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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2019

Eko Yi Liao, Victor P. Lau, Ray Tak-yin Hui and Kaylee Hao Kong

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and theory-driven meta-analysis of work–family conflict (WFC). The authors quantitatively review the relationships between WFC…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an updated and theory-driven meta-analysis of work–family conflict (WFC). The authors quantitatively review the relationships between WFC and three pairs of antecedents and several consequences.

Design/methodology/approach

A meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the research model. Specifically, the authors adopt a resource-based perspective (i.e. conservation of resources (COR) theory) to investigate the relationships between three pairs of antecedents (demand/control, autonomy/hours spent at both work and family domains and role overload/flexibility) and WFC. While COR theory argues that resource loss perceptions would generate much more influential impact on individuals comparing to that of resource gain, both favourable and unfavourable antecedents, representing resource gain and resource loss, respectively, are incorporated in each pair of antecedents. This inclusion of contrary antecedents allows the authors to investigate the comparison of the relationships between the favourable antecedents – WFC relationships and the unfavourable factors – WFC relationships. In addition, the authors analyse how and to what extent WFC influences employees’ attitudes (i.e. commitment), behaviours (i.e. performance) towards both work and family, and their career consequences.

Findings

The meta-analytical findings generally support the hypotheses. Work and family demands are found positively related to WFC, while having a control at either work or family would be negatively related to WFC. Perceiving a high level of autonomy at work is negatively related to WFC, and hours spend at work has a positive relation with WFC. Role overload at both work and family are associated with WFC, while having flexibility from work schedule would be negatively related to WFC. In addition, WFC is negatively related to employee career development outcomes.

Originality/value

First, the authors adopt a resource-based view to organise both favourable and unfavourable antecedents of WFC. Second, this paper aims at extending the investigation on WFC consequences to performance at both work and family, commitment to both work and family, and employee career outcomes, because all of them are critical consequences but not fully explored in previous meta-analyses. Third, this paper has incorporated newly explored correlates of WFC (e.g. employee career development-related outcomes) and quantitatively reviewed their relationships with WFC.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Victor P. Lau, Yin Yee Wong and Cheris W.C. Chow

Drawing on proactive coping theory, the authors aimed to test the mitigating effects of proactive personality on the relationships between work-to-family conflict and both…

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Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on proactive coping theory, the authors aimed to test the mitigating effects of proactive personality on the relationships between work-to-family conflict and both work-related outcomes (i.e. career satisfaction and social network) and nonwork-related outcomes (i.e. life satisfaction and personal growth).

Design/methodology/approach

To increase the heterogeneity of sample, undergraduate students in a private university were randomly invited and then requested to invite any one of their parents, who had a full time job currently, to participate in the study. Sample size was 204, with a response rate of 75.56 percent.

Findings

As predicted, results showed that, for those who had a high level of proactive personality, the influences of work-to-family conflict on both work- and nonwork-related outcomes were all significantly mitigated, as compared with those who had a low level of proactive personality.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors initiated a new insight into work-family interface research by advocating that individuals may “transfer” or reallocate their resources across the work and family domains. They labeled this phenomenon as work-family reallocation, which was supposedly to be differentiated from the prevailing concepts of either work-family conflict or work-family facilitation.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Victor P. Lau and Margaret A. Shaffer

Based on social learning theories, this conceptual paper attempts to develop a theoretical framework and testable hypotheses linking the relationship between certain personality…

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Abstract

Based on social learning theories, this conceptual paper attempts to develop a theoretical framework and testable hypotheses linking the relationship between certain personality traits and career success. Although there has been a long history of exploring the effects of personality on career development, its importance appears to be underestimated, and it is time to revitalize the psychological view of career studies. In this paper, we propose that several personality traits (locus of control, self‐monitoring, self‐esteem, optimism, and machiavellianism) along with job performance and person‐environment fit are determinants of career success. In view of social learning theories, knowledge of this relationship is of practical and theoretical value for individuals, organizations, and career consultants.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 December 2022

Chan Oy Lar Kiki, Yui-yip Lau and Victor C.W. Chan

This study empirically investigates the influence of students' brand attitudes and perceptions of brand fit on their study intention vis-à-vis international brand alliances and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study empirically investigates the influence of students' brand attitudes and perceptions of brand fit on their study intention vis-à-vis international brand alliances and individual brands after alliance.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used in data analysis, and a questionnaire was administered to a sample of sub-degree business management students recruited from a self-financing higher education institution in Hong Kong.

