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Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Jakob Braun

Consumers are increasingly present in multiple spaces. For instance, many people choose to browse their smartphones for product reviews, while shopping at the traditional…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumers are increasingly present in multiple spaces. For instance, many people choose to browse their smartphones for product reviews, while shopping at the traditional brick-and-mortar store. How is their presence affected in such scenarios? Can they be fully present in the store? How is their overall consumption experience impacted? This chapter addresses such questions and explores the nature and role of presence, which is defined as the “feeling of ‘being there’ in the present, the here and now of the physical or a virtual world” (Waterworth & Waterworth, 2006, p. 82).

Methodology/approach

Drawing on findings from different literatures (e.g., marketing, communications), a conceptual approach is used to identify the underlying components of presence and to explore how this construct relates to customer experience.

Findings

Preliminary assertions suggest that presence has a spatial structure. It is concerned with two distinctions. First, presence may vary depending on the level of physicality or virtuality. Second, presence may change based on whether someone is perceiving stimuli in the external environment (what is happening around us in the physical or virtual space) or is lost (i.e., absent) in the internal world of dreams, thoughts, and imaginations.

Research implications

From a theoretical perspective, this research introduces the presence construct from communications to the marketing literature. Studying consumption experiences through the lens of presence contributes to our understanding of how they are affected by simultaneous activities of customers in physical and virtual spaces.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, marketers are encouraged to develop new strategies that account for customers’ presence in various spaces, in order to gain their attention.

Details

Qualitative Consumer Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-491-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Tseng-Lung Huang and Shu-Ling Liao

Drawing on virtual liminoid theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine factors that induce a multisensory flow experience in an e-shopping context through the use of…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on virtual liminoid theory, the purpose of this paper is to examine factors that induce a multisensory flow experience in an e-shopping context through the use of augmented-reality interactive technology (ARIT).

Design/methodology/approach

To validate the research framework, a task-based laboratory study was performed. Participants were recruited through a snowball e-mail method and requested to freely and independently use ARIT for clothes fitting in the laboratory, after which they completed a questionnaire; 336 valid responses were received.

Findings

Empirical results revealed that three decorating psychological states (sense of body ownership, sense of ownership control, and self-explorative engagement) directly induced a multisensory flow experience. Furthermore, two multisensory factors (sense of self-location and haptic imagery) mediated the multisensory flow experience through these three decorating psychological states.

Practical implications

Consumers not only rely on generating self-display for optimal fitting in virtual avatar decoration in an e-shopping context but also concentrate more on expression and control of self-body. As consumers’ decorating psychological states require an ideal form of self-expression, a high degree of autonomy in exploring self-decoration options will create more value for consumers. Considering that expressing and controlling the self-body in addition to self-explorative engagement in virtual avatar decoration will trigger the flow experience in an e-shopping context, increasing the use of multisensory ARIT to trigger decorating psychological states in e-shopping contexts is highly recommended.

Originality/value

In this study, a relationship was constructed among virtual liminoid theory, flow theory, and multisensory technology, and an integrated conceptual framework was developed for the relationship between decorating psychological states and multisensory flow experience.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Amira Trabelsi-Zoghlami and Mourad Touzani

This paper aims to explore the virtual experience to understand its components and its effects on consumers’ real world.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the virtual experience to understand its components and its effects on consumers’ real world.

Design/methodology/approach

Our approach relies on a rarely used projective method: “Album-on-Line” (AOL). This technique allows identifying consumers’ representations of their experience. It uses images to immerse participants in a virtual experience and to lead an individual reflection, then a group reflection.

Findings

Virtual experiences have utilitarian, hedonic, psychological and social dimensions. When immersing in virtual experiences, consumers’ perception and consumption of products and services change. A projection occurs leading to an identification to virtual characters. This projection also leads to a consumption aiming at finding back the excitement and challenge lived during virtual experiences.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this research relates with the fuzzy distinction between the virtual and the electronic in consumers’ minds and even in the literature. Future work should propose a multidisciplinary definition of the virtual experience, considering its specificities and components.

Practical implications

This research offers companies a better understanding of consumers’ motivations to live virtual experiences. It may bring insights on how to provide a more customized offering and a more adapted communication.

Originality/value

Compared to previous work, the present research offers a better understanding of the components of online and offline virtual experiences by considering the virtual in its broadest meaning. The use of the AOL technique enabled a closer look at the specificities of the virtual experience as perceived by consumers. It was also possible to explore the “post-experience” stage by understanding the effect of virtual experiences on consumers’ perceptions and consumptions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Yu‐Chih Huang, Sheila J. Backman and Kenneth F. Backman

The virtual world environment presents new business opportunities for building destination images that allow customers to make an informed decision and initiate travel…

Abstract

Purpose

The virtual world environment presents new business opportunities for building destination images that allow customers to make an informed decision and initiate travel arrangements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of flow theory and the concept of involvement in understanding the impacts of virtual experiences of Second Life on people's travel intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Undergraduate college students at Clemson University were chosen as participants and data was collected in April 2009, entailing 42 usable surveys.

