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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Sarika Jain and Shreekumar K. Nair

For more than a decade, efforts to integrate the two major perspectives of work–family studies, namely, work–family conflict and work–family enrichment have started…

Abstract

Purpose

For more than a decade, efforts to integrate the two major perspectives of work–family studies, namely, work–family conflict and work–family enrichment have started advancing not only in western context but also in non-western contexts as well. However, both conflict and enrichment emerging from the family front have often been neglected in previous studies. The purpose of this paper is to test the integration of two major work–family perspectives, that is, work–family conflict and work–family enrichment in an Indian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study involves a multi-sectoral survey of sales employees belonging to manufacturing, information technology, fast-moving consumer goods, pharmaceuticals and financial services using standard scales. The sample consisted of 330 sales employees working in some of the major firms coming under these sectors. Structural equation modelling (SEM) using analysis of a moment structures was used to test the integrated model. In addition, multi-group SEM was used to test the impact of select demographic variables on the integrated model.

Findings

Results of SEM suggested that for sales employees in Indian organizations, work–family conflict follows a matching domain principle, whereas, work–family enrichment follows both matching and cross-domain principles. Further, it was found that marital status and annual salary emerge as moderators in the integrated model.

Research limitations/implications

The present study confirmed that similar-domain relationships are stronger than cross-domain relationships, supporting findings from previous research with regard to work–family conflict. In addition, the results contradicted the studies conducted in western countries wherein the same domain effect is observed with respect to both types of enrichment, that is, work to family enrichment (WFE) and family to work enrichment (FWE). The present study confirms a similar and cross-domain relationship in the case of both types of enrichment. It means that both WFE and FWE have a positive impact on both jobs and family satisfaction.

Practical implications

Organizations so far have been trying ways to reduce stress to reduce work to family conflict. However, there is a need to incorporate policies that facilitate work–family enrichment. Such policies may focus more on support for both married and unmarried employees’ sales employees.

Originality/value

This study contributes to work–family literature by attempting to integrate both conflict and enrichment perspectives, which has rarely been done in the Indian context.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 16 May 2007

Leslie B. Hammer, Ellen E. Kossek, Kristi Zimmerman and Rachel Daniels

The goal of this chapter is to present new ways of conceptualizing family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and to present a multilevel model reviewing variables…

Abstract

The goal of this chapter is to present new ways of conceptualizing family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), and to present a multilevel model reviewing variables that are linked to this construct. We begin the chapter with an overview of the U.S. labor market's rising work–family demands, followed by our multilevel conceptual model of the pathways between FSSB and health, safety, work, and family outcomes for employees. A detailed discussion of the critical role of FSSB is then provided, followed by a discussion of the outcome relationships for employees. We then present our work on the conceptual development of FSSB, drawing from the literature and from focus group data. We end the chapter with a discussion of the practical implications related to our model and conceptual development of FSSB, as well as a discussion of implications for future research.

Details

Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1444-7

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Book part
Publication date: 18 November 2020

Meral Erdirençelebi

In recent years, preparations for the transition from the Post-industrial society to Community 5.0 have been continuing at full speed. The change in this process…

Abstract

In recent years, preparations for the transition from the Post-industrial society to Community 5.0 have been continuing at full speed. The change in this process necessitates changes in the roles and structure of the labour force in societies. While work and family living spaces of the individual change the dimensions of his/her interaction, they increase the importance of work–family life balance gradually. The basis of conflicts (imbalances) in roles in work and family life is based on three pillars: time, tension and behaviour. The conflicts in the work and family life spaces take place in two sub-dimensions, namely ‘work-family conflict’ which is directed from work to family and ‘family-work conflict’ which is directed from family to work. The conflict between work and family life leads to individual, organisational and familial consequences. Effective communication with the social support of the organisation and the members of family is of great importance for individuals not to experience a work–family conflict.

Details

Contemporary Global Issues in Human Resource Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-393-9

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Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2018

Hassan Raza, Brad van Eeden-Moorefield, Joseph G. Grzywacz, Miriam R. Linver and Soyoung Lee

The current longitudinal study investigated the within- and between-person variance in work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict among working mothers over time…

Abstract

The current longitudinal study investigated the within- and between-person variance in work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict among working mothers over time. It also examined the effects of a nonstandard work schedule and relationship quality on work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict using bioecological theory. Results of multilevel modeling analyses showed that there was significant within- and between-person variance in work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict. The linear and quadratic terms were significantly related to family-to-work conflict, whereas the quadratic term was significantly associated with work-to-family conflict. There was also a positive relationship between a nonstandard work schedule and work-to-family conflict, whereas relationship quality was negatively associated with family-to-work conflict. Future studies should consider diversity among working mothers to adequately predict work–family conflict. The current study provides important implications for employers to consider, concerning within-and between-person differences among working mothers, which could in turn allow for accommodations and help to decrease work–family conflict.

