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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Detlef Virchow

In the last decade the importance of natural resources for a sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed on international fora and conferences…

Abstract

In the last decade the importance of natural resources for a sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed on international fora and conferences. Only recently the erosion of genetic resources and its consequences for the global welfare in general and for agricultural production in particular were introduced into the public discussion. But since the 1930s systematical survey, collection, and conservation of plant genetic resources have been under way. Today, the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) is a complex international and national system. While the political discussion is focusing around the issue of “fair and equitable sharing” of benefits derived from the use of PGRFA, an intensive analysis of the costs of conservation activities has been neglected. This paper identifies the actors in the conservation of PGRFA, analyses the costs which arise by conserving PGRFA on the private, national and global level, and will assess the losers and winners in a theoretical concept.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 7/8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

Sushil

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integratedapproach not only to the five basic functional elements of wastemanagement itself (generation, reduction…

3267

Abstract

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

John E. Petersen, Vladislav Shunturov, Kathryn Janda, Gavin Platt and Kate Weinberger

In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation

7075

Abstract

Purpose

In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation. College dormitories provide an excellent venue for controlled study of the effects of feedback. The goal of this study is to assess how different resolutions of socio‐technical feedback, combined with incentives, encourage students to conserve resources.

Design/methodology/approach

An automated data monitoring system was developed that provided dormitory residents with real‐time web‐based feedback on energy and water use in two “high resolution” dormitories. In contrast, utility meters were manually read for 20 “low‐resolution” dormitories, and data were provided to residents once per week. For both groups, resource use was monitored during a baseline period and during a two week “dorm energy competition” during which feedback, education and conservation incentives were provided.

Findings

Overall, the introduction of feedback, education and incentives resulted in a 32 percent reduction in electricity use (amounting to savings of 68,300 kWh, $5,107 and 148,000 lbs of CO−2) but only a 3 percent reduction in water use. Dormitories that received high resolution feedback were more effective at conservation, reducing their electricity consumption by 55 percent compared to 31 percent for low resolution dormitories. In a post‐competition survey, students reported that they would continue conservation practices developed during the competition and that they would view web‐based real‐time data even in the absence of competition.

Practical implications

The results of this research provide evidence that real‐time resource feedback systems, when combined with education and an incentive, interest, motivate and empower college students to reduce resource use in dormitories.

Originality/value

This is the first study to report on the effects of providing college students with real‐time feedback on resource use. The authors of this study are currently engaged in further research to determine: whether reductions in consumption can be sustained over time with and without incentives; the degree to which feedback affect attitude; and the degree to which findings are transferable to apartments and other residential settings.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Jonathan I. Levy and Kumkum M. Dilwali

Colleges and universities that are interested in reducing their environmental impacts are faced with the difficulties of providing incentives for sustainable behavior and…

1276

Abstract

Colleges and universities that are interested in reducing their environmental impacts are faced with the difficulties of providing incentives for sustainable behavior and attempting to quantify the gains that policies would provide. In this paper, we use a case study to demonstrate the benefits as well as the difficulties encountered with one type of incentive program, a revolving loan fund. During the five‐year tenure of the case study fund, the program yielded a 34 percent return on conservation investments, with associated decreases in resource usage, ambient air emissions, and water consumption. Using a past damage function study, we estimate that the reduced emissions result in over US$100,000 of avoided environmental externalities per year. Although the economic returns and environmental benefits were significant, participation declined rapidly after the initial rollout of the program and relatively non‐technical conservation measures were generally the focus of projects. Through surveys of both participating and non‐participating facility directors, we determined that lack of knowledge of effective conservation measures and limitations in staff availability were the key barriers preventing more extensive participation. Increased flow of information, through such actions as frequent facility director correspondence and independent energy audits of facilities, would be likely to encourage sustainable resource consumption in future applications of revolving loan funds and other campus greening efforts.

Details

International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 August 2022

Madhumita Das and Bani Chatterjee

The quest for alternative approaches to tourism has introduced ecotourism. However, in many instances, ecotourism becomes “green washing” process where revenue generation…

Abstract

Purpose

The quest for alternative approaches to tourism has introduced ecotourism. However, in many instances, ecotourism becomes “green washing” process where revenue generation becomes prominent and protection of environmental assets is kept aside. The present article attempts to examine the impact of ecotourism policy on conservation in Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary (BKWS), Odisha, India.

Design/methodology/approach

Using social exchange theory (SET), the article examines whether ecotourism reduces the dependency of the local communities on natural resources and also the impact of ecotourism on conservation of biodiversity in BKWS.