Findings

The results validate the notion that flow is a useful and practical instrument to understand users' experiences while navigating the 3D virtual world of Second Life. The achievement of an engaging and pleasant experience in Second Life is influenced by three factors: the skills available to tackle challenging tasks, the perception of interactivity, and the degree of presence sensation perceived by customers. Furthermore, the findings indicated that flow experience mediated the association between involvement and people's behavioral intentions.

Originality/value

This study is a stepping stone on the road to investigating new marketing media, as more systematic research is needed to investigate the virtual experience and its effects on how travelers make decisions.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Technology, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9880

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2020

Eunsoo Baek, Ho Jung Choo, Xiaoyong Wei and So-Yeon Yoon

As consumers spend more time shopping online, traditional retailers are facing a decline in on-site shoppers. To help the industry in the omnichannel era, we propose that…

Abstract

Purpose

As consumers spend more time shopping online, traditional retailers are facing a decline in on-site shoppers. To help the industry in the omnichannel era, we propose that a virtual tour of a store could affect brand equity and promote store visit intentions, based on a well-established brand experience account.

Design/methodology/approach

The virtual tour stimuli were created using 360-degree photos of real stores. Participants explored the store virtually and then completed an online survey. With 240 responses drawn from the general population in the US, structural equation modelling (SEM) was used.

Findings

Results showed that store brand experiences significantly affected consumers and the four brand experience dimensions exerted differentiated effects. Sensory and behavioural experiences directly increased intentions to visit the store, whereas intellectual and emotional experiences promoted visit intentions via enhanced brand equity.

Originality/value

This is the first retail study investigating a virtual tour through the lens of brand experience. It is also one of a handful that examined the distinctive effects of the four brand experience dimensions, which deserve scholars’ attention and further inquiry. The virtual tour can be a powerful branding tool in the online-dominant retailing era. Retailers can employ a virtual tour not only to increase brand equity but also to cultivate consumers’ intentions to visit their stores. Furthermore, the use of 360-degree interactive media to evoke the virtual experience of a store renders higher generalizability and extendibility in future research and practice.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 48 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 12 August 2011

Ching‐Jui Keng, Hui‐Ying Ting and Ya‐Ting Chen

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different virtual product experiences (VPEs, interpersonal and machine) on sense of virtual community (SOVC) for…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different virtual product experiences (VPEs, interpersonal and machine) on sense of virtual community (SOVC) for consumers. Furthermore, parasocial interaction (PSI) and the sequence of VPEs likely moderate the relationship between different combinations of VPEs and SOVC.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed a factorial online experimental design: 8 (combinations of VPEs, between subjects) x 2 (sequences of VPEs, between subjects). Participants were randomly assigned to the 16 groups.

Findings

The results show that with a high degree of PSI, the “escapism + social” VPEs group has the greatest beneficial effects on SOVC, whereas with a low degree of PSI, the “aesthetics + information” VPEs group has the greatest beneficial effects on SOVC. Besides, in VPES sequence 1 (interpersonal → machine), the “escapism + social” VPEs group has a greater effect on SOVC, whereas in sequence 2 (machine → interpersonal), there was no statistically significant difference for VPEs combinations relative to SOVC.

Practical implication

This study determines that consumers with different degrees of PSI differ from one another regarding their interactions with web sites and communities. Therefore, the characteristics of PSI provide manufacturers with various marketing strategies for interaction. The combinations and sequences of interpersonal and machine VPEs in this study can provide manufacturers with suggestions for appropriate online shopping web site design.

Originality/value

Although the importance of these virtual experiences is continuously increasing, there is still a lack of studies that empirically analyze from the combinations of machine interaction and interpersonal interaction of VPEs of the effects on consumer behavior.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Savvas Papagiannidis, Eleonora Pantano, Eric W.K. See-To, Charles Dennis and Michael Bourlakis

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of users’ simulated experience in a virtual store and to show the subsequent impact of that experience on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of users’ simulated experience in a virtual store and to show the subsequent impact of that experience on engagement. The outcome of that engagement is examined in relation to enjoyment, satisfaction and purchase intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

The method comprised an experiment comparing users’ perceptions of a standard 2D online clothing store with an enhanced, immersive one that aimed to provide shopping value approaching that of a traditional store by using a 3D experience where participants wore special glasses and a data glove.

Findings

Results demonstrate the major role of telepresence components in simulated experience and the critical role of that experience, along with hedonic and utilitarian values, in engagement. Purchase intention is influenced by satisfaction, which is in turn influenced by enjoyment and engagement. Engagement in turn is influenced by utilitarian and hedonic value and the experience of product simulation or telepresence, which is composed of control, colour and graphics vividness, and 3D authenticity. In the immersive, 3D environment, experience is more associated with engagement and enjoyment, leading to greater purchase intention. The immersive, 3D environment, thus, has the potential to rival traditional shopping in terms of experience, resulting in higher sales for retailers and satisfaction for consumers.

