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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Louwanda Evans and Charity Clay

This chapter examines the connections between systemic police terror, solidarity, collective consciousness, emotion work, and negative health outcomes for black Americans…

Abstract

This chapter examines the connections between systemic police terror, solidarity, collective consciousness, emotion work, and negative health outcomes for black Americans. While much social science and criminological research has focused on police brutality and the black male without much consideration of the collective effects of police violence on communities of color, we shift the conversation from brutality to systemic terror by incorporating the cumulative and collective effects policing has on communities of color, beyond those directly victimized via interactions with the police. In this chapter, we introduce and theorize about the deeper connections between policing, black communities, and emotional labor and the relationship(s) these factors have on negative health outcomes.

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Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-051-0

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Book part
Publication date: 1 June 2004

John D Blair, Robert K Keel, Timothy W Nix and K.Wade Vlosich

When modeling environmental jolts from terrorist attacks, various aspects should be analyzed in order to properly present an accurate configuration. The following article…

Abstract

When modeling environmental jolts from terrorist attacks, various aspects should be analyzed in order to properly present an accurate configuration. The following article discusses how asymmetrical warfare has an impact on the outcomes of a terrorist attack. The several dimensions of terrorist attacks can be extracted to deduce the ways that asymmetrical warfare can damage the health care system. The article will relate real life terrorist attacks and hypothetical scenarios to better inform the reader about the weak attacking the strong, and then explain how this relates to health care providers.

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Bioterrorism Preparedness, Attack and Response
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-268-9

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Jaideep Roy and Prabal Roy Chowdhury

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive…

Abstract

Purpose

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive compatible contract designed by the target nation that involves joint counter-terror tasks with costly participation by each country. The counter-terror operations are however subject to ex post moral hazard, so that to incentivise counter-terror, the rich country supplies developmental aid. Development aid also helps avoid unrest arising from counter-terror activities in the target nation. However, aid itself can be diverted to non-developmental projects, generating a novel interlinked moral hazard problem spanning both tasks and rewards.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a dynamic model where the aid giving countries and aid receiving countries behave strategically. Then they solve for the sub game perfect Nash equilibrium of this game.

Findings

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. The authors then prove that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. The authors also discuss other problems faced by developing nations where this model can be readily adopted and the results can endorse appealing policy implications.

Originality/value

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. It is proved that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. Other problems faced by developing nations are also discussed where this model can be readily adopted, and the results can endorse appealing policy implications. These results have important policy implications, in particular in today’s world.

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Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2017

Philipp Paulus and Katrin Muehlfeld

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between host country (HC) language skills, fear of terror, and cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) of expatriates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between host country (HC) language skills, fear of terror, and cross-cultural adjustment (CCA) of expatriates based in host countries with different terrorist threat levels.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrating the expatriate adjustment framework by Black et al. (1991) with social identity theory-based literature, this study first, theorizes about the effects of both fear of terror and HC language proficiency on CCA and, second, puts forward the moderating effect of the actual terrorist threat level on the relationship between HC language proficiency and fear of terror. Hypotheses are tested using survey data of 116 expatriates based in host countries with different threat levels.

Findings

HC language proficiency is positively associated with CCA. Yet, it is also positively associated with fear of terror, which is, in turn, negatively related to CCA. Consequently, the beneficial effect of HC language skills on CCA is reduced in environments where expatriates experience significant fear of terror. While the actual threat level has a direct positive effect on fear of terror, it also positively moderates the relationship between HC language proficiency and fear of terror.

Originality/value

This study extends prior literature on expatriation to dangerous environments by zooming in on a specific type of risk factor associated with international assignments, i.e., terrorism, and by integrating HC language proficiency and fear of terror as important factors, which may influence CCA in contexts in which expatriates experience significant fear of terror.

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Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2010

Thomas A. Hemphill and Francine Cullari

The purpose of this paper is to address the corporate governance implications of the US terror‐free investment screens, instituted both legislatively and voluntarily, on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to address the corporate governance implications of the US terror‐free investment screens, instituted both legislatively and voluntarily, on the operations of non‐US multinational corporations (MNCs) concerning international trade and foreign direct investment with nations designated as “State Sponsors of Terrorism.”

Design/methodology/approach

After a brief introduction to the issue of “terror‐free lists” and investment indexes and divestment screens, the paper summarizes the US Federal and State Laws pertaining to state sponsors of terrorism and their direct impact on international trade and investment transactions. The third section evaluates the success of environmental, social, and governance (ESG) indexes and investment screens compared to standard market investment indexes. The fourth section discusses the potential effects of terror‐free stock indexes and divestment (“social”) screens on corporate governance of non‐US corporations. In the final section, the paper offers business policy recommendations concerning international trade and foreign direct investment decisions and the listing of equity stock on the US financial market exchanges, and offer scholarly research questions addressing this issue.

Findings

Non‐US MNC managers should recognize, first, the importance of global corporate citizenship and reputation; second, the expansion of terror‐free investing criterion in ESG investment indexes and divestment screens; and third, the growth in the number of state government prohibitions on investing funds with foreign MNCs complicit with terror‐sponsoring states.

Originality/value

Exploratory in nature, this seminal paper evaluates an issue of emerging importance to non‐US MNC managers and directors concerned with potential political and economic repercussions of their international trade and foreign direct investment decisions.

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Journal of International Trade Law and Policy, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-0024

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2015

V. Balasubramaniyan

The purpose of this paper is to study the various theories related to low cost terrorist attacks and factors which act as the key determinants to the costing decision…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the various theories related to low cost terrorist attacks and factors which act as the key determinants to the costing decision. This research is an endeavour to bring about the factors influencing costing decisions of low cost and high cost terror attacks.