Findings

The study using a mixed method approach finds that ecotourism in BKWS is able to provide economic benefits to the villagers. The economic benefits from diversified employment opportunities are able to motivate locals to conserve biodiversity. However, the socio-cultural impact is hardly experienced by the villagers.

Research limitations/implications

By examining the linkage of conservation with community development in a diverse society like India, the paper finds the linkage of conservation with development. The paper has also widened the existing ecotourism literature of India and Odisha. The study adopted SET so as to get a comprehensive understanding at the ground level, forming the basis for future research and further conceptual development.

Practical implications

The results of the study will help policy makers to develop an effective conservation strategy by integrating tourism, conservation and sustainable development of the locals so as to make ecotourism a successful approach in BKWS.

Originality/value

For a growing ecotourism site like BKWS, the current study is the first to assess impact of ecotourism on conservation and local people.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 March 2022

Derya Timucin Hayat and Blend Ibrahim

Introduction Summary: Archaeological heritages are very important attractions and are highly promoted as a tourism product. Due to the negative consequences of high

Abstract

Introduction Summary: Archaeological heritages are very important attractions and are highly promoted as a tourism product. Due to the negative consequences of high visitor flows and lack of management, the conservation and development of archaeological heritages raises concerns for destinations aiming at sustainable archaeological heritage management.

Purpose: This study provides an extensive literature review for archaeological heritage management to emphasise the importance of bringing heritage sites to tourism in a sustainable way, Also aims to provide a guideline for destinations suffering the archeological heritage management issues or for developing tourism destination to prevent themselves suffering from the same issues. Accordingly, the literature review is divided into three sections: the role and impacts of tourism on archaeological heritage; sustainable tourism development; and planning are mentioned in the first section. Then, planning for preservation and conservation activities for archaeological heritage and international heritage protection and conservation programmes are mentioned in the second section. Finally, the literature provides the content of tourism planning and policy for sustainable archaeological heritages.

Findings: Tourism uses archaeological assets to attract tourists and tourism damages archaeological sites when there is high demand, lack of information and control. But, in general, the relationship between tourism and archaeological heritage is strongly interlinked and need each other. And without the community and stakeholder’s involvement, archeological heritage management will not be successfully achieved.

Originality/Value: Tourism authorities and archaeologists should work together and develop practical ideas for archaeological heritage. Highly promoted and demanded archaeological heritage resources cannot be part of sustainable tourism development without serious conservation and conservation efforts or minimal/inappropriate recoveries due to government lack of care and supervision, so these valuable treasures are doomed to irreversible damage.

Details

Managing Risk and Decision Making in Times of Economic Distress, Part A
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-427-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 February 2014

Grant Samkin, Annika Schneider and Dannielle Tappin

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the development of a biodiversity reporting and evaluation framework. The application of the framework to an exemplar…

1991

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the development of a biodiversity reporting and evaluation framework. The application of the framework to an exemplar organisation identifies biodiversity-related annual report disclosures and analyses changes in the nature and levels of these over time. Finally, the paper aims to establish whether the disclosures made by the exemplar are consistent with a deep ecological perspective, as exemplified by New Zealand conservation legislation.

Design/methodology/approach

Viewing the framework developed by the paper through a deep ecological lens, the study involves a detailed content analysis of the biodiversity disclosures contained within the annual reports of a conservation organisation over a 23-year period. Using the framework developed in this paper, the biodiversity-related text units were identified and allocated to one of three major categories, 13 subcategories, and then into deep, intermediate and shallow ecology.

Findings

Biodiversity disclosures enable stakeholders to determine the goals, assess their implementation, and evaluate the performance of an organisation. Applying the framework to the exemplar revealed the majority of annual report disclosures focused on presenting performance/implementation information. The study also found that the majority of disclosures reflect a deep ecological approach. A deep/shallow ecological tension was apparent in a number of disclosures, especially those relating to the exploitation of the conservation estate.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to develop a framework that can be used as both a biodiversity reporting assessment tool and a reporting guide. The framework will be particularly useful for those studying reporting by conservation departments and stakeholders of organisations whose operations impact biodiversity.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Edward B. Barbier

The global market failure problem of international biodiversity loss can be mitigated through the use of trade interventions or by the creation of new international…

