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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2021

Sumeet Kour and Jeevan Jyoti

Organisations operate in diverse cultural environment, which is a challenging task due to absence of cultural knowledge and difficulty in adapting the native culture that…

Abstract

Purpose

Organisations operate in diverse cultural environment, which is a challenging task due to absence of cultural knowledge and difficulty in adapting the native culture that usually leads to expatriate failure. In this context cultural intelligence plays an important role in the adjustment of employees. The purpose of the study is to examine the mediating role played by cultural intelligence between cross-cultural training and cross-cultural adjustment relationship. It further analyses the moderating role of cross-cultural training and types of expatriate between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

Set in a large culturally diverse emerging economy context, data have been gathered from 530 managers working in banking sector. Data have been duly assessed for reliability and validity.

Findings

The results revealed that cultural intelligence mediates cross-cultural training and cross-cultural adjustment relationship. Evidence from the analysis further suggests that cross-cultural training and types of expatriate moderate the relationship between cultural intelligence and cross-cultural adjustment. Lastly, the managerial and theoretical implications have been put forth for practical and academic perusal.

Research limitations/implications

The study is cross-sectional in nature and data have been collected from single source.

Practical implications

Organisations should design such training programmes, which motivate the managers to successfully complete out of home state assignment and help them to adapt in the cross-cultural situations.

Social implications

Culturally intelligent employees/managers are able to communicate with people belonging to diverse culture, which results in building trust, loyalty and cordial relationship amongst the people. This will create the feeling of unity in the society thereby bringing national as well as global peace.

Originality/value

The study develops the extant literature on cross-cultural training and types of expatriate as effective intercultural instruments to enhance the capability of the managers to interact and adjust in host region environment.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Marie‐France Waxin and Alexandra Panaccio

The paper examines what are the effects of the different types of cross‐cultural training (CCT) on expatriates' adjustment and whether prior international experience (IE…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines what are the effects of the different types of cross‐cultural training (CCT) on expatriates' adjustment and whether prior international experience (IE) and cultural distance (CD) have a moderator effect on the effectiveness of CCT.

Design/methodology/approach

In a quantitative approach the paper examines the effect of four different types of CCT on the three facets of expatriates' adjustment, on a sample consisting of 54 French, 53 German, 60 Korean and 57 Scandinavian managers expatriated to India. The paper then examines the moderator effect of IE and of CD on CCT's effectiveness.

Findings

CCT accelerates expatriates’ adjustment. The type of CCT received matters. IE and CD have a moderator effect.

Practical implications

Implications for practice are identified.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrated the effectiveness of different kinds of CCT and the moderator effects of IE and CD.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2019

Frank Fitzpatrick

Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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Article
Publication date: 15 November 2011

Rachel Gabel‐Shemueli and Simon Dolan

The purpose of this paper is to propose emotional intelligence (hereinafter EI) competences as a key predictor for overall cross‐cultural adjustment of managers and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose emotional intelligence (hereinafter EI) competences as a key predictor for overall cross‐cultural adjustment of managers and professionals in its three respective dimensions: work, interaction and non‐work adjustment. This explorative study contributes to the assessment and selection of potential professionals for international assignments by identifying the combination of soft competences and selected pre‐existing personal factors that can predict cross cultural adjustment beyond traditional technical or functional skills.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were gathered via a pre‐validated multi‐item questionnaire. The latter was administered in two languages: English and Spanish and two steps of multiple hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, in addition to the main variables (i.e. main effect). A total of 16 individual, organisational and context‐related control variables were used in this study.

Findings

The main findings indicate that EI is related to overall cross‐cultural adjustment measured in its three dimensions. However, EI was most strongly related to interaction adjustment following overall cross‐cultural adjustment. Furthermore, by isolating some important variables, the predictive role of EI on cross‐cultural adjustment above and beyond these control variables was shown.

Research limitations/implications

EI is still a new and debatable construct. Researchers are continuing to explore this construct from different angles. Moreover, there is keen interest in ascertaining whether the findings reported herein are sustainable. With the exception of one external source (culture distance), all data for the current study were collected via a self‐reported questionnaire and although additional effort was made to reduce some potential method‐variance problems, they cannot be entirely ruled out. The authors encourage future studies to improve the design by gathering data from multiple sources and from diverse settings.

