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Article
Publication date: 4 May 2010

Huma Shah and Kevin Warwick

The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel‐paired, three‐participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel‐paired, three‐participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the “jury‐service” one‐to‐one measure described two years later in a radio broadcast. Both versions were instantiated in practical Turing tests during the 18th Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence hosted at the University of Reading, UK, in October 2008. This involved jury‐service tests in the preliminary phase and parallel‐paired in the final phase.

Design/methodology/approach

Almost 100 test results from the final have been evaluated and this paper reports some intriguing nuances which arose as a result of the unique contest.

Findings

In the 2008 competition, Turing's 30 per cent pass rate is not achieved by any machine in the parallel‐paired tests but Turing's modified prediction: “at least in a hundred years time” is remembered.

Originality/value

The paper presents actual responses from “modern Elizas” to human interrogators during contest dialogues that show considerable improvement in artificial conversational entities (ACE). Unlike their ancestor – Weizenbaum's natural language understanding system – ACE are now able to recall, share information and disclose personal interests.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1937

The pitch of the blades of an air‐screw is adjustable by means of a movable cylinder which is mounted beyond the end of the hub and moves over a fixed piston to either…

Abstract

The pitch of the blades of an air‐screw is adjustable by means of a movable cylinder which is mounted beyond the end of the hub and moves over a fixed piston to either side of which an actuating liquid is conveyed down the hollow airscrew shaft and the cylinder has an axial extension which takes a bearing inside that shaft. The air screw shaft a4 is hollow and driven by gearing from the engine shaft a2. Inside the shaft are fitted two concentric tubes ƒ, ƒ1 of which the tube ƒ is secured to the shaft a4 by teeth ƒ2 and the mounting includes steady bearings ƒ6 which are serrated to allow oil to pass, and further steady sleeves between the two tubes are provided at ƒ3. The outer end of tube ƒ is attached to a piston g secured thereto by a nut g1. Over the piston is a cylinder h having a closed end h1 and an inner axial extension sleeve h2 which takes a bearing on the outside of the pipe ƒ on annular rings h3 and also on the inside of the shaft h4. The end of the space between the concentric tubes is closed by a plug h3. When liquid pressure is applied to either side of the piston, movement of the cylinder is transmitted to the pins m4 on the blade roots by the bolts m and links m3, the connection of the two linkages is formed as a slipper movable within a guide m5. For the purpose of ensuring oil tightness the junctions of the supply pipes j1, j2 with the supply tubes ƒ, ƒ1 are formed with spring‐held glands j4, j5, j10, j9.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 3 February 2012

Ryan S.H. Yang, Derek R. Braden, Guang‐Ming Zhang and David M. Harvey

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the application of an acoustic micro‐imaging (AMI) inspection technique in monitoring solder joints through lifetime performance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the application of an acoustic micro‐imaging (AMI) inspection technique in monitoring solder joints through lifetime performance and demonstrate the robustness of the monitoring through analysis of AMI data.

Design/methodology/approach

Accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) test data on a flip chip test board were collected through AMI imaging. Subsequently, informative features and parameters of solder joints in acoustic images were measured and analysed. Through analysing histogram distance, mean intensity and grey area of the solder joints in acoustic images, cracks between the solder bump and chip interface were tracked and monitored. The results are in accord with associated Finite Element (FE) prediction.

Findings

At defective bumps, the formation of a crack causes a larger acoustic impedance mismatch which provides a stronger ultrasound reflection. The intensity of solder joints in the acoustic image increase according to the level of damage during the ATC tests. By analysing the variation of intensity and area, solder joint fatigue failure was monitored. A failure distribution plot shows a normal distribution pattern, where corner joints have the lowest reliability and are more likely to fail first. A strong agreement between AMI monitoring test data and FE prediction was observed, demonstrating the feasibility of through lifetime monitoring of solder joints using AMI.

Originality/value

The paper indicates the feasibility of the novel application of AMI inspection to monitor solder joint through lifetime performance non‐destructively. Solder joints' real life conditions can be tracked by an AMI technique, hence solder joint fatigue failure cycles during the ATC tests can be monitored and analysed non‐destructively.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 24 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 March 2012

Jie Zhao, Xindan Cui, Yanhe Zhu and Shufeng Tang

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and the multi‐mode locomotion function of the new reconfigurable modular robotic system – UBot system – which combines…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the design and the multi‐mode locomotion function of the new reconfigurable modular robotic system – UBot system – which combines the advantages from the chain‐based and lattice‐based self‐reconfigurable robots.

Design/methodology/approach

The UBot modules the authors have designed are based on the universal joint and of cubic shape with two rotational joints and reliable automatic connecting mechanism. The modules are compact and flexible enough for locomotion and reconfiguration. The system can move in different modes to satisfy different terrains, through changing the modules' local connections and rotation of modules' joints.

Findings

The UBot system can flexibly move in the modes of cross, loop, quadruped, snake‐type and other type of locomotion modes. All the locomotion has been implemented in the physical experiments.

Originality/value

The UBot module is the new reconfigurable module which has two joints in one unit of regular cubic space and four reliable automatic connecting surfaces. A group of the modules is able to change its connective configuration by changing their local connections and has functionality of the corresponding traditional robotic system. Since it can travel through terrains that may not be fully characterized ahead of time, the system can be used in a large variety of tasks, such as transportation, assembly, inspection and exploration.

Details

Industrial Robot: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-991X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 February 2016

Sarah Barriage

This chapter explores the relationship between unionization in the information sector and the concepts of human rights and social justice.

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter explores the relationship between unionization in the information sector and the concepts of human rights and social justice.

Methodology/approach

Recent trends in unionization rates in the United States and Canada are examined, as well as examples of union activity in the information sector drawn from the Union Library Workers blog. The concept of social justice unionism and its applicability to the information sector is discussed.

