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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Huma Shah and Kevin Warwick

The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel‐paired, three‐participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel‐paired, three‐participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the “jury‐service” one‐to‐one measure described two years later in a radio broadcast. Both versions were instantiated in practical Turing tests during the 18th Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence hosted at the University of Reading, UK, in October 2008. This involved jury‐service tests in the preliminary phase and parallel‐paired in the final phase.

Design/methodology/approach

Almost 100 test results from the final have been evaluated and this paper reports some intriguing nuances which arose as a result of the unique contest.

Findings

In the 2008 competition, Turing's 30 per cent pass rate is not achieved by any machine in the parallel‐paired tests but Turing's modified prediction: “at least in a hundred years time” is remembered.

Originality/value

The paper presents actual responses from “modern Elizas” to human interrogators during contest dialogues that show considerable improvement in artificial conversational entities (ACE). Unlike their ancestor – Weizenbaum's natural language understanding system – ACE are now able to recall, share information and disclose personal interests.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1937

The pitch of the blades of an air‐screw is adjustable by means of a movable cylinder which is mounted beyond the end of the hub and moves over a fixed piston to either…

Abstract

The pitch of the blades of an air‐screw is adjustable by means of a movable cylinder which is mounted beyond the end of the hub and moves over a fixed piston to either side of which an actuating liquid is conveyed down the hollow airscrew shaft and the cylinder has an axial extension which takes a bearing inside that shaft. The air screw shaft a4 is hollow and driven by gearing from the engine shaft a2. Inside the shaft are fitted two concentric tubes ƒ, ƒ1 of which the tube ƒ is secured to the shaft a4 by teeth ƒ2 and the mounting includes steady bearings ƒ6 which are serrated to allow oil to pass, and further steady sleeves between the two tubes are provided at ƒ3. The outer end of tube ƒ is attached to a piston g secured thereto by a nut g1. Over the piston is a cylinder h having a closed end h1 and an inner axial extension sleeve h2 which takes a bearing on the outside of the pipe ƒ on annular rings h3 and also on the inside of the shaft h4. The end of the space between the concentric tubes is closed by a plug h3. When liquid pressure is applied to either side of the piston, movement of the cylinder is transmitted to the pins m4 on the blade roots by the bolts m and links m3, the connection of the two linkages is formed as a slipper movable within a guide m5. For the purpose of ensuring oil tightness the junctions of the supply pipes j1, j2 with the supply tubes ƒ, ƒ1 are formed with spring‐held glands j4, j5, j10, j9.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Ryan S.H. Yang, Derek R. Braden, Guang‐Ming Zhang and David M. Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the application of an acoustic micro‐imaging (AMI) inspection technique in monitoring solder joints through lifetime performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the application of an acoustic micro‐imaging (AMI) inspection technique in monitoring solder joints through lifetime performance and demonstrate the robustness of the monitoring through analysis of AMI data.

Design/methodology/approach

Accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) test data on a flip chip test board were collected through AMI imaging. Subsequently, informative features and parameters of solder joints in acoustic images were measured and analysed. Through analysing histogram distance, mean intensity and grey area of the solder joints in acoustic images, cracks between the solder bump and chip interface were tracked and monitored. The results are in accord with associated Finite Element (FE) prediction.

Findings

At defective bumps, the formation of a crack causes a larger acoustic impedance mismatch which provides a stronger ultrasound reflection. The intensity of solder joints in the acoustic image increase according to the level of damage during the ATC tests. By analysing the variation of intensity and area, solder joint fatigue failure was monitored. A failure distribution plot shows a normal distribution pattern, where corner joints have the lowest reliability and are more likely to fail first. A strong agreement between AMI monitoring test data and FE prediction was observed, demonstrating the feasibility of through lifetime monitoring of solder joints using AMI.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the feasibility of the novel application of AMI inspection to monitor solder joint through lifetime performance non‐destructively. Solder joints' real life conditions can be tracked by an AMI technique, hence solder joint fatigue failure cycles during the ATC tests can be monitored and analysed non‐destructively.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Jie Zhao, Xindan Cui, Yanhe Zhu and Shufeng Tang

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and the multi‐mode locomotion function of the new reconfigurable modular robotic system – UBot system – which combines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and the multi‐mode locomotion function of the new reconfigurable modular robotic system – UBot system – which combines the advantages from the chain‐based and lattice‐based self‐reconfigurable robots.

