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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Michael T.H. Lai, Emmy Yeung and Rosanna Leung

Policing activities aim to provide a safe environment for tourists. With the recent major protests that have erupted around the world, and the novel use of excessive police

Abstract

Purpose

Policing activities aim to provide a safe environment for tourists. With the recent major protests that have erupted around the world, and the novel use of excessive police force against protestors, people may wonder if the policing deployment is for destination safety or to deter tourists from visiting. This paper aims to investigate anti-police and pro-police attitudes and tourists' behavioural responses towards a popular destination experiencing an ongoing social movement.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected between December 2019 and January 2020 (during the social movement). An online survey with a snowball sampling method was adopted to reach international tourists who were aware of the social movement in Hong Kong.

Findings

The results revealed that an individual with an anti-police attitude was found to be related to cognitive and affective destination images and perceived risks while those holding a pro-police attitude were more concerned with destination images only. No significant correlation was found between attitudes towards policing and travel intention.

Originality/value

This research presents a first attempt to investigate the relationship between tourists' policing attitudes and their behavioural responses during an ongoing social movement in a popular destination city.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 May 2022

Scot Wortley and Akwasi Owusu-Bempah

Black Canadians have a historically tenuous relationship with the police. Negative perceptions of the police held by Black people have traditionally resulted from high…

Abstract

Purpose

Black Canadians have a historically tenuous relationship with the police. Negative perceptions of the police held by Black people have traditionally resulted from high levels of police contact and perceived negative treatment during these encounters. Well-publicized instances of police violence involving Black civilians have also fostered hostility and mistrust of the police, often resulting in social unrest. Recently, in the wake of George Floyd's death at the hands of American police, people across Canada rallied in support of the Black Lives Matter social movement and calls to defund the police entered mainstream political consciousness. At the same time, police leaders have vehemently argued that racial bias within Canadian policing has been greatly reduced as the result of various reform efforts.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper explores the police racism debate in Canada through an analysis of three waves of survey data collected between 1994 and 2019.

Findings

Despite well-publicized reform efforts, the authors' findings demonstrate that little has changed over the past 25 years. Black people still report much higher rates of police stop and search activity than people from other racial backgrounds. Furthermore, racial disparities in negative police contact remain strongly significant after controlling for other theoretically relevant factors, including self-reported deviance and community crime levels. Finally, reflecting their negative experiences, most Black people still perceive Canadian law enforcement as racially biased. Nonetheless, the data do reveal one significant change: the proportion of white people who perceive police discrimination against Black people has increased dramatically over this same time period. The paper concludes by discussing the prospects of meaningful reform in light of the current findings.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature on race and policing through an examination of 25 years of survey data across three waves of collection.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Miltonette Olivia Craig and Jonathan C. Reid

The current study examines the media's depiction of demands to defund the police. Although this call to action has been a part of the public discourse for decades, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The current study examines the media's depiction of demands to defund the police. Although this call to action has been a part of the public discourse for decades, the call has reached mainstream attention following the police-involved death of George Floyd in May 2020. Black Lives Matter, the American Civil Liberties Union, Color of Change, and other prominent organizations have endorsed this call. However, there is a lack of agreement on the “correct” meaning of this socio-political movement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed an inductive content analysis of the news articles using MaxQDA, a qualitative data analysis program. The authors focus on the text and its themes and patterns in the descriptions of #DefundThePolice, both implicit (e.g. tone) and explicit (e.g. defining the movement as problematic). The codes were further refined following open coding to fully develop the existing patterns. The results are organized by the themes within the articles. The findings also include direct quotes to reinforce the themes.

Findings

In the authors' content analysis of news reports, the authors find that the US and UK news outlets report definitions that parallel the M4BL's description of the movement. In this respect, media coverage reflected the basic tenets of the movement accurately as opposed to using definitions that misrepresent the group's primary objective. Although these sampled news articles generally adhered to the basic description of the defund movement, the authors found that the overall substance and tone of coverage varied across outlets. This divergence yielded five overarching themes that included: the involvement of corporate America in the defunding debate, the frequent use of opinion pieces, mentions of history for informing the debate, the inclusion of the police perspective, and reporting that seemed to tie the defund movement to increases in violent crime.

