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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Detlef Virchow

In the last decade the importance of natural resources for a sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed on international fora and conferences…

Abstract

In the last decade the importance of natural resources for a sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly discussed on international fora and conferences. Only recently the erosion of genetic resources and its consequences for the global welfare in general and for agricultural production in particular were introduced into the public discussion. But since the 1930s systematical survey, collection, and conservation of plant genetic resources have been under way. Today, the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA) is a complex international and national system. While the political discussion is focusing around the issue of “fair and equitable sharing” of benefits derived from the use of PGRFA, an intensive analysis of the costs of conservation activities has been neglected. This paper identifies the actors in the conservation of PGRFA, analyses the costs which arise by conserving PGRFA on the private, national and global level, and will assess the losers and winners in a theoretical concept.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 26 no. 7/8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1990

Sushil

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integratedapproach not only to the five basic functional elements of wastemanagement itself (generation, reduction…

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2652

Abstract

A systems perspective of waste management allows an integrated approach not only to the five basic functional elements of waste management itself (generation, reduction, collection, recycling, disposal), but to the problems arising at the interfaces with the management of energy, nature conservation, environmental protection, economic factors like unemployment and productivity, etc. This monograph separately describes present practices and the problems to be solved in each of the functional areas of waste management and at the important interfaces. Strategies for more efficient control are then proposed from a systems perspective. Systematic and objective means of solving problems become possible leading to optimal management and a positive contribution to economic development, not least through resource conservation. India is the particular context within which waste generation and management are discussed. In considering waste disposal techniques, special attention is given to sewage and radioactive wastes.

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Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 90 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

John E. Petersen, Vladislav Shunturov, Kathryn Janda, Gavin Platt and Kate Weinberger

In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation

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6804

Abstract

Purpose

In residential buildings, personal choices influence electricity and water consumption. Prior studies indicate that information feedback can stimulate resource conservation. College dormitories provide an excellent venue for controlled study of the effects of feedback. The goal of this study is to assess how different resolutions of socio‐technical feedback, combined with incentives, encourage students to conserve resources.

Design/methodology/approach

An automated data monitoring system was developed that provided dormitory residents with real‐time web‐based feedback on energy and water use in two “high resolution” dormitories. In contrast, utility meters were manually read for 20 “low‐resolution” dormitories, and data were provided to residents once per week. For both groups, resource use was monitored during a baseline period and during a two week “dorm energy competition” during which feedback, education and conservation incentives were provided.

Findings

Overall, the introduction of feedback, education and incentives resulted in a 32 percent reduction in electricity use (amounting to savings of 68,300 kWh, $5,107 and 148,000 lbs of CO−2) but only a 3 percent reduction in water use. Dormitories that received high resolution feedback were more effective at conservation, reducing their electricity consumption by 55 percent compared to 31 percent for low resolution dormitories. In a post‐competition survey, students reported that they would continue conservation practices developed during the competition and that they would view web‐based real‐time data even in the absence of competition.

Practical implications

The results of this research provide evidence that real‐time resource feedback systems, when combined with education and an incentive, interest, motivate and empower college students to reduce resource use in dormitories.

Originality/value

This is the first study to report on the effects of providing college students with real‐time feedback on resource use. The authors of this study are currently engaged in further research to determine: whether reductions in consumption can be sustained over time with and without incentives; the degree to which feedback affect attitude; and the degree to which findings are transferable to apartments and other residential settings.

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International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Jonathan I. Levy and Kumkum M. Dilwali

Colleges and universities that are interested in reducing their environmental impacts are faced with the difficulties of providing incentives for sustainable behavior and…

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1256

Abstract

Colleges and universities that are interested in reducing their environmental impacts are faced with the difficulties of providing incentives for sustainable behavior and attempting to quantify the gains that policies would provide. In this paper, we use a case study to demonstrate the benefits as well as the difficulties encountered with one type of incentive program, a revolving loan fund. During the five‐year tenure of the case study fund, the program yielded a 34 percent return on conservation investments, with associated decreases in resource usage, ambient air emissions, and water consumption. Using a past damage function study, we estimate that the reduced emissions result in over US$100,000 of avoided environmental externalities per year. Although the economic returns and environmental benefits were significant, participation declined rapidly after the initial rollout of the program and relatively non‐technical conservation measures were generally the focus of projects. Through surveys of both participating and non‐participating facility directors, we determined that lack of knowledge of effective conservation measures and limitations in staff availability were the key barriers preventing more extensive participation. Increased flow of information, through such actions as frequent facility director correspondence and independent energy audits of facilities, would be likely to encourage sustainable resource consumption in future applications of revolving loan funds and other campus greening efforts.