Design/methodology/approach

The UBot modules the authors have designed are based on the universal joint and of cubic shape with two rotational joints and reliable automatic connecting mechanism. The modules are compact and flexible enough for locomotion and reconfiguration. The system can move in different modes to satisfy different terrains, through changing the modules' local connections and rotation of modules' joints.

Findings

The UBot system can flexibly move in the modes of cross, loop, quadruped, snake‐type and other type of locomotion modes. All the locomotion has been implemented in the physical experiments.

Originality/value

The UBot module is the new reconfigurable module which has two joints in one unit of regular cubic space and four reliable automatic connecting surfaces. A group of the modules is able to change its connective configuration by changing their local connections and has functionality of the corresponding traditional robotic system. Since it can travel through terrains that may not be fully characterized ahead of time, the system can be used in a large variety of tasks, such as transportation, assembly, inspection and exploration.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

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Book part
Publication date: 26 February 2016

Sarah Barriage

This chapter explores the relationship between unionization in the information sector and the concepts of human rights and social justice.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the relationship between unionization in the information sector and the concepts of human rights and social justice.

Methodology/approach

Recent trends in unionization rates in the United States and Canada are examined, as well as examples of union activity in the information sector drawn from the Union Library Workers blog. The concept of social justice unionism and its applicability to the information sector is discussed.

Findings

While overall unionization rates in both the United States and Canada are in decline, unionization rates in libraries and other information institutions in both countries are among the highest of any industrial sector. Unions continue to engage in activities that promote the rights of their workers and the people who benefit from the services these workers provide.

Social implications

Social justice unionism offers a way for library workers to actively promote social justice for all, not just their workers and their patrons, through a commitment to broader issues affecting their communities at large.

Originality/value

Much of the work on unionization in the information sector focuses on “bread-and-butter” issues related directly to unionized workers and the benefits that unionization brings to both the workers and their workplaces. This chapter explores the role of the union in promoting human rights and social justice on a broader scale, introducing a discussion of the concept of social justice unionism.

Details

Perspectives on Libraries as Institutions of Human Rights and Social Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-057-2

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Markus Jäntti, Eva M. Sierminska and Philippe Van Kerm

This paper considers a parametric model for the joint distribution of income and wealth. The model is used to analyze income and wealth inequality in five OECD countries…

Abstract

This paper considers a parametric model for the joint distribution of income and wealth. The model is used to analyze income and wealth inequality in five OECD countries using comparable household-level survey data. We focus on the dependence parameter between the two variables and study whether accounting for wealth and income jointly reveals a different pattern of social inequality than the traditional “income only” approach. We find that cross-country variations in the dependence parameter effectively account only for a small fraction of cross-country differences in a bivariate measure of inequality. The index appears primarily driven by differences in inequality in the wealth distribution.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2020

Rakesh Patidar and Sunil Agrawal

The purpose of this paper is to study and develop supply chain structure of traditional Indian agri-fresh food supply chain (AFSC). This paper proposes a mathematical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study and develop supply chain structure of traditional Indian agri-fresh food supply chain (AFSC). This paper proposes a mathematical model to design a traditional Indian AFSC to minimize total distribution cost and post-harvest losses in the chain.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper formulates two mathematical models to structure and represent the flow of products in the existing chain. First, a three-echelon, multi-period, multi-product, mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model is formulated to minimize the total distribution cost incurred in the chain. Further, the developed formulation is extended by considering the perishability of products in the second model.

Findings

A real case study problem of Mandsaur district (India) is solved in LINGO 17.0 package to check the validity of the formulated models. The perishable (second) model of AFSC reports better results in terms of costs and post-harvest losses minimization. The results revealed that 92% of the total distribution cost incurred in the transportation of products from farmers to the hubs.