Originality/value

This article explores how the mass media reports and defines the #DefundThePolice movement. Although much debate surrounds this issue, there is limited understanding of the mainstream news media's depiction of the movement. The current study addresses this research gap and informs the defunding debate by examining whether media descriptions of the movement coincide with the Movement for Black Lives benchmark delineation.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2022

Danielle Wallace, Jessica Herbert, Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick and Sarah E. Kabourek

This paper intends to examine the behaviors autistic individuals display during police encounters, determine if there are differences in those behaviors by age and gender…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper intends to examine the behaviors autistic individuals display during police encounters, determine if there are differences in those behaviors by age and gender, then examine if any behaviors cluster or frequently co-occur.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from the Survey of Parents and Caregivers of Individuals with autism spectrum disorder and focusing on a subsample of respondents who report that their autistic loved one has had prior police contact, the authors examine the frequency and clustering of behaviors displayed by autistic individuals during police encounters. The authors use chi-square tests of independence to examine age and gender differences and latent class analysis to assess behavioral clustering.

Findings

The findings show that many behaviors that autistic individuals display during police encounters are associated with social communication and interaction difficulties, such as failure to maintain eye contact and difficulty answering questions. Many of these overlap with police training on deception, compliance and passive resistance. Moreover, the authors find that there are age differences in two behaviors, fidgeting and not responding to one's name. Lastly, the authors find that many of these behaviors cluster in unexpected ways, adding a layer of complexity to encounters between the police and autistic individuals.

Originality/value

Training police officers, autistic individuals and their loved ones on interactions with the police is critical for positive outcomes. Without details on what occurs inside a police encounter, constructing those trainings is difficult. While this study provides only a small glimpse into police encounters with the autistic community, it is a first step toward understanding these multifaceted interactions better.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 May 2022

Sean Patrick Roche, Danielle M. Fenimore and Paul Taylor

American police agencies' swift adoption of body-worn camera (BWC) technology, coupled with the ubiquity of smartphones and social media, has led to a “new visibility” of…

Abstract

Purpose

American police agencies' swift adoption of body-worn camera (BWC) technology, coupled with the ubiquity of smartphones and social media, has led to a “new visibility” of policing. Video recordings are often touted as objective evidentiary accounts of police-civilian interactions. Yet even these recordings are rarely seen in a vacuum, but instead accompanied by headlines and accounts.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a diverse sample of young American adults (N = 943) and an experimental design incorporating a short poorly recorded BWC video embedded within a survey, this study investigates perceptions of the appropriateness of police behavior in an ambiguous situation where officers used deadly force on a Black civilian. All respondents viewed the same video, but were randomly assigned to one of four ultimate outcomes.

Findings

Respondents overwhelmingly reported the BWC video was personally important and significant for a subsequent investigation and public opinion. The experimental manipulation, along with background factors, exerted a substantial effect on perceptions of the officers' actions. Respondents found the officers' actions more appropriate when told the civilian held a weapon.

Originality/value

Americans are divided on the role of police in a democratic society. Objective accounts like video recordings may be used to build consensus, but our results, derived from a novel method and dataset, suggest deeper cognitive biases must also be overcome.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 May 2022

Janne E. Gaub, Michael White, Aili Malm, Seth Watts and Katharine Leigh Brown

Unlike protests against police brutality in the past (2014 and earlier), police officers responding to First Amendment-protected demonstrations in summer 2020 likely were…

Abstract

Purpose

Unlike protests against police brutality in the past (2014 and earlier), police officers responding to First Amendment-protected demonstrations in summer 2020 likely were wearing body-worn cameras(BWCs). This study seeks to understand police perceptions of the effects of BWCs when used in the George Floyd protests.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use survey data from 100 agencies with federally-funded BWCs to assess the prevalence of BWC deployment to George Floyd protests and perceived benefits and limitations of the technology within this unique context.

Findings

About three-quarters of agencies encountered some level of demonstration/protest related to the killing of George Floyd, and the majority of those deployed BWCs during these demonstrations. Respondents indicated evidentiary value of footage was a key reason for doing so, and at least three preconditions for a civilizing effect were present.

Originality/value

Research has documented numerous benefits associated with BWCs, from reductions in use of force and citizen complaints to evidentiary value. However, the extent to which BWC benefits extend to public protests is unclear. The George Floyd protests represent an opportunity to understand the prevalence and usefulness of BWCs in policing public protests.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2022

Wendy M. Koslicki

Following the shooting of Michael Brown, much scholarly attention has been paid to the so-called “Ferguson effect” resulting from rhetoric that public scrutiny of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the shooting of Michael Brown, much scholarly attention has been paid to the so-called “Ferguson effect” resulting from rhetoric that public scrutiny of the police will lead to de-policing. The present study tests this effect due to similar rhetoric that has re-emerged in public and media dialogue in response to Black Lives Matter protests following the killing of George Floyd in May 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Open Minneapolis' Police Use of Force dataset, the study employs interrupted time series analysis models of weekly use of force events against all citizens, as well as use of force against Black citizens specifically. Two models for each population are conducted due to data concerns: a set from January 2019 to June 2021, and a set from January 2019 to September 2020, with the week of George Floyd's death as the interruption point.