2396

Abstract

The global market failure problem of international biodiversity loss can be mitigated through the use of trade interventions or by the creation of new international markets and institutions for the global environmental benefits generated by the biodiversity conserved by host countries. However, it may be difficult to reach a mutually agreed “trade for nature” deal when the biodiversity in the host country is threatened mainly by habitat conversion. On the other hand, if the threat is from over‐exploitation, unilateral trade interventions by the recipient countries are also likely. Although there may be strong incentives for the latter countries to negotiate an international biodiversity agreement, if such incentives exist, then these countries may act unilaterally to compensate host countries for their conservation efforts. Rich countries therefore need convincing that they are likely to gain from reducing global biodiversity loss.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sekar Chellappan and R Sudha

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of participation of farmers in soil conservation projects in the Western Ghats of India.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, multistage purposive sampling was followed. The sample respondents were identified for the survey in all the five categories of watersheds (very high, high, medium, low and very low priority watersheds) in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu at the rate of 50 farm respondents in each category. Since the investment among the five categories of watersheds did not show any significant differences, the sample farmers were post stratified as marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on farm size for further analysis.

Findings

The investment analysis showed a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.03 for staggered trenches for tea to 1.40 for bench terrace for carrot. For annual crops, the BCR for bench terrace varied from 1.03 for cabbage to 1.32 for carrot. Among the soil conservation technologies, in tea plantation, stone wall had the highest net present value (NPV) of Rs. 74,335. Staggered trench had the lower NPV Rs. 19,237 among all conservation structures. The results of the contingent valuation showed that cropped area, farm size, on-farm income positively and significantly influenced the willingness to pay (WTP) towards soil conservation. Family size and age of the farmer negatively influenced the WTP of the respondents significantly. The multinomial logit model indicated that staggered trench had direct impact on productivity. In tea plantation, staggered trench adoption was influenced by area under plantation crops, farm size, educational level and land slope. The participation index was very low (<30), indicating the poor participation of farmers in soil conservation programmes.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study reveal the appropriateness of the soil conservation technologies for the select soil type as well as the specific socioeconomic conditions of the farmers undertaking conservation compliance programs in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Understanding the farmer’s perceptions and adoption behaviour is important in making the whole programme a successful one. Hence the results of the study may not be generalized for other study zones, unless otherwise, the agro-ecological zone is similar to the site where the study was conducted.

Practical implications

The study suggested that adoption of conservation technologies should be promoted in a big way to conserve natural resources like soil and enhance economic returns. It is also advocated that institutions should provide only guidance for community participation not on community governance and the role should be involving the real stakeholders/beneficiaries under participatory mode to achieve the goal of soil conservation. The bottom-up approach should be adopted to address the real issues involved in conservation compliance programmes.

Social implications

The outcome of the study advocates the economic viability of conservation technologies adopted by the crop farmers. The project results also advised the farmers, institutions and the enforcements authorities, the strategies to be adopted to minimize soil loss and increase crop productivity by adopting the appropriate conservation compliance programs. The results also revealed that conservation of soil and water not only conserved the precious natural resources but also had far reaching effect on the yield of croplands, which would be reflected on the food and nutritional securities of the local communities at the micro level and the nation as a whole at the macro level.

Originality/value

The research outcome is based on the field level research done by the authors in the Western Ghats of India. The primary data collected from the respondents were analysed and used for drawing inferences and conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Batholomeo Jerome Chinyele and Noel Biseko Lwoga

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of local residents’ participation in decision making regarding the conservation of the built heritage on conservation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of local residents’ participation in decision making regarding the conservation of the built heritage on conservation attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study borrows ideas from Arnstein’s Model of Citizen Participation and from past research to develop a model, and then testing it using a questionnaire survey with a sample of 209 local residents in Kilwa Kisiwani World Heritage Site in Tanzania.

Findings

The mean statistics showed that participation in decision making in Kilwa Kisiwani is relatively limited to the level of tokenism. Nevertheless, on the side of attitudes, the study indicates residents’ tendency to favour conservation. Regression results indicate that there is a significantly positive relationship between participation in decision making and attitude towards conservation.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study did not cover the dynamics inherent in each bloc of resident community that may act as roadblocks in the participation process, it regards “participation in decision making” as a useful tool for heritage managers and conservation authorities for promoting local support for the conservation of heritage resources. Theoretically, the study implies that Arnstein’s Model can be a useful framework for ascertaining residents’ participation in the heritage management context, and for explaining its effect on conservation attitudes.

Originality/value

This study is the first rigorous confirmation of the relationship between participation in decision making and individual’s attitude towards conservation. The study provides a useful conceptual tool for heritage managers in promoting local support for conservation.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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