Research limitations/implications

This paper includes implications for redesigning an existing supply chain network by incorporating an appropriate transportation strategy from farmers to hubs to minimize transportation inefficiency and enhance the profitability of farmers.

Practical implications

The formulated AFSC model would help managers and policymakers to identify optimal locations for hubs where required infrastructure would be developed.

Originality/value

According to the author's best knowledge, this paper is the first to design traditional Indian AFSC by considering the perishability of products.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Partha Gangopadhyay and Siddharth Jain

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests from the following four major domains: economic, human security and vulnerability of people, aggressiveness or militancy of the armed forces and global and regional climates.

Design/methodology/approach

Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach has been applied on annual data from 1960-2017, to deal with the problems of autocorrelation and non-stationarity of key variables.

Findings

First, an increase in crop yield, cereal productivity, food productivity and per capita availability of arable land unequivocally and significantly lower the severity of conflict in Myanmar in the long run. Second, the authors uncover strong evidence that the intensity of conflicts bears a positive relationship with the vulnerability of the people of Myanmar. Third, the authors detect that both regional and global climate variables have limited and rather inconsistent impacts on subnational conflicts in Myanmar. Finally, the authors find that the aggressiveness (militancy index) of the armed forces has significant impacts upon subnational conflicts and economic variables of Myanmar in the long run.

Originality/value

This paper is completely data-driven and explains the long-term dynamics of the intensity of the civil war in Myanmar. ARDL bounds testing approach has been used to examine the interrelationships between subnational conflicts in Myanmar and other variables of interests. It is a novel approach, which overcomes the problems of autocorrelation and nonstationarity and offers reliable results.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Hamidreza Arabshahi and Vahid Lotfi

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear seismic response of arch dams.

Design/methodology/approach

The seismic behavior of a typical thin double curvature arch dam is studied by a nonlinear finite element program developed by the authors. Joints are modeled with the use of zero thickness interface elements. Various constitutive relationships are implemented to account for sliding and opening along the joints. Effects of joint sliding parameters and foundation rock flexibility are also considered in the analyses.

Findings

The findings provide information about dynamic stress distribution through the dam body and stability of the dam as a whole and also the local stability of the most critical concrete blocks in the dam body.

Practical implications

Useful information for designing new arch dams or seismic evaluation of constructed dams.

Originality/value

This paper takes into account the stability of concrete blocks in the dam body as well as stability of the structure as a whole. Except for contraction joints, perimeter and concrete lift joints are also modeled. Practical as well as detailed models of sliding are provided for the analyses. The paper offers practical help to design and dam engineers.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 November 2018

Priya Kansal and Seema Singh

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an exploratory analysis of the demographic factors and investors’ characteristics, which cause changes in the extent of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to conduct an exploratory analysis of the demographic factors and investors’ characteristics, which cause changes in the extent of overconfidence level and its constituents among the individuals.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey has been conducted to explore the determinants of overconfidence and its constituents with the help of a well-structured close-ended questionnaire. The four constituents of overconfidence considered for the study are “better than average effect,” “planning fallacy,” “self-attribution” and “positive illusion.” The collected data are analyzed with the help of t-test, ANOVA and standard ordinary least square regression.

Findings

The results show that those who earn high, have more dependents, share the earning responsibility, have high investment frequency, less time horizon and more investment experience and invest in large cap stocks are more subject to the overconfidence. The study also concludes that gender, age and general education do not affect the level of overconfidence.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the study are useful for the market regulators, financial educators, stock market advisors and individual investors in avoiding costly investment mistakes, especially when transiting from one category of demographic and investment characteristics to another category of demographic and investment characteristics.

Originality/value

The study is unique in itself, as it contributes an instrument to quantify the level of overconfidence among the individual investors. Moreover, the study attempts to explore the impact of all demographic and investment characteristics in one go, which makes it a valuable contribution in the existing literature.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

Keywords

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