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Book part
Publication date: 12 November 2015

Seonghee Oak and Michael C. Dalbor

Mergers and acquisitions are frequent occurrences in the world of business. While a merged firm may convert an acquired asset to other brands, the restaurant industry…

Abstract

Mergers and acquisitions are frequent occurrences in the world of business. While a merged firm may convert an acquired asset to other brands, the restaurant industry tends to acquire the same brand name and does not change the name of the acquired assets. Acquisitions can prove to be a risky proposition in any industry. This study attempts to determine if a product-diversified acquisition in the restaurant industry is a value-creating decision. By comparing focused and diversified acquisitions, we try to find if focused acquisitions create value and that diversified acquisitions do not. Our initial expectation was that focused acquisitions create more shareholder value. We find that both focused and diversified acquisitions make significant positive abnormal returns for acquirers.

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Advances in Hospitality and Leisure
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-271-9

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Book part
Publication date: 21 July 2004

Kwang-Hyun Chung

Acquisition is one of key corporate strategic decisions for firms’ growth and competitive advantage. Firms: (1) diversify through acquisition to balance cash flows and…

Abstract

Acquisition is one of key corporate strategic decisions for firms’ growth and competitive advantage. Firms: (1) diversify through acquisition to balance cash flows and spread the business risks; and (2) eliminate their competitors through acquisition by acquiring new technology, new operating capabilities, process innovations, specialized managerial expertise, and market position. Thus, firms acquire either unrelated or related business based on their strategic motivations, such as diversifying their business lines or improving market power in the same business line. These different motivations may be related to their assessment of market growth, firms’ competitive position, and top management’s compensation. Thus, it is hypothesized that firms’ acquisition decisions may be related to their industry growth potential, post-acquisition firm growth, market share change, and CEO’s compensation composition between cash and equity. In addition, for the two alternative acquisition accounting methods allowed until recently, a test is made if the type of acquisition is related to the choice of accounting methods. This study classifies firms’ acquisitions as related or unrelated, based on the standard industrial classification (SIC) codes for both acquiring and target firms. The empirical tests are, first, based on all the acquisition cases regardless of the firm membership, and then, deal with the firms acquiring only related businesses or unrelated businesses exclusively.

The type of acquisitions was more likely related to industry growth opportunities, indicating that the unrelated acquisition cases are more likely to be followed by higher industry growth rate than the related acquisition cases. While there were a substantially larger number of acquisition cases using the purchase method, the related acquisition cases used the pooling-of-interest method more frequently than in the unrelated acquisition cases. The firm-level analysis shows that the type of acquisition decisions was still related to acquiring firms’ industry growth rate. However, the post-acquisition performance measures, using firm’s growth and change in market share, could support prior studies in that the exclusive-related acquisitions helped firms grow more and get more market share than the exclusive-unrelated acquisitions. CEO’s compensation composition ratio was not related to the types of acquisition.

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Advances in Management Accounting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-118-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 January 2004

Annetta Fortune

Merger and acquisition activity generates a substantial amount of discussion within business circles among academics, analysts, and the media. Even though research and…

Abstract

Merger and acquisition activity generates a substantial amount of discussion within business circles among academics, analysts, and the media. Even though research and experience demonstrates that many mergers and acquisitions fall short of the intended goal of creating shareholder value, mergers and acquisitions still persist in the marketplace. The purpose of this discussion is to suggest that a potential explanation for this dilemma can be found by applying the resource-based rationale of acquisition within an evolutionary framework of business dynamics.

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Advances in Mergers and Acquisitions
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-172-9

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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2021

Min Du, Frank Kwabi and Tianle Yang

Drawing on three theoretical frameworks, this paper aims to examine the effects of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the interaction between SOEs and prior acquisition

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on three theoretical frameworks, this paper aims to examine the effects of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and the interaction between SOEs and prior acquisition experience of Chinese domestic and cross-border acquirers.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of 4,116 firms consisting of 3,939 domestic mergers and acquisitions (M&As) and 177 cross-border M&As over the period 2004–2017, this study adopts both accounting- and market-based performance measures, namely, return on assets, return on equity and buy-and-hold abnormal return to analyse the effects of SOEs and the interaction between SOEs and prior acquisition experience on acquirers’ performance.

Findings

First, this paper finds SOEs to exert a positive influence on acquirer performance, contrary to agency theory but in line with the resource-based view. However, the positive relationship between SOEs and performance appears more pronounced for domestic M&A compared to cross-border M&As. Second, this study also finds prior acquisition experience and the combined effect of SOE and prior acquisition experience to have a positive and significant bearing on performance.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of this study is the lack of cross-border M&A data with all the relevant information compared to domestic M&A. Thus, the cross-border M&A sample appears lower compared to the domestic M&A sample.

Practical implications

The results imply that the moderating role of prior acquisition experience on the relationship between SOEs and performance appears to be crucial for cross-border M&A performance compared to domestic M&A.

Originality/value

The findings of this study show SOEs increase performance, contrary to the widely held view based on agency theory that SOEs are inefficient.

