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Article
Publication date: 5 January 2010

George P. Sillup and Ronald Klimberg

The purpose of this paper is to try to understand better whether performance appraisal (PA) helps performance evaluators (PEs) to manage more effectively and meet…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to try to understand better whether performance appraisal (PA) helps performance evaluators (PEs) to manage more effectively and meet employees' expectations in US‐based corporations.

Design/methodology/approach

A 54‐item research instrument was developed and implemented using structured interviews with 54 PEs, who worked at five US‐based corporations (Aetna Insurance, IBM, Johnson & Johnson, Valspar, Wyeth Pharmaceuticals). Responses were statistically analyzed with descriptive statistics and decision trees.

Findings

Time dedicated to implementing PA was the most important factor leading to ethical issues. PEs with the highest educational levels and most experience spent the least amount of time (1.86 vs 3.19 hours) implementing PA. Most PEs (79.6 percent) solicited feedback about employees' performance from employees' peers but 20 percent did not. Additionally, not a single PE had PA as a specific objective, making it difficult to sequester time necessary for PA. Older PEs felt PA helped them manage more effectively and PEs who were Black or White and from Marketing/Sales were most favorable about meeting employees' PA expectations. There were no remarkable differences among PA systems at the five corporations, e.g. 360‐degree training.

Research limitations/implications

Structured interviews required delicate interaction due to sensitivity about the US economy and resulting layoffs within interviewees' corporations.

Practical implications

PEs, particularly older managers with higher educational levels, should have a PA objective and be held accountable to it to ensure that they dedicate time necessary to complete PA in the way the PA system intends.

Originality/value

The paper provides insight about PA within the US corporate setting and will be highly interesting to those in that field.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Peter Lukacs, Alena Pietrikova, Beata Ballokova, Dagmar Jakubeczyova and Ondrej Kovac

This paper aims to find the optimal deposition conditions for achieving the homogenous structure of the silver layers onto three types of polymeric substrates as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to find the optimal deposition conditions for achieving the homogenous structure of the silver layers onto three types of polymeric substrates as well as on the rigid substrates. For this reason, the detailed investigation of the silver-based layers deposited at different technological conditions by microscopic methods is presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

The special test pattern has been designed and deposited at different substrate temperatures by using two types of generally available silver-based nano-inks. Cross-sections and 3D profiles of the deposited silver layers have been profoundly analysed by using the optical profiler Sensofar S Neox on the generally used polymeric (PI, PET and PEN) and rigid substrates (951 and 9K7 LTCC, glass and alumina).

Findings

The results prove the strong correlation between the substrate temperature during the deposition process and the final shape of the created structure which has the a direct impact on the layers’ homogeneity. The results also prove the theory of the coffee ring effect creation in the inkjet printing technology.

Originality/value

The main benefit of this paper lies in the possibility of the homogeneity achievement of the deposited silver-based layers on the several polymeric and rigid substrates by managing the temperature during the deposition. The paper also offers the comparative study of nano-inks’ behaviour on several polymeric and rigid substrates.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2015

Alessandro Zardini, Francesca Ricciardi and Cecilia Rossignoli

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how the relational capital of the information technology (IT) department creates value in organizations. In addition, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on how the relational capital of the information technology (IT) department creates value in organizations. In addition, the paper presents a multi-dimensional scale to measure and manage relational capital in the IT department.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first, explorative phase of the study, interviews and focus groups were conducted in order to develop a new measurement scale, which was subsequently tested through a survey questionnaire (212 respondents).

Findings

This research suggests that the relational capital of the IT department is a very important resource for the creation of strategic value. The statistical analysis conducted for this study confirmed the validity and reliability of the novel scale developed to measure this resource. Finally, thanks to factor analysis, five dimensions for the scale were identified.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected in northern Italy only. Further studies are advisable to confirm the validity of the constructs and scale.

Practical implications

The questionnaire presented in this study can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the interactions between the IT department and the other key actors involved in IT-enabled innovation. The adoption of this scale and its possible adaptation to specific, evolving business contexts may enhance the practitioner’s understanding of the role of relational capital in the value creation process.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the “third stage” of intellectual capital research by concentrating on an intra-organizational level of analysis, which has been overlooked in the literature to date.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Md. Hafiz Iqbal

This study provides empirical evidence of the economic valuation of ecosystem services. It examines the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and compensating surplus (CS) in response…

Abstract

Purpose

This study provides empirical evidence of the economic valuation of ecosystem services. It examines the willingness-to-pay (WTP) and compensating surplus (CS) in response to policy change based on focus group discussion (FGD) and survey.