Findings

The results indicate that students' prior attitudes towards the brands of foreign and local institutions and their perceptions of brand fit positively affect their study intention, providing evidence that post-attitudes towards individual brands fully mediate the relationship between attitudes towards international brand alliances and study intention towards individual institutions.

Originality/value

International brand alliances between higher education institutions are becoming increasingly important. In Hong Kong, despite the emerging trend of collaboration between foreign and local universities, an evaluation of the effect of international brand alliances on study intention has been seriously overlooked.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 October 2023

Robert P. Wright

Why is it that highly trained and seasoned executives fail? On the surface, this doesn’t make sense because they are very successful; yet research in the organization sciences…

Abstract

Why is it that highly trained and seasoned executives fail? On the surface, this doesn’t make sense because they are very successful; yet research in the organization sciences provides no shortage of evidence to prove just that. From the classic Mann Gulch fire disaster of Weick’s famous collapse of sensemaking study, to studies of myopia of learning, escalation of commitment, threat-rigidity, dominant logic, the architecture of simplicity, the Icarus Paradox, to core competencies turning into core rigidities, and navigating new competitive markets using “old” cognitive maps, and many more such examples point to a ubiquitous phenomenon where highly trained and experienced professionals find themselves “stuck” in the heat of battle, unable to move and progress. On the one hand, for some, there is a desperate need for change, but are unable to do so, due to their trained incapacities. On the other hand, some simply cannot see the need for change, and continue with their “business as usual” mentality. For both, their visions of the world shrink, they have a tendency to cling onto their past habitual practices and oversimplify the complexity of the situation. In moments like these: DROP YOUR TOOLS and UNLEARN! This book chapter introduces a framework (grounded in clinical psychology) that has had consistent success in helping seasoned executives and key decision-makers open up the alternatives whenever they find themselves stuck with complexity.

Article
Publication date: 25 May 2018

Sheng-Wuu Joe, Wei-Ting Hung, Chou-Kang Chiu, Chieh-Peng Lin and Ya-Chu Hsu

To deepen our understanding about the development of turnover intention, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model that explains how ethical climate influences turnover…

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Abstract

Purpose

To deepen our understanding about the development of turnover intention, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model that explains how ethical climate influences turnover intention based on the ethical climate theory and social identity theory.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses of this study were statistically tested using a survey of working professionals from Taiwan’s high-tech industry. Of the 400 questionnaires distributed to the working professionals from five large high-tech firms in a well-known science park in Northern Taiwan, 352 usable questionnaires were returned for a questionnaire response rate of 88 percent.

Findings

The test results of this study first show that all three dimensions of ethical climate (i.e. instrumental, benevolent, and principled) are indirectly related to turnover intention via the mediation of firm attractiveness. Moreover, instrumental and benevolent climate directly relate to turnover intention, whereas benevolent climate negatively moderates the relationship between principled climate and firm attractiveness.

Originality/value

This study finds that benevolent climate plays a dual role as an antecedent and a moderator in the formation of turnover intention, complementing prior studies that merely concentrate on the single role of benevolent climate as either an antecedent or a moderator. The effect of principled climate on organizational identification complements the theoretical discussion by Victor and Cullen (1987) about deontology in which an ethical workplace climate (such as legitimacy) drives employees to invest in identity attachments to the organization and influences their future career decision (e.g. turnover).

