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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2019

Sherif Shawer, Shirley Rowbotham, Alexander Heazell, Teresa Kelly and Sarah Vause

Many organisations, including the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, have recommended increasing the number of hours of consultant obstetric presence in UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Many organisations, including the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, have recommended increasing the number of hours of consultant obstetric presence in UK National Health Service maternity units to improve patient care. St Mary’s Hospital, Manchester implemented 24-7 consultant presence in September 2014. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

To assess the impact of 24-7 consultant presence upon women and babies, a retrospective review of all serious clinical intrapartum incidents occurring between September 2011 and September 2017 was carried out by two independent reviewers; disagreements in classification were reviewed by a senior Obstetrician. The impact of consultant presence was classified in a structure agreed a priori.

Findings

A total of 72 incidents were reviewed. Consultants were directly involved in the care of 75.6 per cent of cases before 24-7 consultant presence compared to 96.8 per cent afterwards. Negative impact due to a lack of consultant presence fell from 22 per cent of the incidents before 24-7 consultant presence to 9.7 per cent after implementation. In contrast, positive impact of consultant presence increased from 14.6 to 32.3 per cent following the introduction of 24-7 consultant presence.

Practical implications

Introduction of 24-7 consultant presence reduced the negative impact caused by a lack of, or delay in, consultant presence as identified by serious untoward incident (SUI) reviews. Consultant presence was more likely to have a positive influence on care delivery.

Originality/value

This is the first assessment of the impact of 24-7 consultant presence on the SUIs in obstetrics.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2018

Inma Rodríguez-Ardura and Antoni Meseguer-Artola

Recent research on immersive experiences in online environments for higher education has attributed a fundamental role to two distinct yet connected psychological…

Abstract

Recent research on immersive experiences in online environments for higher education has attributed a fundamental role to two distinct yet connected psychological phenomena: the feelings of being virtually present in the education environment, often simply called presence, and peak episodes of flow. The authors conceptually delimitate these two psychological facets of e-learners’ experiences and examine their interplay. The authors show how flow episodes are elicited by students’ sense of control over the online education environment, their attention being focussed on the learning tasks, and their feelings of being physically placed in the online education setting. Also, the interactivity created by the online education environment evokes an e-learner’s imagery, which in turn triggers presence feelings and episodes of flow. The authors further show that, although presence and flow are triggered by some common antecedents, they differ in the object of the individual’s immersion, and that presence feelings facilitate flow. Moreover, the authors provide practical recommendations for higher education institutions, policy makers and the academic and information and communication technology community involved in e-learning, to make sure e-learner experiences reach their fullest potential.

Details

The Future of Innovation and Technology in Education: Policies and Practices for Teaching and Learning Excellence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-555-5

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2020

Alex Rockey, Lorna Gonzalez, Megan Eberhardt-Alstot and Margaret Merrill

Connectedness is essential for student success in online learning. By projecting themselves as real people through video, instructors support connectedness. In this…

Abstract

Connectedness is essential for student success in online learning. By projecting themselves as real people through video, instructors support connectedness. In this chapter, researchers apply the theory of social presence (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) to case studies from two public higher education institutions: a four-year university and a large research university. Analysis identifies video as a humanizing element of online courses. Findings suggest video could be used in a variety of ways (e.g., video lectures, synchronous office hours, weekly overview videos), and no single use of video was perceived to be more or less effective in developing social presence and humanizing the learning experience. However, participants especially perceived connectedness when video was used in a variety of ways. Students from the second case study validated a perception of connectedness to the instructor that faculty in our first case study hoped to achieve. However, one instructor’s perception of disconnect illustrates that video is just one of several pedagogical practices necessary to create a satisfying learning experience for both students and instructors. While video is not the only way to establish social presence, findings suggest video is an effective practice toward creating a humanized and connected online learning community.

Abstract

Details

Leading with Presence: Fundamental Tools and Insights for Impactful, Engaging Leadership
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-599-3

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Shuoyuan He

This study examines the relation between the presence of analysts’ long-term growth (LTG) forecasts and the post-earnings-announcement drift (PEAD).

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the relation between the presence of analysts’ long-term growth (LTG) forecasts and the post-earnings-announcement drift (PEAD).

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of firm-quarters from 1995 to 2013, the author conducts various regression analyses.

Findings

The author finds that the magnitude of PEAD is significantly smaller for firms with LTG forecasts. The relationship holds after controlling for a wide range of explanatory variables for PEAD returns or for the presence of LTG forecasts. The author further investigates three nonexclusive hypotheses to explain this relationship. First, LTG forecasts may convey incremental value-relevant information that facilitates investors’ processing of short-term earnings information. Second, the presence of LTG forecasts may indicate superiority in analysts’ short-term forecast ability and identify firms with more efficient short-term forecasts. Third, the presence of LTG forecasts may be associated with cross-sectional differences in the persistence of earnings surprises. The author finds that none of these fully accounts for the negative relationship between the presence of LTG forecasts and PEAD returns. Instead, the relationship may be a result of the presence of LTG forecasts capturing some unobservable firm characteristics beyond those identified in prior studies.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the PEAD literature by identifying a novel analyst-based predictor of the cross-sectional variation in PEAD returns.