Design/methodology/approach

A randomized conjoint analysis based experiment was conducted in seven villages of Sundarbans in Bangladesh to elicit stated preference data and measure WTP and CS. Each respondent faced three options in every choice card-two hypothetical alternatives and one status quo scheme. Four alternatives – payment for ecosystem services, storm protection, erosion control and habitat for fish breeding – are randomly and simultaneously assigned to the two alternatives.

Findings

The findings suggest that age, income, education, family size and occupational status are the influential factor to choice the relevant attributes of ecosystem services and their levels. Villagers would like to pay annually Tk. 703, Tk. 281, and Tk. 59 for lower, moderate, and higher ecosystem services. With these WTP, they get surplus Tk. 760, Tk. 138, and Tk. 346 respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The lower WTP does not necessarily imply low demand for ecosystem service, as the findings from WTP illustrate potential demand for ecosystem services of Sundarbans.

Practical implications

The study provides an important insight into the ecosystem services and values of Sundarbans mangrove forests for welfare and can inform policy for sustainable use of resources of this forest.

Originality/value

There is a crucial gap in understanding what could villagers be ready for WTP for better ecosystem services of Sundarbans mangrove forest, how do payment based ecosystem services, as a proxy for the conservation of Sundarbans mangrove, and to what extent the policy can be strengthened.

Details

Forestry Economics Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3030

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Partha Gangopadhyay and Siddharth Jain

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains: economic, human security and vulnerability of people, aggressiveness or militancy of the armed forces and global and regional climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach has been applied on annual data from 1960-2017, to deal with the problems of autocorrelation and non-stationarity of key variables.

Findings

First, an increase in crop yield, cereal productivity, food productivity and per capita availability of arable land unequivocally and significantly lower the severity of conflict in Myanmar in the long run. Second, the authors uncover strong evidence that the intensity of conflicts bears a positive relationship with the vulnerability of the people of Myanmar. Third, the authors detect that both regional and global climate variables have limited and rather inconsistent impacts on subnational conflicts in Myanmar. Finally, the authors find that the aggressiveness (militancy index) of the armed forces has significant impacts upon subnational conflicts and economic variables of Myanmar in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper is completely data-driven and explains the long-term dynamics of the intensity of the civil war in Myanmar. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests. It is a novel approach, which overcomes the problems of autocorrelation and nonstationarity and offers reliable results.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Le Luo and Qingliang Tang

This paper aims to investigate the impact of the proposed carbon tax on the financial market return of Australian firms. It also considers the differential tax effect on…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the impact of the proposed carbon tax on the financial market return of Australian firms. It also considers the differential tax effect on individual firms with different carbon profiles, including factors such as emissions costs, carbon disclosure and climate-change policies.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilising the event-study method, the authors examine the market reaction to seven key carbon legislative information events that occurred from February 2011 to November 2011. The sample includes 48 different firms whose emissions-related data are available from Carbon Disclosure Project reports; thus, 336 firm-event observations are used for the cross-sectional analysis.

Findings

The paper documents evidence that the proposed tax has an overall negative impact on shareholder wealth as measured by abnormal returns. The negative impact varies across sectors, with the most significant effect found in the materials, industrial and financial sectors. It was also found that a firm’s direct carbon exposure (as measured by Scope 1 emissions) is significantly associated with abnormal returns, whereas the indirect exposure (as measured by Scope 2 emissions) is not, because Scope 2 emissions are not covered by the tax. In addition, the findings suggest that the information content of the events is more notable during the early stages of the development of the carbon tax.

Research limitations/implications

The sample is restricted to the largest firms with relevant carbon profile information. Thus, caution should be exercised when generalising the inferences.

Practical implications

The introduction of the carbon tax was largely unexpected and most firms were unprepared for it; thus, their carbon policy appears inadequate and does not impress investors. An understanding of how the carbon tax affects shareholder value and welfare will encourage management to take proactive actions to mitigate the compliance costs of carbon legislation.

Originality/value

The enactment of the Australian carbon tax perhaps represents one of the biggest social and economic restructuring events in the country’s history. Our results offer initial insight into its impact and suggest that investors would penalise firms with heavy direct operational emissions. In addition, Australian corporate carbon policy seems inadequate, so does not reverse the negative effect of the tax on the value of a firm.

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2018

Habib Sekrafi and Asma Sghaier

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of corruption on the environmental quality in Tunisia. Indeed, the post-revolution period is characterized by a…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of corruption on the environmental quality in Tunisia. Indeed, the post-revolution period is characterized by a remarkable increase in the rates of corruption.