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International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1467-6370

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Edward B. Barbier

The global market failure problem of international biodiversity loss can be mitigated through the use of trade interventions or by the creation of new international…

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2370

Abstract

The global market failure problem of international biodiversity loss can be mitigated through the use of trade interventions or by the creation of new international markets and institutions for the global environmental benefits generated by the biodiversity conserved by host countries. However, it may be difficult to reach a mutually agreed “trade for nature” deal when the biodiversity in the host country is threatened mainly by habitat conversion. On the other hand, if the threat is from over‐exploitation, unilateral trade interventions by the recipient countries are also likely. Although there may be strong incentives for the latter countries to negotiate an international biodiversity agreement, if such incentives exist, then these countries may act unilaterally to compensate host countries for their conservation efforts. Rich countries therefore need convincing that they are likely to gain from reducing global biodiversity loss.

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Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 26 February 2014

Grant Samkin, Annika Schneider and Dannielle Tappin

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the development of a biodiversity reporting and evaluation framework. The application of the framework to an exemplar…

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1768

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the development of a biodiversity reporting and evaluation framework. The application of the framework to an exemplar organisation identifies biodiversity-related annual report disclosures and analyses changes in the nature and levels of these over time. Finally, the paper aims to establish whether the disclosures made by the exemplar are consistent with a deep ecological perspective, as exemplified by New Zealand conservation legislation.

Design/methodology/approach

Viewing the framework developed by the paper through a deep ecological lens, the study involves a detailed content analysis of the biodiversity disclosures contained within the annual reports of a conservation organisation over a 23-year period. Using the framework developed in this paper, the biodiversity-related text units were identified and allocated to one of three major categories, 13 subcategories, and then into deep, intermediate and shallow ecology.

Findings

Biodiversity disclosures enable stakeholders to determine the goals, assess their implementation, and evaluate the performance of an organisation. Applying the framework to the exemplar revealed the majority of annual report disclosures focused on presenting performance/implementation information. The study also found that the majority of disclosures reflect a deep ecological approach. A deep/shallow ecological tension was apparent in a number of disclosures, especially those relating to the exploitation of the conservation estate.

Originality/value

This paper is the first to develop a framework that can be used as both a biodiversity reporting assessment tool and a reporting guide. The framework will be particularly useful for those studying reporting by conservation departments and stakeholders of organisations whose operations impact biodiversity.

Details

Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3574

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

K.C. Roy

Higher economic growth is necessary to reduce the level of poverty and improve the living standard of population. But higher economic growth requires greater use of

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1399

Abstract

Higher economic growth is necessary to reduce the level of poverty and improve the living standard of population. But higher economic growth requires greater use of natural resources and environment which in turn leads to their degradation and eventual decay. Increased population pressure on natural resources also contributes to their degradation. Hence, higher growth may not necessarily lead to sustainable development unless it is accompanied by environmental protection. An efficient demand management policy by emphasizing conservation and prudent use of environment can also increase the supply of reserves. One alternative is to attempt to conserve resources via community management of such resources. But community management cannot succeed in absence of appropriate property rights of the community and of women and appropriate institutions to enforce such rights. These in turn require the presence of an activist developmental state which can engage in a participatory system of environmental conservation and management.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2015

Sekar Chellappan and R Sudha

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the investment pattern, adoption behaviour, attitude of farmers towards conservation compliance programmes and the extent of participation of farmers in soil conservation projects in the Western Ghats of India.

Design/methodology/approach

For the present study, multistage purposive sampling was followed. The sample respondents were identified for the survey in all the five categories of watersheds (very high, high, medium, low and very low priority watersheds) in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu at the rate of 50 farm respondents in each category. Since the investment among the five categories of watersheds did not show any significant differences, the sample farmers were post stratified as marginal, small, medium and large farmers based on farm size for further analysis.