Findings

Both models using September 2020 as the cutoff show no statistically significant variance in police use of force against subjects overall or against Black citizens following the immediate aftermath of protests. However, both models using June 2021 as the cutoff demonstrate a statistically significant rise in use of force against both populations following the interruption point.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to examine de-policing following the George Floyd protests, and among the first to examine use of force rates beyond fatal force. Implications for research and practice are discussed, such as data availability and quality, as well as diverse perspectives surrounding de-policing and their implications for police practice.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

Expert briefing
Publication date: 4 September 2020

The killing of African Americans by police is a major political issue; the death rate is three times higher for blacks than whites. Yet this masks huge geographic…

Details

DOI: 10.1108/OXAN-DB255028

ISSN: 2633-304X

Keywords

Geographic
Topical
Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Stewart Selase Hevi, Gifty Enyonam Ketemepi, Caroline Dorkoo and Akorfa Wuttor

This paper aims to investigate how community policing experience elicits public trust in the police, citizens’ psychological safety and community well-being in Ghana.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate how community policing experience elicits public trust in the police, citizens’ psychological safety and community well-being in Ghana.

Design/methodology/approach

A cluster sampling technique was used in the selection of 474 community members, who answered questions relating to community policing experience, public trust in the police, citizens’ psychological safety and community well-being. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the relationships and effects of the hypothesized paths.

Findings

The findings showed that community policing experience was positively related to public trust in the police, citizens’ psychological safety and community well-being in Ghana.

Research limitations/implications

Mediation does not fall within the scope of the current study; hence, issues of indirect effects among the variables were not examined. Nevertheless, future studies should consider investigating the phenomenon through mediation analysis.

Practical implications

The study further highlights that probable negative consequences of divulging information to the police about potential or actual crime may hinder citizens from engaging with police. Hence, police administrators must find ways to conceal identities of whistle blowers on crime and its related issues, so they do not suffer any personal cost.

Originality/value

In this research, the academic scope of community policing was expanded by linking the concepts of public trust in police, citizens’ psychological safety and community well-being, which the study admits has been undertaken separately in empirical policing literature but not within the context of developing countries such as Ghana.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2022

Elizabeth McGhee Hassrick, Guy Weissinger, Catherine VanFossen, Rose Milani, Jonas Ventimiglia, Isaiah Delane-Vir Hoffman, Matthew Wintersteen, Tita Atte, Sherira Fernandes and Guy Diamond

Autistic youth face higher risks for experiencing mental health crises. To develop and test a county-level social network measure of care coordination between police

Abstract

Purpose

Autistic youth face higher risks for experiencing mental health crises. To develop and test a county-level social network measure of care coordination between police departments and other systems that support autistic youth experiencing suicidal crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

To measure the structure of care coordination for autistic youth experiencing suicidal crisis, the authors created a roster of all police departments and youth servicing organizations in two East Coast counties in the United States. They met or exceeded the whole network recruitment threshold of 70% completion in both counties. From the data, the authors created a directed matrix for each county of all reported connections, which they used to create sociograms and calculate standard network measures, including indegree, outdegree and total degree for each organization in the network. Data management and processing were done using R-programming and ORA.

Findings

Social network findings indicated that about half of all police departments surveyed coordinate care for autistic youth in suicidal crisis. Coordination varied by county, with nonpolice organizations acting as connectors between police and other nonpolice organizations. Two structural configurations were found, including a nonpolice organizational hub structure and a lead police structure. More research is needed to determine how different police integration structures shape care coordination for autistic youth.

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the small number of counties included in the study. A larger sample of counties is required for generalizable results.

Practical implications

This article introduces new tools and approaches to assist police in building their capacity to measure and improve their coordination of care with other community systems during crisis situations for youth on the autism spectrum. Network science (e.g. matrix and graph theoretic algebra methods) can be used to measure the configuration of relationships police departments have with complex multi-level healthcare systems.

Social implications

Implications for findings include the consideration of police integration across systems in ways that produce new collaboration possibilities to support autistic youth experiencing suicidal crisis.

Originality/value

While police departments play a critical role in coordinating care for youth in suicidal crisis, little is known if or how police departments collaborate with other systems to provide assistance for autistic youth during a suicidal crisis. Improving care continuity within and between systems could potentially address clinical and structural challenges and reduce risk for autistic youth experiencing a suicidal crisis.

Details

Policing: An International Journal, vol. 45 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

Keywords

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