Details

The Work-Family Interface: Spillover, Complications, and Challenges
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-112-4

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Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2015

Leah Ruppanner

To investigate the association between country-level differences in childcare enrollment, the presence of affirmative action policy, and female parliamentary…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the association between country-level differences in childcare enrollment, the presence of affirmative action policy, and female parliamentary representation and individual-level conflict between work and family.

Methodology/approach

This study applies data from the 2002 International Social Survey Program (n = 14,000 + ) for respondents in 29 countries and pairs them with macro-level measures of childcare enrollment, the presence of affirmative action policy, and female parliamentary representation. I estimate the model using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM 7) and also assess cross-level interactions by gender and parental status.

Findings

The models show that female parliamentary representation has a robust negative association with individual-level reports of work–family and family–work conflict. These associations do not vary by gender or parental status. Also, mothers report less family–work conflict in countries with more expansive childcare enrollment, indicating that this welfare policy benefits the intended group.

Research limitations/implications

This research implies that greater female parliamentary representation has widespread benefits to all citizens’, rather than just women’s or mothers’, work–family and family–work conflict. Additional longitudinal research would benefit this area of study.

Practical implications

This research suggests that increasing female parliamentary representation at the country-level may promote work–life balance at the individual-level. It also indicates that public childcare enrollment benefits women through lower family–work conflict which may encourage continuous maternal labor force participation and reduce economic gender inequality.

Originality/value

This chapter builds on an emerging area of work–family research applying multilevel modeling to draw empirical links between individual work–family experiences and macro-level structural variation.

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Neringa Gerulaitiene, Asta Pundziene and Egle Vaiciukynaite

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the dynamic managerial capabilities (DMC) of the spouse (either working or non-working) of a family firm owner on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of the dynamic managerial capabilities (DMC) of the spouse (either working or non-working) of a family firm owner on firm innovativeness. This paper assesses the role of three elements of the DMC of owners' spouses (emotion regulation, conflict resolution and networking capabilities) that are bridged by familiness on family firm innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper presents the results of a multiple case study. Twelve cases were selected: six innovative and six non-innovative family firms in Lithuania. The study design enabled a comparison not only of innovative and non-innovative family firms but also of non-working and working spouses of family firm owners.

Findings

The findings show that family firm owners' spouses contribute to firm innovativeness through their DMC in terms of emotion regulation, conflict resolution and networking capabilities.

Research limitations/implications

This research focused on a sample of firms in Lithuania. Future studies should broaden the research to other countries.

Originality/value

This research provides empirical evidence of the hidden role of the DMC of family firm owners' spouses and their contribution to firm innovativeness. This paper extends the application of DMC to family business research.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Pragya Gupta and Shalini Srivastava

Using job demand-control-support (JDCS) model as its foundation, the purpose of this paper is to examine the important, but under-explored, relationship between…

Abstract

Purpose

Using job demand-control-support (JDCS) model as its foundation, the purpose of this paper is to examine the important, but under-explored, relationship between perceptions of work–life conflict and burnout being mediated and moderated by support systems and resilience among female employees in India.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 270 female employees belonging to various sectors such as Information Technology/ Information Technology enabled services, retail, bank and hospitality located in Northern India were surveyed. The study used stratified sampling method for good coverage from different departments of the organizations. The structural equation method was used to test the direct effect, and for the mediation effects, they were tested by the method of indirect effects (Preacher and Hayes, 2004).

Findings

The results supported the hypothesized model that there exists a significant and positive relationship of work–life conflict with burnout, and work–life conflict has a negative association with both family support and organizational support. The findings also supported the hypothesis that family support and organizational support mediate the relationship of work–life conflict and burnout. This analysis expectedly confirmed that resilience not only displayed a negative relationship with burnout but also exhibited a moderated relationship with organizational and family support.

Research limitations/implications

The research design was co-relational and cross-sectional, so inferring causality is not possible. Future research must incorporate a longitudinal design to investigate the causal effects of work–life conflict on employees’ experiences of burnout and whether it gets buffered by availability of workplace support and family support.

