analyze the potential of enset-based culinary tourism for sustainable rural development and to obtain a place as a niche tourism market in South-Western Ethiopia. It assumed enset agro-biodiversity as the effect of ages of environment, genetic resources and cultural interaction as a distinctive regional image.

Design/methodology/approach

This an exploratory paper based on an in-depth interview, field observation and content analysis of documents. By means of in-depth interviews, the researchers managed to gather extended information from community elders and experts in culture and tourism offices selected based on a snowball technique. Besides, it has gone through systematic reviews of about 180 empirical and conceptual articles, books and conference papers with a critical reading of the content, identification of categories, examination and interpretation of ideas, to supplement the in-depth-interview. The thematic analysis applied to identify various ideas, concepts, categories and relationships to produce themes presented under discussion and results.

Findings

The study found enset-based culinary tourism not only improve the local economy and regional image, but also it would enhance conservation of traditional farming system, biodiversity, food heritages, genetic varieties and livestock. It also identified 18 enset food varieties compatible with the principle of balanced diets. Finally, the study advised rural development planners to consider enset-based culinary tourism so that it would revive lost food traditions and consumption patterns, enhance the regional heritage and destination branding.

Research limitations/implications

The research is a conceptual study that lacked empirical investigation concerning the livelihood impact, gender implication and actual tourist data. Therefore, future research needs to focus on the aforementioned limitations.

Practical implications

This study addressed SW Ethiopia, which is the primary center of Ensete ventricosum, and argued that enset-based culinary tourism would help to build regional image and obtain a place as a niche rural tourism destination. It would also contribute to the conservation of food heritages, environmentally sustainable farming system, soil conservation, crop diversities and livestock population in addition to producing tourist experience. Moreover, it would encourage the revival of traditional consumption, reinvent lost food traditions and identities.

Social implications

It was hoped that rural tourism would eventually improve the livelihood and enhance the capability of resilience. It is also expected to maintain the traditional social-economic structure based on the enset farm while fostering cultural development.

Originality/value

To the knowledge of the researchers there is no previous work on enset based-culinary tourism in Ethiopia and probably there is no published culinary tourism paper elsewhere.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 12 April 2018

Jeetendra Prakash Aryal, M.L. Jat, Tek B. Sapkota, Arun Khatri-Chhetri, Menale Kassie, Dil Bahadur Rahut and Sofina Maharjan

The adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) is important for sustaining Indian agriculture in the face of climate change. Despite considerable effort by…

Abstract

Purpose

The adoption of climate-smart agricultural practices (CSAPs) is important for sustaining Indian agriculture in the face of climate change. Despite considerable effort by both national and international agricultural organizations to promote CSAPs in India, adoption of these practices is low. This study aims to examine the elements that affect the likelihood and intensity of adoption of multiple CSAPs in Bihar, India.

Design/methodology/approach

The probability and intensity of adoption of CSAPs are analyzed using multivariate and ordered probit models, respectively.

Findings

The results show significant correlations between multiple CSAPs, indicating that their adoptions are interrelated, providing opportunities to exploit the complementarities. The results confirm that both the probability and intensity of adoption of CSAPs are affected by numerous factors, such as demographic characteristics, farm plot features, access to market, socio-economics, climate risks, access to extension services and training. Farmers who perceive high temperature as the major climate risk factor are more likely to adopt crop diversification and minimum tillage. Farmers are less likely to adopt site-specific nutrient management if faced with short winters; however, they are more likely to adopt minimum tillage in this case. Training on agricultural issues is found to have a positive impact on the likelihood and the intensity of CSAPs adoption.

Practical implications

The major policy recommendations coming from of our results are to strengthen local institutions (public extension services, etc.) and to provide more training on CSAPs.

Originality/value

By applying multivariate and ordered probit models, this paper provides some insights on the long-standing discussions on whether farmers adopt CSAPs in a piecemeal or in a composite way.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1962

B.W. AVERY

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually…

Abstract

From the first emergence of civilizations based on agriculture, variations in the nature and productive capacity of the soil were recognized by farmers, and names, usually based on colour or texture, were given to distinctive varieties. In modern times the connection between soils and the rocks which provide their parent materials was generally recognized, and the earliest attempts to classify soils systematically had a geological or petrological basis. Most of these schemes, such as those proposed by Thaer and Fallou in Germany, suffered from their limited geographical scope, and little attention was paid to the effects on soil formation of climate, vegetation, and topography. Soil was conceived primarily as an inert material composed of variously constituted mineral particles mixed with varying quantities of plant residues, and the accent on soil as a material received further emphasis following the publication in 1840 of Liebig's ‘Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology’, which suggested that differences in soil fertility were largely determined by differences in chemical constitution.

Details

Aslib Proceedings, vol. 14 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0001-253X

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