Details

International Journal of Accounting & Information Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1834-7649

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2021

Mohammad Fuad, Vinod Thakur and Ashutosh Kumar Sinha

From the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, family firms prioritize non-financial goals and show risk averse behaviour towards conducting acquisitions. In this…

Abstract

Purpose

From the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective, family firms prioritize non-financial goals and show risk averse behaviour towards conducting acquisitions. In this paper, we study family firms' acquisitive behaviour while participating in CBA waves. Scholars have largely treated the cross border acquisition (CBA) wave and non-wave environments as homogeneous. We theorize that these two environments differ in their uncertainty and risk profiles on account of temporal clustering of acquisition deals. Accordingly, based on the SEW perspective, we examine the preference of family firms to participate in CBA waves.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on CBAs conducted by Indian family firms between 2000 and 2018. These waves are identified by conducting a simulation based methodology.

Findings

Our findings suggest that foreign institutional ownership, firm age and acquisition relatedness moderate the relationship between family control and participation in CBA waves.

Originality/value

Our paper contributes towards the acquisitive behavior of family firms and their participation in CBA waves.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Case study
Publication date: 23 June 2021

Deepa Kumari and Ashutosh Dash

The students should be able to understand the potential and competitive advantage of community-based business model. The students should be able to familiarise themselves…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The students should be able to understand the potential and competitive advantage of community-based business model. The students should be able to familiarise themselves with the concept of entrepreneurship through acquisitions. The students should be able to decide when a firm should use acquisition as a key driver coupled with fewer efforts on organic growth or vice-versa. The student should be able to evaluate the success or failure acquisition as a growth strategy. The student should be able to evaluate the key metrics and other variables in the acquisition of target companies. The students should be able to wear the shoes of the protagonist and resolve the dilemma.

Case overview/synopsis

The teaching case looks at the dilemma of Sairee Chahal. Chahal is the founder of SHEROES, an online community for women. SHEROES started as an online career ecosystem for women. As time progressed Chahal witnessed conversations beyond career and moved towards women-centric themes. Chahal decided to pivot it into an online community for women. Her growth strategy for SHEROES has primarily been driven by serial acquisitions coupled with dispersed efforts on organic growth. In the meanwhile, Chahal had harboured an ambition to bring 100 million users to SHEROES by the year 2024. In a period spanning from 2016–2020, SHEROES acquired six niche women-centric companies. SHEROES grew to be a community of 1 million users to 20+million women users by 2020. On the other hand, the industry leader, Mogul used a diametrical approach to grow the platform into 30+million users by 2020. It had primarily used organic growth strategies such as content development, designing courses, referrals and many more. However, Chahal found herself in a dilemma when a reporter posed a question to Chahal. Chahal’s growth strategy depended on acquisitions, coupled with less effort in organic growth. Conversely, Mogul grew primarily via organic growth strategies. The reporter’s question forced her to question and revisit her growth strategies. She wondered if a target of 100 million users could be achieved with the acquisition as a major driver and less effort invested in organic growth or whether it might be better to make organic growth the key growth strategy while pushing acquisitions to the back seat. The uniqueness of the case lies in the female protagonist who is trying to build a larger-than-life community primarily via acquisitions with little effort on organic growth. Such a phenomenon has rarely been explored in teaching cases. The case is based on secondary data and the information is available in the public domain.

Complexity academic level

The case is designed for post-graduate students in the entrepreneurship curriculum. Within entrepreneurship, it is well-suited for use in specialised courses on “growth of an entrepreneurial venture” or “entrepreneurial strategies”. An instructor may take it up in the middle of the module as students would have familiarised themselves with various growth strategies. An instructor may use the case for a very niche course such as entrepreneurship through acquisition. An instructor may take it up as an introductory case in such a course. It can also be used in the executive programme aimed at “women entrepreneurship”, “community-based model” and “serial acquisitions” to teach how women or founders create and grow entrepreneurial ventures with acquisitions or communities as their focal tenet. The case has been tested in the authors’ post-graduate student’s entrepreneurship course. An instructor can use it when the instructor wants to discuss the various growth strategies available to an entrepreneurial firm.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS 3: Entrepreneurship.

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Daniel Tidbury, Steven F. Cahan and Li Chen

Board faultlines, which reflect intrinsic divisions of board members into relatively homogeneous subgroups, are associated with poor firm performance. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Board faultlines, which reflect intrinsic divisions of board members into relatively homogeneous subgroups, are associated with poor firm performance. This paper aims to extend the existing board faultline research by examining how acquisition deal size moderates the negative implications of board faultlines.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a sample of acquisitions and a quantitative research approach to conduct statistical analysis.

Findings

Using a sample of acquisitions announced between 2007 and 2016, this paper finds evidence suggesting that strong faultlines are associated with poorer acquisition outcomes in the long-term, but not in the short term. Further, this paper finds that the effect of faultline strength on long-term acquisition outcomes is weaker for larger acquisition deals than smaller acquisition deals. The findings are consistent with deal size moderating the relation between faultlines and acquisition outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

This paper addresses possible endogeneity through firm fixed effects and instrumental variable analysis. Although this paper provides evidence on the moderating role of deal size in the context of faultlines, future research could examine the role of additional moderators, such as pro-diversity, trust, board leadership and board and task characteristics.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that boards need to be aware of situations where the negative effects of faultlines are more likely to come to the fore. For example, faultlines are more likely to play a role in more routine, obscure monitoring than for high-profile strategic decisions.