Findings

The investment analysis showed a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 1.03 for staggered trenches for tea to 1.40 for bench terrace for carrot. For annual crops, the BCR for bench terrace varied from 1.03 for cabbage to 1.32 for carrot. Among the soil conservation technologies, in tea plantation, stone wall had the highest net present value (NPV) of Rs. 74,335. Staggered trench had the lower NPV Rs. 19,237 among all conservation structures. The results of the contingent valuation showed that cropped area, farm size, on-farm income positively and significantly influenced the willingness to pay (WTP) towards soil conservation. Family size and age of the farmer negatively influenced the WTP of the respondents significantly. The multinomial logit model indicated that staggered trench had direct impact on productivity. In tea plantation, staggered trench adoption was influenced by area under plantation crops, farm size, educational level and land slope. The participation index was very low (<30), indicating the poor participation of farmers in soil conservation programmes.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study reveal the appropriateness of the soil conservation technologies for the select soil type as well as the specific socioeconomic conditions of the farmers undertaking conservation compliance programs in the Nilgiris district of Tamil Nadu. Understanding the farmer’s perceptions and adoption behaviour is important in making the whole programme a successful one. Hence the results of the study may not be generalized for other study zones, unless otherwise, the agro-ecological zone is similar to the site where the study was conducted.

Practical implications

The study suggested that adoption of conservation technologies should be promoted in a big way to conserve natural resources like soil and enhance economic returns. It is also advocated that institutions should provide only guidance for community participation not on community governance and the role should be involving the real stakeholders/beneficiaries under participatory mode to achieve the goal of soil conservation. The bottom-up approach should be adopted to address the real issues involved in conservation compliance programmes.

Social implications

The outcome of the study advocates the economic viability of conservation technologies adopted by the crop farmers. The project results also advised the farmers, institutions and the enforcements authorities, the strategies to be adopted to minimize soil loss and increase crop productivity by adopting the appropriate conservation compliance programs. The results also revealed that conservation of soil and water not only conserved the precious natural resources but also had far reaching effect on the yield of croplands, which would be reflected on the food and nutritional securities of the local communities at the micro level and the nation as a whole at the macro level.

Originality/value

The research outcome is based on the field level research done by the authors in the Western Ghats of India. The primary data collected from the respondents were analysed and used for drawing inferences and conclusions.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2018

Batholomeo Jerome Chinyele and Noel Biseko Lwoga

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of local residents’ participation in decision making regarding the conservation of the built heritage on conservation

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of local residents’ participation in decision making regarding the conservation of the built heritage on conservation attitudes.

Design/methodology/approach

This study borrows ideas from Arnstein’s Model of Citizen Participation and from past research to develop a model, and then testing it using a questionnaire survey with a sample of 209 local residents in Kilwa Kisiwani World Heritage Site in Tanzania.

Findings

The mean statistics showed that participation in decision making in Kilwa Kisiwani is relatively limited to the level of tokenism. Nevertheless, on the side of attitudes, the study indicates residents’ tendency to favour conservation. Regression results indicate that there is a significantly positive relationship between participation in decision making and attitude towards conservation.

Research limitations/implications

Although the study did not cover the dynamics inherent in each bloc of resident community that may act as roadblocks in the participation process, it regards “participation in decision making” as a useful tool for heritage managers and conservation authorities for promoting local support for the conservation of heritage resources. Theoretically, the study implies that Arnstein’s Model can be a useful framework for ascertaining residents’ participation in the heritage management context, and for explaining its effect on conservation attitudes.

Originality/value

This study is the first rigorous confirmation of the relationship between participation in decision making and individual’s attitude towards conservation. The study provides a useful conceptual tool for heritage managers in promoting local support for conservation.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2019

Omneya A. Marzouk

The study aims to investigate the differences among urban and rural consumers in terms of their energy and water sustainable consumption behaviour levels and drivers and…

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1427

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to investigate the differences among urban and rural consumers in terms of their energy and water sustainable consumption behaviour levels and drivers and also empirically blueprint conceptual frameworks highlighting urban and rural consumer drivers to consume sustainably.

Design/methodology/approach

This research follows an exploratory design using a qualitative approach; 14 in-depth interviews followed by one focus group were conducted with urban consumers; on the other hand, 18 in-depth interviews followed by one focus group were conducted with rural consumers.

Findings

The findings show that no differences exist among urban and rural consumers in terms of both their sustainable consumption levels and their drivers to consume sustainably; such findings were encapsulated in the form of one conceptual framework pertinent to both urban and rural consumers; it has the following relevant factors: consumers’ attitudes toward conservation, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, self-preference, public media influence, perceived economic value and perceived moral obligation to be relevant antecedents of conservation behaviour, which – in turn – drives sustainable purchase behaviours with the moderating effect of socio-demographic variables.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to extant literature as it provides evidence for the drivers of sustainable consumption behaviours of urban versus rural consumers in emerging countries; it also tentatively answers the question of whether the socio-demographic variables infer a difference in consumers’ sustainable consumption; finally, it studies sustainable consumption from a novel perspective with a focus on the relationship between its two pillars.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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