Details

China Accounting and Finance Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1029-807X

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 23 September 2022

Katharina Jahn, Frederike Marie Oschinsky, Bastian Kordyaka, Alla Machulska, Tanja Joan Eiler, Armin Gruenewald, Tim Klucken, Rainer Brueck, Carl Friedrich Gethmann and Bjoern Niehaves

Immersive virtual reality (IVR) has been frequently proposed as a promising tool for learning. However, researchers have commonly implemented a plethora of design elements…

324

Abstract

Purpose

Immersive virtual reality (IVR) has been frequently proposed as a promising tool for learning. However, researchers have commonly implemented a plethora of design elements in these IVR systems, which makes the specific aspects of the system that are necessary to achieve beneficial outcomes unclear. Against this background, this study aims to combine the literature on presence with learning theories to propose that the ability of IVR to present 3D objects to users improves the presence of these objects in the virtual environment compared with 2D objects, leading to increased learning performance.

Design/methodology/approach

To test this study’s hypotheses, the authors conducted a 2 (training condition: approach vs avoid) x 2 (object presence: high vs low) between-subjects laboratory experiment that used IVR with 83 female participants.

Findings

The results support this study’s hypotheses and show that training with high object presence leads to greater reactions to cues (chocolate cravings) and improved health behaviour (chocolate consumption).

Originality/value

This study shows that increased object presence leads to unique experiences for users, which help reinforce training effects. Moreover, this work sheds further light on how immersive computer technologies can affect user attitudes and behaviour. Specifically, this work contributes to IVR research by showing that learning effects can be enhanced through an increased degree of object presence.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 32 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Jakob Braun

Consumers are increasingly present in multiple spaces. For instance, many people choose to browse their smartphones for product reviews, while shopping at the traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers are increasingly present in multiple spaces. For instance, many people choose to browse their smartphones for product reviews, while shopping at the traditional brick-and-mortar store. How is their presence affected in such scenarios? Can they be fully present in the store? How is their overall consumption experience impacted? This chapter addresses such questions and explores the nature and role of presence, which is defined as the “feeling of ‘being there’ in the present, the here and now of the physical or a virtual world” (Waterworth & Waterworth, 2006, p. 82).

Methodology/approach

Drawing on findings from different literatures (e.g., marketing, communications), a conceptual approach is used to identify the underlying components of presence and to explore how this construct relates to customer experience.

Findings

Preliminary assertions suggest that presence has a spatial structure. It is concerned with two distinctions. First, presence may vary depending on the level of physicality or virtuality. Second, presence may change based on whether someone is perceiving stimuli in the external environment (what is happening around us in the physical or virtual space) or is lost (i.e., absent) in the internal world of dreams, thoughts, and imaginations.

Research implications

From a theoretical perspective, this research introduces the presence construct from communications to the marketing literature. Studying consumption experiences through the lens of presence contributes to our understanding of how they are affected by simultaneous activities of customers in physical and virtual spaces.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, marketers are encouraged to develop new strategies that account for customers’ presence in various spaces, in order to gain their attention.

Details

Qualitative Consumer Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-491-0

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Organizational Culture and Its Impact on Continuous Improvement in Manufacturing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-404-5

Book part
Publication date: 19 March 2013

David Starr-Glass

Distance learning has proliferated significantly in the last 20 years. This chapter considers some of the issues and implications when teaching and learning moves from an…

Abstract

Distance learning has proliferated significantly in the last 20 years. This chapter considers some of the issues and implications when teaching and learning moves from an in-person to a distance mode. It begins with a brief history of distance learning, considering both the technologies used and the dominant pedagogical approaches employed. This is followed by a survey of the impact of Michael Moore's theory of transactional distance, which considered the consequences of separating the learner from peers and instructor. Contemporary work on Moore's contribution includes transaction and participation, activity theory, and transactional presence. A second major aspect of distance learning has been the attempt to introduce social presence into learning environments. The history of social presence is explored, as are its levels and consequences for the learner. Contemporary aspects of social presence reviewed include communities of inquiry. While Web 2.0 has spectacularly resulted in connectivity, it remains unclear as to whether this automatically resulted in more strongly connected learners. Connectivist approaches are considered and distinctions made between technological connectivity and pedagogical engagement. It is argued that the full and exciting potential of Web 2.0 in distance learning requires a commitment to the distanced learner, balancing learner autonomy and teacher presence, promoting meaningful social engagement, and meeting the specific needs of the distance learner.

Details

Increasing Student Engagement and Retention in e-learning Environments: Web 2.0 and Blended Learning Technologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-515-9

Article
Publication date: 17 August 2022

Zhen Huang, Yidan Zhu, Andy Hao and Jia Deng

This paper aims to examine the relationship between social presence and consumer purchase intention in the context of livestreaming commerce and test the mediating role of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the relationship between social presence and consumer purchase intention in the context of livestreaming commerce and test the mediating role of immersive experience and the moderating role of positive emotions.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used a convenience sampling method to select 408 college students from a university in Ganzhou as the participants. They employed structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses, as well as Hayes' PROCESS to test the mediation and moderation effects.

Findings

The authors found that immersion experiences partially mediate the relationship between social presence and consumers' purchase intentions and positive emotions moderate the “social presence–immersion experience–consumer purchase intentions” path. Therefore, social presence constitutes a moderating mediating effect on consumer purchase intentions.

Practical implications

This study offers meaningful insights into how livestreamers and e-retailers can stimulate consumers' buying behavior in livestreaming environments. E-commerce platforms should strengthen consumer interactions and increase consumers' perceptions of social presence. In addition, companies should meet the social and psychological needs of consumers and generate positive emotional resonance.

Originality/value

This research sheds light on the effect of social presence on consumer purchase intentions in livestreaming commerce and extends the social presence literature by investigating the mediation mechanism of immersive experience.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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