Originality/value

The study is multidisciplinary as it draws on the management, organizational behaviour and psychology and finance literature. It contributes to the developing literature on faultlines in several important ways. First, this paper supports their view that faultlines have adverse effects on board performance by showing that faultlines negatively impact discrete strategic investment decisions. Second, this paper provides evidence that deals size moderates the faultline-acquisition performance relation, indicating that the role of faultlines is contextual. Third, this paper finds evidence that suggests investors do not factor in board faultlines when responding to acquisition announcements.

Details

Meditari Accountancy Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-372X

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Article
Publication date: 13 May 2021

Slađana Savović and Verica Babić

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the influence of behaviour factors (corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership) on acquisition

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of the influence of behaviour factors (corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership) on acquisition performance, through the mediating role of speed of post-acquisition change (as a process factor), in the specific context of a transitional economy.

Design/methodology/approach

A model was tested on a sample of acquisitions in Serbia carried out by domestic and European companies. In total, 208 valid questionnaires were collected from 10 acquired companies. Linear regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. To test the mediator hypothesis, Baron and Kenny's (1986) procedure was used. Statistical significance of indirect or mediated effect was calculated with Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS) macro provided by Preacher and Hayes (2004).

Findings

Mediator analysis shows that corporate cultural differences and transformational leadership have direct and indirect impacts on acquisition performance.

Practical implications

The results may be significant for managers involved in the processes of acquisitions, in terms of helping them to make appropriate decisions in different phases of an acquisition process, so as to obtain sufficient levels of employee commitment and trust to improve acquisition performance.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a better understanding of the relationships between behaviour factors and acquisition performance. In particular, no research into the speed of post-acquisition changes as a mediator variable between behaviour factors and acquisition performance has previously been conducted, to the best of the authors' knowledge. Thus, this research offers a unique understanding in the transitional economy context of Serbia.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2021

Evans Opoku-Mensah, Yuming Yin, Love Offeibea Asiedu-Ayeh, Dennis Asante, Priscilla Tuffour and Sandra Asantewaa Ampofo

Existing studies have found that most merger and acquisition (M&A) activities do not create the intended synergy. These studies have mainly investigated how firms'…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing studies have found that most merger and acquisition (M&A) activities do not create the intended synergy. These studies have mainly investigated how firms' internal factors contribute to M&A successes or failures. The current study differs from the earlier ones by exploring how governments' activities can contribute to the creation of acquisition synergy.

Design/methodology/approach

A novel technique based on multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis and complex proportional assessment method under an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy (IVIF) environment is proposed to prioritize these government roles needed during the M&A process focusing on the Chinese M&A market.

Findings

Enactments of regulations and loan guarantees are the most important strategies to help Chinese acquirers overcome acquisition failures. While tax relief ranks third, government training support ranks fourth. Finally, the result shows that government institutional support is the least to help acquirers overcome acquisition failures.

Practical implications

The government has a role to play in the acquisition success. Although this study has prioritized governments' role in relative importance order, the authors recommend that governments capable of providing all these strategies should do so without any specific order. However, if otherwise, governments should not neglect the strategies with less weight completely but rather consider reducing capital allocations to such strategies. Moreover, this study shows how firms with stronger business ties with government officials may enjoy success during acquisition activities. The authors recommend that firms intending to make acquisitions develop stronger ties with governments in order to benefits from governments.

Originality/value

This is the first study to develop a theoretical framework showing how government can contribute to M&A success. The study achieves this by extending Keynesian's arguments and identifies five (5) ways in which governments can ensure acquisition success. Second, within fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making (F-MCDM) research, this study is the first to show the applicability of integrated multi-objective optimization by ratio analysis (MULTIMOORA) and complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) techniques in an IVIF environment. The novel methodology proposed in this study offers an insightful research method to future studies focusing on group decision problems.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Maria Carmela Annosi, Elena Casprini, Antonella Martini and Jessica Geovana Ramón Torres

Drawing from the knowledge-based view of the firm, this paper aims to explore the knowledge management practices that the acquirer uses to exploit its knowledge creating…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from the knowledge-based view of the firm, this paper aims to explore the knowledge management practices that the acquirer uses to exploit its knowledge creating conditions for the exploitation of the target’s knowledge and to explore its knowledge by realizing routines for the integration of new knowledge within the target.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents an in-depth case study analysis based on the acquisition of a Dutch food service organization by an Italian company operating in the same sector.

Findings

The case study analysis reveals four mechanisms for knowledge integration, two aimed at exploiting the acquirer’s knowledge, and two aimed at exploring the acquirer’s knowledge.

Originality/value

This paper unveils that it is the interlinkage among organizational, human and technological factors, at multiple layers of the target, which allows the knowledge integration within the post-acquisition process.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

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