Practical implications

It is imperative for the organizations to take substantial steps to reduce job burden and deadline pressure on the female employees, nurture decision autonomy at all levels of hierarchy and encourage amiable relationships of employees with their supervisors and peers based on mutual trust and support.

Originality/value

Although most of the research studies on work–life conflict have been unidirectional, i.e. investigating spillover of work demands on to family domains (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985; Byrne and Barling, 2017), these conflicts have been found to be bidirectional, meaning thereby that family issues do spill over into work realm (Makela and Suutari, 2011). This study examines both directions of work–life conflict.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Navaneethakrishnan Kengatharan

Drawing on the role theory and work–family border theory, this study aims to examine the relationship between work/family demands and sui generis forms of work–family

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the role theory and work–family border theory, this study aims to examine the relationship between work/family demands and sui generis forms of work–family conflict and further investigates the gender role ideology as a moderator of the relationship between work/family demands and work–family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

The data were garnered with a self-reported questionnaire from randomly selected 569 employees working in the banking sector. As a caveat, nonresponse bias, common method variance and the reliability and validity of the measure were examined.

Findings

The results revealed that work demand and family demand were strongly related to both time- and strain-based work–family conflict; however, the relationship was not established with behavioural-based conflict. Notably, the findings affirmed the existence of a neglected form of psychological-based work–family conflict as the pièce de résistance and established a strong connection with its precursor. The dogma of gender role ideology, as a moderator, was indubitably confirmed and strengthened the positive relationship between family demand and family-to-work conflict.

Practical implications

The present study emphasises the importance of work/family demands and gender role ideology on work–family conflict. Consequently, it behoves human resource managers, strategists and practitioners to frame the organisational arrangements to alleviate the work–family conflict.

Originality/value

The present study fills a hiatus by establishing the relationship between work/family demand and work–family conflict with its cultural beliefs in the context of a collectivist culture.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Desmond Ng, Harvey S. James Jr and Peter G. Klein

As the prioritization of family goals depends on the resolution of family conflict, this study's purpose is to explain how a dominant coalition (DC) of parental family

Abstract

Purpose

As the prioritization of family goals depends on the resolution of family conflict, this study's purpose is to explain how a dominant coalition (DC) of parental family members prioritizes their family economic and non-economic goals when faced with different types of family conflict.

Design/methodology/approach

A conceptual framework is developed drawing on a socio-cognitive approach to explain a family's goal formation process. This socio-cognitive approach extends the stakeholder salience underpinnings of family influence/essence theory. It shows that family conflict arises from the complex and novel social settings of a family business and that a DC prioritizes their family's goals by drawing on heuristic biases to resolve such family conflict.

Findings

A key finding of this study is the introduction of a distinct type of agency to family influence/essence research. Unlike the salient explanations, a family's goal formulation process is attributed to a DC's heuristic response in resolving their family business conflict.

Originality/value

Scholars have called for a greater need to investigate the social and cognitive underpinnings of a family's goal formation process. While the social settings of a family business are often explained in terms of family conflict, an understanding of the sources of such conflict and their resolution have received limited attention. This study opens new avenues to understanding the sources of such family conflict and the cognitive mechanisms needed to overcome them. This understanding is critical not only to the prioritization of a family's goals but also to the idea that “influence” defines the essence of a family business.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2019

Ahmed Mohammed Sayed Mostafa

This study aims to examine the direct relationship between work–family conflict and psychosomatic health complaints among female physicians in Egypt. The study also…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the direct relationship between work–family conflict and psychosomatic health complaints among female physicians in Egypt. The study also investigates the mediating role of the negative affect on this relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using a paper and pen questionnaire from 186 female physicians, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data.

Findings

The study findings revealed that work–family conflict is associated with increased psychosomatic complaints among female physicians in Egypt. The study also found that negative affect partially mediates the relationship between work–family conflict and psychosomatic health complaints.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the cross-sectional research design, causal interpretations could not be made. Further empirical evidence is also needed to ascertain the generalizability of the findings to other contexts.

Practical implications

Organizations need to support their employees in balancing their work and family roles. In addition, employees need to understand how work–family conflict could influence their affect and should try to find ways to cope.

Originality/value

The study addresses calls for research on the relationship between work–family conflict and health in developing countries. It also responds to calls for research on the mechanisms through which work–family conflict relates to employee health.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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