Design/methodology/approach

The direct and indirect effects of control corruption on economic growth and CO2 emissions in Tunisia have been examined using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) cointegration framework among corruption, growth and CO2 emissions.

Findings

Results substantiate a positive and significant relationship between control of corruption and economic growth, a negative and significant relationship between control of corruption and environmental quality (CO2) and a negative and significant relationship between control of corruption and energy consumption. The findings suggest that while the control of corruption contributes to economic growth, its positive effect could be transposed indirectly via its impacts on environmental quality.

Originality/value

A strategy against corruption will reduce CO2 emissions; however, its positive effect on economic growth indirectly contributes to reverse this relationship.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

Deon Tjosvold and Haifa F. Sun

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although…

Abstract

Because of their relationship‐oriented values, avoiding conflict is thought to be particularly prevalent and appropriate in collectivist societies like China Although research in the West has assumed that avoiding conflict is one approach and a largely ineffective one, collectivists may use conflict avoidance in different ways, including protecting the other protagonist. Eighty‐five managers and employees in six State Owned Enterprises in South China described concrete incidents when they avoided conflict and responded to specific items to measure the prior relationship, motivation, strategies, and consequences. Results identify major motivations and strategies used in conflict avoidance. Findings indicate that Chinese managers and employees relied upon the other person, promoted task productivity, and strengthened the relationship when they had a prior strong relationship and cooperative goals. Cooperative goals and fear of revenge were both found to underlie outflanking (trying to work around the other). Results were interpreted as indicating that avoiding conflict can be useful and even reaffirm an already effective relationship, but like open conflict, it must be managed constructively.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1991

Roslyn Moorhead and William Nediger

A two‐year study of four effective secondary school principalsgenerated the hypothesis that a principal′s actions can be representedby a value‐based model in which beliefs…

Abstract

A two‐year study of four effective secondary school principals generated the hypothesis that a principal′s actions can be represented by a value‐based model in which beliefs and values lead to goals, thereafter to activities (and constraints) and finally to outcomes. The model is conceptualised as consisting of a set of four states, values, goals, behaviours and outcomes, which can be represented formally by a Markov chain. Each of the four principals held significantly different value sets, but the analysis of the data from “Profile of the School” questionnaires indicate that no one value set brings about more effective leadership than another.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2019

Linhan Zhang and Qingliang Tang

Water management is an emerging practice. This paper aims to propose a theoretical model of a corporate water management system (WMS) and empirically explores whether…

Abstract

Purpose

Water management is an emerging practice. This paper aims to propose a theoretical model of a corporate water management system (WMS) and empirically explores whether superior water management improves water use performance.

Design/methodology/approach

Our model of WMS consists of 10 structural elements. We draw on self-discipline theory to predict the results and use archival data from the Carbon Disclosure Project to measure and evaluate the overall quality and effectiveness of the water management of our sample companies.

Findings

Companies motivated to adopt self-discipline tend to proactively implement high-quality WMSs. However, further analyses suggest that water management without regulatory sanctions appears insufficient for reducing water usage, at least in the short term. Overall, this study reveals a clear and growing tendency for businesses to manage water risks and a corresponding momentum toward more rigid control of water consumption.

Research limitations/implications

Corporate participation in the Carbon Disclosure Project survey is voluntary. Thus, the data in this paper are subject to self-selection bias, and what the companies claim concerning their behavior may not reflect the reality of their business practices. In addition, the inferences drawn here are based on data from only large firms. Future researchers could investigate whether and how corporate WMS continued to develop or decline in recent years, and how such practices integrate with other aspects of management (including carbon and energy).

Practical implications

This paper responds to water scarcity by exploring how the development of corporate WMS is driven by self-discipline motivation. This study sets out an agenda for the future of water accounting and management which can be used to guide research and stimulate extension in practice. Governments and non-governmental organizations may utilize the results to guide and bind corporations to achieve sustainability.

Social implications

The efficient use of freshwater is essential for sustainability, but limited studies have addressed the issue. The current paper explores this important issue, and our findings suggest regulatory institution is necessary to effectively enhance water usage.

Originality/value

This paper represents an early attempt to model corporate water management practices. A WMS should facilitate resilience in water management, measurement of water performance, and comparability among firms. This study contributes to the conceptualization and empirical assessment of self-discipline in motivated water management and enhances the validity and applicability of the theory of self-disciplining in sustainability research.

Details

Sustainability Accounting, Management and Policy Journal, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8021

Keywords

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