Practical implications

The paper reviews the possible advantages of including EI assessment in international postings selection process.

Originality/value

This paper fills the need to study the predictive role of key soft skills in understanding cross‐cultural adjustment of international assignees. This study analysed the role of emotions in cross‐cultural settings by specifically examining a set of competences stemming from the EI construct. Although EI has been extensively used in the organisational behaviour literature, to the best of the authors' knowledge, there is still a need to empirically explore the relationships of this construct within the context of overseas postings and cross cultural encounters.

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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Article
Publication date: 21 July 2020

Van Thac Dang, Thinh Truong Vu and Phuoc-Thien Nguyen

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between workplace learning and organizational commitment with the mediating role of cross-cultural adjustment

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between workplace learning and organizational commitment with the mediating role of cross-cultural adjustment and the moderating role of supervisor trust for the case of foreign workers in a new cultural setting.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses structural equation modeling to analyze a sample data of 367 Vietnamese and Philippine workers in Taiwan.

Findings

Results show that workplace learning enhances foreign workers' organizational commitment. Cross-cultural adjustment is found to have a mediating effect in the link between workplace learning and organizational commitment. Furthermore, supervisor trust moderates the link between cross-cultural adjustment and organizational commitment. In addition, supervisor trust moderates the indirect effect of workplace learning on organizational commitment through cross-cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

Prior literature often focuses on expatriates who are high-skilled employees. This study investigates low-skilled workers who come from less-developed country working in a more developed economy. This study is one of the first researches examining the issue of foreign workers' commitment in new cultural environment. Our findings shed a new light to the effect of workplace learning on organizational commitment. Our findings also help to clarify the roles of cross-cultural adjustment and supervisor trust into the workplace learning–organizational commitment relationship. This study provides implications for researchers and managers regarding to management and development of foreign workers for local organizations.

Details

Employee Relations: The International Journal, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2008

Ching‐Hsiang Liu and Hung‐Wen Lee

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between job satisfaction, family support, learning orientation, organizational socialization and cross‐cultural training and cross‐cultural adjustment in the proposed model.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research method was used, and correction and regression were employed. The study undertook a multidimensional approach in its assessment of the adjustment of Taiwanese financial institution expatriates.

Findings

This study found that job satisfaction played an important role in the proposed model of expatriate adjustment in an international assignment. Also found to be of importance was the role of organization socialization.

Research limitations/implications

The conclusions of this study pertain only to Taiwanese financial institution expatriates in the USA, and cannot be generalized for cross‐cultural adjustment in other countries.

Practical implications

Given the associations between job satisfaction and cross‐cultural adjustment, multinationals should ensure that they have human resource policies and practice to support the job satisfaction of expatriates. Modifying socialization policies and practices can have a positive influence on expatriates' adjustment.

Originality/value

This study both replicates and extends previous research on cross‐cultural adjustment. It provides objective information for expatriate selection, management and socialization.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2005

Jan Selmer

Joint ventures remain the largest group of foreign‐invested enterprises in China. Given the high level of potential conflict, this paper examines whether Western…

Abstract

Purpose

Joint ventures remain the largest group of foreign‐invested enterprises in China. Given the high level of potential conflict, this paper examines whether Western expatriates in joint ventures benefit from cross‐cultural training.

Design/methodology/approach

A mail questionnaire targeted business expatriates assigned by Western firms to joint ventures and other types of organisations in China.

Findings

Results show that training had a weak positive association with work adjustment for expatriates in joint ventures, but no relationship with work adjustment for Western managers in other types of operations.

Research limitations/implications

Data were collected through a self‐report questionnaire and a cross‐sectional approach was applied. However, the scale measuring sociocultural adjustment may have some potential problems.