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 October 2019

Victor Tang

The purpose of this paper is to present a fresh approach to stimulate individual creativity. It introduces a mathematical representation for creative ideas, six creativity…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a fresh approach to stimulate individual creativity. It introduces a mathematical representation for creative ideas, six creativity operators and methods of matrix-algebra to evaluate, improve and stimulate creative ideas. Creativity begins with ideas to resolve a problem or tackle an opportunity. By definition, a creative idea must be simultaneously novel and useful. To inject analytic rigor into these concepts of creative ideas, the author introduces a feature-attribute matrix-construct to represent ideas, creativity operators that use ideas as operands and methods of matrix algebra. It is demonstrated that it is now possible to analytically and quantitatively evaluate the intensity of the variables that make an idea more, equal or less, creative than another. The six creativity operators are illustrated with detailed multi-disciplinary real-world examples. The mathematics and working principles of each creativity operator are discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The unit of analysis is ideas, not theory. Ideas are man-made artifacts. They are represented by an original feature-attribute matrix construct. Using matrix algebra, idea matrices can be manipulated to improve their creative intensity, which are now quantitatively measurable. Unlike atoms and cute rabbits, creative ideas, do not occur in nature. Only people can conceive and develop creative ideas for embodiment in physical, non-physical forms, or in a mix of both. For example, as widgets, abstract theorems, business processes, symphonies, organization structures, and so on. The feature-attribute matrix construct is used to represent novelty and usefulness. The multiplicative product of these two matrices forms the creativity matrix. Six creativity operators and matrix algebra are introduced to stimulate and measure creative ideas. Creativity operators use idea matrices as operands. Uses of the six operators are demonstrated using multi-disciplinary real-world examples. Metrics for novelty, usefulness and creativity are in ratio scales, grounded on the Weber–Fechner Law. This law is about persons’ ability to discern differences in the intensity of stimuli.

Findings

Ideas are represented using feature-attribute matrices. This construct is used to represent novel, useful and creative ideas with more clarity and precision than before. Using matrices, it is shown how to unambiguously and clearly represent creative ideas endowed with novelty and usefulness. It is shown that using matrix algebra, on idea matrices, makes it possible to analyze multi-disciplinary, real-world cases of creative ideas, with clarity and discriminatory power, to uncover insights about novelty and usefulness. Idea-matrices and the methods of matrix algebra have strong explanatory and predictive power. Using of matrix algebra and eigenvalue analyses, of idea-matrices, it is demonstrated how to quantitatively rank ideas, features and attributes of creative ideas. Matrix methods operationalize and quantitatively measure creativity, novelty and usefulness. The specific elementary variables that characterize creativity, novelty and usefulness factors, can now be quantitatively ranked. Creativity, novelty and usefulness factors are not considered as monolithic, irreducible factors, vague “lumpy” qualitative factors, but as explicit sets of elementary, specific and measurable variables in ratio scales. This significantly improves the acuity and discriminatory power in the analyses of creative ideas. The feature-attribute matrix approach and its matrix operators are conceptually consistent and complementary with key extant theories engineering design and creativity.

Originality/value

First to define and specify ideas as feature-attribute matrices. It is demonstrated that creative ideas, novel ideas and useful ideas can be analytically and unambiguously specified and measured for creativity. It is significant that verbose qualitative narratives will no longer be the exclusive means to specify creative ideas. Rather, qualitative narratives will be used to complement the matrix specifications of creative ideas. First to specify six creativity operators enabling matrix algebra to operate on idea-matrices as operands to generate new ideas. This capability informs and guides a person’s intuition. The myth and dependency, on non-repeatable or non-reproducible serendipity, flashes of “eureka” moments or divine inspiration, can now be vacated. Though their existence cannot be ruled out. First to specify matrix algebra and eigen-value methods of quantitative analyses of feature-attribute matrices to rank the importance of elementary variables that characterize factors of novelty, usefulness and creativity. Use of verbose qualitative narratives of novelty, usefulness and creativity as monolithic “lumpy” factors can now be vacated. Such lumpy narratives risk being ambiguous, imprecise, unreliable and non-reproducible, Analytic and quantitative methods are more reliable and consistent. First to define and specify a method of “attacking the negatives” to systematically pinpoint the improvements of an idea’s novelty, usefulness and creativity. This procedure informs and methodically guides the improvements of deficient ideas.