Design/methodology/approach

Methodology adopted is a descriptive one which conducts a content analysis on existing theories, based on materials derived from primary as well secondary source data.

Findings

This paper argues that the terminology of “low cost terrorism” is ambiguous. This paper states that the nature of attack and the type of attack play an important part in determining the funding levels of terror operations. The decision to taper or increase the cost is more of a “choice” in larger groups but a matter of “compulsion” in smaller groups.

Practical implications

In the process, it attempts to enlighten the counter terrorism community on the need to target the criminal fund raising mechanisms of homegrown groups which act as the main funding resource for low cost terror attacks. It also attempts to enlighten the concerned institutions, to increase physical security measures instead of attempting to sever the funding for this low cost terror attacks which is akin to looking for a needle in a haystack.

Originality/value

The key findings of this research lies in its originality of presentation of facts in a systematic fashion.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Tchai Tavor

The proliferation of terror threats in the past decades and the increasing number of terror incidents at different locations around the world have engendered a counter…

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Abstract

Purpose

The proliferation of terror threats in the past decades and the increasing number of terror incidents at different locations around the world have engendered a counter reaction from the members of the international community. This study aims to examine how terror incidents that happened over the past decade have affected the capital markets of the targeted countries and whether the effect was permanent or transitory.

Design/methodology/approach

To examine the incident’s effect, the study uses the TI (variable) index – a measure of pessimism with values ranging from 5 to 16 – for four days around a terrorist incident. By using this index, this study can reflect the investors’ level of pessimism resulting from the intensity of the terrorist incident. Five parameters that have a major influence on the incident’s severity have been used to construct the index.

Findings

By using the terror index, terror incidents were analyzed in four main tests. The results point at the following conclusions: There is a correlation between the yield index on the day of a terror incident and the two following work days. There is a negative correlation between the severity of the event and the yield indices. On the day of the terror incident, there is no difference in yield indices between large and small countries and between democratic and authoritarian countries. Developing countries, however, show a steeper decline than developed countries. In larger and developed countries, terror incidents are permanent, whereas in democratic countries, they are transitory.

Originality/value

This study investigates the effect of terrorism on the stock markets of different countries with relation to the country’s size, type of regime and level of development. The work is based on a unique sample of terror attacks. The study offers a quantitative index to measure the level of pessimism that contains different components of an incident, such as the location of the incident and the type of terrorism.

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Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Book part
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Matthew Costello

A growing literature links oil to conflict, particularly civil war. Greed/opportunity, grievance, and weak state arguments have been advanced to explain this relationship…

Abstract

A growing literature links oil to conflict, particularly civil war. Greed/opportunity, grievance, and weak state arguments have been advanced to explain this relationship. This chapter builds on the literature on oil and conflict in two important ways. First, I examine a novel dependent variable, domestic terrorism. Much is known about the effect of oil on the onset, duration, and intensity of civil war, though we know surprisingly little about the potential influence of oil on smaller, more frequent forms of violence. Second, I treat oil ownership as a variable, not a constant, coding oil rents based on ownership structure. This is contrary to other related studies that assume oil is necessarily owned by the state. Using a large, cross-national sample of states from 1971 to 2007, several key findings emerge. Notably, publicly owned oil exhibits a positive effect on domestic terrorism. This positive effect dissipates, however, when political performance and state terror are controlled for. Privately owned oil, on the other hand, does not correlate with increased incidences of terror. This suggests that oil is not a curse, per se.

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Non-State Violent Actors and Social Movement Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-190-2

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2006

Diana Ralph

The “war on terror” has nothing to do with protecting the U.S. and world's people from “terrorists”, and everything to do with securing the American empire abroad and…

Abstract

The “war on terror” has nothing to do with protecting the U.S. and world's people from “terrorists”, and everything to do with securing the American empire abroad and muzzling democracy and human rights at home. The 9-11 attacks were the pretext which sold the myth of evil Muslim terrorists imminently threatening Americans. That tale allowed the Cheney-led members of the Project for the New American Century (PNAC) to implement their 1990 DPG plan for world control. The “war on terror” is modelled on Islamophobic stereotypes, policies, and political structures developed by the Israeli Likkud and Bush Sr. in 1979. It is designed to inspire popular support for U.S. wars of world conquest. To defeat this plan, we must overcome our Islamophobic fear of “terrorists” and stand in solidarity with Muslims.

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The Hidden History of 9-11-2001
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-408-9

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Book part
Publication date: 21 June 2014

Ryan Bakker, Daniel W. Hill and Will H. Moore

The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of a theoretically motivated statistical model to accurately forecast annual, national counts of terror attacks out-of-sample.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of a theoretically motivated statistical model to accurately forecast annual, national counts of terror attacks out-of-sample.

Methodology/approach

Bayesian multi-level models, classification analysis, marginal calibration plots

Findings

We find that the model forecasts reasonably well, but conclude that its overall performance suggests that it is not ready for use in policy planning. This is likely due to the coarse temporal and spatial aggregation of the data.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this study are that social scientists should devote more effort into evaluating the predictive power of their statistical models, and that annual, national data on violent conflict are probably too coarse to provide useful information for policy planning.

Originality/value of paper

The primary value of our modeling effort is to provide a baseline against which to evaluate the performance of more region- and country-specific models to be developed in the future.

Details

Understanding Terrorism
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-828-0

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