Practical implications

This paper emphasises the work context in China when training expatriate candidates. Alternatively, individuals should be selected with recent positive experiences of the host country and work task at hand. Such experience could be regarded as a perfect substitute for cross‐cultural training

Originality/value

The distinction between different organisational contexts in assessing the effect of cross‐cultural training constitutes a novel approach. The study contributes to the literature on the effectiveness of cross‐cultural training of business expatriates in general and the impact of their organisational setting in particular. It is important to notice that the improved adjustment covers the very reason for the foreign assignment, the work duties of the expatriate manager.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Samuel Davies, Albert Kraeh and Fabian Froese

The family and specifically, the partners of expatriates are unfortunately the major cause of expatriate maladjustment. Drawing from and extending the concept of…

Abstract

Purpose

The family and specifically, the partners of expatriates are unfortunately the major cause of expatriate maladjustment. Drawing from and extending the concept of relational demography, the purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of the nationality of expatriates’ partners, conceptualized as host, home or third country nationality, on expatriates’ cross-cultural adjustment.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data from 299 expatriate academics in China, Japan and South Korea were analysed. The authors used confirmatory factor analyses to validate the scales and ANCOVA to test the hypotheses. To further understand the interactions effects the authors conducted simple slopes analysis.

Findings

Results show that differences in expatriate academics’ cross-cultural adjustment are not per se based on the different nationality of their partners, but are mainly due to an interaction effect of partner nationality and length of stay in host country. Expatriates with host country national partners perceived the highest increase in cross-cultural adjustment over time, followed by those with third country national partners, whereas those with home country partners did not experience any increase in cross-cultural adjustment.

Research limitations/implications

The study was based on a cross-sectional survey of expatriate academics in Asia. Thus, longitudinal, multisource data from various contexts would increase validity and generalizability of findings. Despite these limitations, the study provided new and intriguing findings. The theory and empirical evidence underscore the importance of expatriate partner nationality and thereby, relational demography between expatriate partners and expatriates.

Practical implications

The research aims to emphasize the important role that expatriate partners can play concerning the success of expatriate cross-cultural adjustment. Greater attention should be paid to the adjustment processes of expatriates and their partners to facilitate expatriate cross-cultural adjustment.

Originality/value

The authors are among the first to study the influence of nationality, conceptualized as host, home country or third country nationality, of expatriates’ partners on expatriates’ cross-cultural adjustment by applying the concept of relational demography. Moreover, the authors look at the role that time in the host country has on the partner’s influence on expatriate adjustment.

Details

Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-8799

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Chenyi Qin and Yehuda Baruch

The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance of cross‐cultural training and career attitudes for expatriation career move in the context of China, whether…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the significance of cross‐cultural training and career attitudes for expatriation career move in the context of China, whether cross‐cultural training is perceived necessary, and the consequence of providing such cross‐cultural training.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 82 expatriates from a Chinese firm, some of whom were expatriated to a foreign country and others who were expatriated from foreign countries to China.

Findings

Expatriates adjusted well, and having a protean career attitude was a decisive factor. While the impact of cross‐cultural training prior to departure was not statistically significant, it was well received and considered important.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation is the limited sample size. Implications are presented for conducting cross‐cultural training.

Practical implications

Developing cross‐cultural training programs could add value to the firm and its people.

Originality/value

Using a particular Chinese firm the paper highlights the value and necessity of cross‐cultural training for successful expatriation.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 25 July 2013

Ibrahim Al‐Rajhi, Dean Bartlett and Yochanan Altman

The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of an Arabic language scale for measuring cross‐cultural adjustment in the Arab world, predominately the Middle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report on the development of an Arabic language scale for measuring cross‐cultural adjustment in the Arab world, predominately the Middle East. It also comments on aspects of psychometric tools and their appropriateness for use in cross‐cultural management research.

Design/methodology/approach

Black and Stephen's Cross‐Cultural Adjustment Scale was translated into Arabic using the method of back‐translation and a pilot item‐by‐item debriefing. It was then administered to 111 Arabic‐speaking employees of a single firm.

Findings

The Arabic language version yielded high alpha coefficients and a subsequent factor analysis revealed three primary factors of cross‐cultural adjustment, namely, Work Adjustment, Interaction Adjustment and General Adjustment, which corresponded closely to the original English version of the scale, with two minor exceptions.

Research limitations/implications

The research is confined to the cultural‐linguistic context in which it was executed.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that an Arabic version of the three‐factor scale is useful for measuring adjustment in Arabic‐speaking samples and implies the wider generalizability of the cross‐cultural adjustment construct. The development of this scale in an important region for migrant labor is highly relevant to practice.

Originality/value

An Arabic version of the most widely used cross‐cultural adjustment scale is of value to researchers and practitioners. The Muslim sample drawn from the Middle East region also makes the paper highly original.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 20 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

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