Details

International Journal of Innovation Science, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-2223

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2021

Víctor Martínez-Molés, Timothy Hyungsoo Jung, Carmen Pérez-Cabañero and Amparo Cervera-Taulet

This study aims to apply theory on consumer learning in virtual experiences to compare how media technologies (i.e. virtual reality [VR] and standard websites) and users’ gender…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply theory on consumer learning in virtual experiences to compare how media technologies (i.e. virtual reality [VR] and standard websites) and users’ gender influence the ways in which tourists gather pre-purchase information.

Design/methodology/approach

A laboratory experiment with fully immersive VR was conducted to examine consumers’ behavior in gathering pre-purchase information. The sample comprised 128 consumers who had taken a cruise vacation or who were considering purchasing a cruise package in the near future.

Findings

The results generally reveal the central role of the feeling of presence, which, in turn, positively impacts users’ enjoyment and aspects of consumer learning (i.e. brand attitude, product knowledge and purchase intent). In particular, the results suggest that compared with standard websites, VR facilitated the tourists’ learning as consumers, especially among women, who tend to dominate the information-gathering stage of planning family vacations.

Practical implications

The results imply that travel agencies and tourism centers working with cruise vacation companies should incorporate VR to make their offers more attractive, especially to women.

Originality/value

The study was the first to apply theory on consumer learning in the cruise tourism industry, specifically to compare fully immersive VR devices versus standard websites and gauge the effect of gender.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 22 February 2023

Malav Kanuga

The chapter situates the role of narrative power in shifting media policy amidst calls for police abolition, defunding, and media reparations following the documentation of media…

Abstract

The chapter situates the role of narrative power in shifting media policy amidst calls for police abolition, defunding, and media reparations following the documentation of media harm. Community-based narrative intervention is not only focused on those aspects of reporting and media that deal with harms perpetuated by discourses on public safety, but also about developing what I refer to as “collective narrative self-determination” to reflect the needs and desires of communities. The chapter documents how grassroots media efforts attempt to reconfigure the space of media policy and shift narratives toward the community power needed to reckon with the consequences of vital public resources being systematically defunded for budgets and policies that entail greater police powers. The chapter concludes this is an important moment for community-based initiatives and interventions that can shift media narratives around policing and urban violence and also shift who is served by those narratives, contributing to the long-term process of building narrative power and racial justice across a wide range of community and media organizations.

Book part
Publication date: 24 June 2015

Victor Z. Chen and Sedat Aybar

Emerging market MNEs often seek to advance their domestic competitive advantage through a springboard FDI strategy, which typically takes the form of an acquisition into a…

Abstract

Emerging market MNEs often seek to advance their domestic competitive advantage through a springboard FDI strategy, which typically takes the form of an acquisition into a developed market (DM) for knowledge resources. We argue that if this strategy is effective and beneficial, then an emerging market parent firm would seek for higher ownership and control in its later domestic acquisitions. Such benefits would be higher if there are richer knowledge resources in a DM subsidiary or in a DM local network. Such benefits would also increase over time because of the accumulation of new knowledge back home. Using a sample of 1,303 complete domestic acquisitions made by 713 Turkish firms over the period of 1987–2013, including 196 deals involving a springboard FDI strategy, we have found highly supportive empirical evidence. It is found that holding a DM subsidiary by a Turkish parent firm is associated with 33.047% higher ownership in a later domestic acquisition. Both research and practical implications are discussed.

Details

Emerging Economies and Multinational Enterprises
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-740-6

Keywords

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