Originality/value

This work has evaluated a robust model of purchase intention and demonstrated it to hold not only in a 3D environment on a conventional computer platform, but also in an immersive one, where participants wear special glasses and a data glove.

Details

Information Technology & People, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-3845

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2019

Kalliopi Evangelia Stavroulia, Maria Christofi, Evangelia Baka, Despina Michael-Grigoriou, Nadia Magnenat-Thalmann and Andreas Lanitis

The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of a virtual reality (VR)-based approach to improve teacher education and life-long professional development. Through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of a virtual reality (VR)-based approach to improve teacher education and life-long professional development. Through constant training in real-life based situations but within a safe three-dimensional virtual school environment, teachers are given the opportunity to experience and learn how to react to different types of incidents that may take place in a school environment.

Design/methodology/approach

The current paper presents the design cycle that was followed for the implementation of the VR teacher training system. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated with a case study that aimed to promote teachers’ understanding of student’s problematic situations related to substance use. As part of the experimental investigation, the impact of the VR system on participants’ emotions and mood states is evaluated through Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, heart rate (HR) recordings and self-reported data.

Findings

Results indicate significant changes to participant’s negative emotional and mood states, suggesting that the scenario and the VR experience had a strong impact on them. Moreover, participants’ HR was increased during the experiment, while the analysis of the EEG signal indicated that the participants experienced a stressful situation that could justify the change in their negative emotions and mood states.

Originality/value

The proposed VR-based approach aims to provide an innovative framework to teacher education and the related training methodology. In the long-term, the proposed VR system aims to form a new paradigm of teacher training, an alternative safe method that will allow user-teachers to learn through trial and error techniques that reflect real-life situations within a three-dimensional school space and without the risk of harming real students. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the first systematic attempts to use a VR-based methodology to address real teachers’ needs. The development of the VR application is linked to both strong theoretical foundations in education derived from the literature but also from real teachers’ problems and requirements derived from an extensive literature analysis, survey and interviews with experts including teachers, school counselors and psychologists. The VR tool addresses specific teachers’ competences as outcome, after an extensive documentation of existing Teachers’ Competence Models and significant guidance by experts who pointed specific competencies of primary importance to teachers.

Details

The International Journal of Information and Learning Technology, vol. 36 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4880

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Article
Publication date: 4 September 2009

Henrikki Tikkanen, Joel Hietanen, Tuomas Henttonen and Joonas Rokka

Drawing from recent work on online social networking and communities of consumption, the purpose of this paper is to explore, identify, and postulate key factors…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing from recent work on online social networking and communities of consumption, the purpose of this paper is to explore, identify, and postulate key factors facilitating the growth and success of marketing in virtual worlds.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical study was conducted employing netnographic evidence from three different virtual worlds and related user‐generated blog discussions.

Findings

The findings suggest mechanisms which enable virtual worlds to gain and maintain the interest of their users and therefore underlie successful marketer practices.

Research limitations/implications

This is an exploratory study based on qualitative and ethnographic online research methods, and therefore the results are of a descriptive nature. The study was conducted to initiate the academic discourse about marketing in virtual worlds. As such, the paper believes that it can act as a reasonable starting‐point for future discussion.

Practical implications

The study suggests that traditional advertising has not proven to be a very effective way to exploit the special characteristics of virtual worlds. There is substantial potential in virtual worlds for new and innovative marketing methods that are highly engaging and take advantage of users' active role in virtual worlds. From the marketing point of view, virtual worlds can be especially used for connecting with customers, contributing to customer learning, and getting customer input.

Originality/value

The paper illustrates that virtual worlds have come to offer marketers new opportunities for engaging their customers into interactive and co‐productive marketplace exchanges. They uncover untapped potential, resources and creative means for building customer relationships.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 47 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Book part
Publication date: 29 November 2018

Larissa Neuburger, Julia Beck and Roman Egger

The concept of touristic space is continually evolving, due to the advent of new technologies. Today, physical space and virtual space are interwoven, creating a…

Abstract

The concept of touristic space is continually evolving, due to the advent of new technologies. Today, physical space and virtual space are interwoven, creating a phenomenon that can be described using the term ‘phygital’. The perception of touristic space as well as the interaction with it has been altered by phygital appearances and changing travel behaviour. While interaction with the touristic space previously only occupied a physical dimension, virtual information now enriches all stages of the customer journey (CJ). Hence, this chapter deals with new technologies, analysing their impact on the perception of touristic space for the traveller throughout the whole CJ. Thereby Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are cited as examples of state-of-the-art technologies, which wield a direct perceptional impact, as they have the power to blend together one’s perception of real and virtual space.

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