Findings

While overall unionization rates in both the United States and Canada are in decline, unionization rates in libraries and other information institutions in both countries are among the highest of any industrial sector. Unions continue to engage in activities that promote the rights of their workers and the people who benefit from the services these workers provide.

Social implications

Social justice unionism offers a way for library workers to actively promote social justice for all, not just their workers and their patrons, through a commitment to broader issues affecting their communities at large.

Originality/value

Much of the work on unionization in the information sector focuses on “bread-and-butter” issues related directly to unionized workers and the benefits that unionization brings to both the workers and their workplaces. This chapter explores the role of the union in promoting human rights and social justice on a broader scale, introducing a discussion of the concept of social justice unionism.

Details

Perspectives on Libraries as Institutions of Human Rights and Social Justice
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-057-2

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 November 2021

Moritz Classen and Thomas Friedli

The purpose of this study is to explore organizational enablers of frontline employees’ (FLEs) service-sales ambidexterity (SSA) in industrial firms expanding their…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore organizational enablers of frontline employees’ (FLEs) service-sales ambidexterity (SSA) in industrial firms expanding their digital service portfolios.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a qualitative study of five industrial firms pursuing digital service growth and, for this purpose, collected and analyzed interview data obtained from 50 service and sales managers and FLEs across three continents.

Findings

The authors identify and explain eight organizational enablers of digital service-sales ambidexterity (DSSA), operating at the macro, micro and meso levels.

Practical implications

Service and sales managers should use the identified organizational enablers to exploit the established service business and to explore new digital growth paths.

Originality/value

The study expands the prior understanding of SSA by advancing the concept of DSSA, unpacking its multilevel dynamics and operationalizing eight organizational enablers.

Book part
Publication date: 10 June 2021

John Bancroft and Di Li

This chapter covers three main concepts: it provides an overview of supply chain management (SCM), introduces the concepts of procurement and what is entailed within this…

Abstract

This chapter covers three main concepts: it provides an overview of supply chain management (SCM), introduces the concepts of procurement and what is entailed within this function, and explains how inventory is managed. In the first section, SCM is considered broadly but also in the context of hospitality. The key roles and objectives of SCM as well as the significance of supply chain risk and disruption are considered. In the second section, the concept of sourcing is discussed. Sourcing is a critical function in any organization: without this, an organization would cease to operate. The importance of supplier selection is explored, with methods to make the most appropriate selection and for subsequently managing suppliers. Finally, the third section focuses on how inventory management can be optimized. Concepts such as economic order quantity (EOQ) and ABC analysis are explored, along with alternatives to traditional inventory management methods.

Details

Operations Management in the Hospitality Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-541-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 August 2015

Markus Jäntti, Eva M. Sierminska and Philippe Van Kerm

This paper considers a parametric model for the joint distribution of income and wealth. The model is used to analyze income and wealth inequality in five OECD countries…

Abstract

This paper considers a parametric model for the joint distribution of income and wealth. The model is used to analyze income and wealth inequality in five OECD countries using comparable household-level survey data. We focus on the dependence parameter between the two variables and study whether accounting for wealth and income jointly reveals a different pattern of social inequality than the traditional “income only” approach. We find that cross-country variations in the dependence parameter effectively account only for a small fraction of cross-country differences in a bivariate measure of inequality. The index appears primarily driven by differences in inequality in the wealth distribution.

Details

Measurement of Poverty, Deprivation, and Economic Mobility
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-386-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 May 2021

Nusrat Jafrin, Masnun Mahi, Muhammad Mehedi Masud and Deboshree Ghosh

The study attempts to establish the relationship between demographic dividend and GDP growth rate by utilising panel data from 1990 to 2017 in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan…

Abstract

Purpose

The study attempts to establish the relationship between demographic dividend and GDP growth rate by utilising panel data from 1990 to 2017 in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Nepal and Sri Lanka.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs the pooled OLS model, using data from the World Bank's database for the period 1990–2017 for five selected South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) countries.

Findings

The results reveal that demographic dividend affects economic growth in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Pakistan, thereby supporting the demographic dividend hypothesis. For the country-specific analysis, it was also observed that demographic dividend impacts the economic growth of the five SAARC countries. In addition, growth of gross capital formation is highly significant for both aggregated and country-specific analyses. However, economic growth is unaffected by trade openness and unemployment rates. Moreover, the rate of labour force participation is negatively related to the GDP growth rate in the aggregated model.

Originality/value

This paper bestows insight into the fact that the impact of demographic dividend on the economic growth of the SAARC regions cannot be fully actualised if the workforce are underutilised. This region needs to adopt appropriate policies to strengthen the considerable benefits of demographic dividend on the economic growth.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2009

Hamidreza Arabshahi and Vahid Lotfi

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain an insight into the effects of sliding and/or joint opening at the contraction, perimeter and concrete lift joints on the nonlinear seismic response of arch dams.

Design/methodology/approach

The seismic behavior of a typical thin double curvature arch dam is studied by a nonlinear finite element program developed by the authors. Joints are modeled with the use of zero thickness interface elements. Various constitutive relationships are implemented to account for sliding and opening along the joints. Effects of joint sliding parameters and foundation rock flexibility are also considered in the analyses.

Findings

The findings provide information about dynamic stress distribution through the dam body and stability of the dam as a whole and also the local stability of the most critical concrete blocks in the dam body.

Practical implications

Useful information for designing new arch dams or seismic evaluation of constructed dams.

Originality/value

This paper takes into account the stability of concrete blocks in the dam body as well as stability of the structure as a whole. Except for contraction joints, perimeter and concrete lift joints are also modeled. Practical as well as detailed models of sliding are provided for the analyses. The paper offers practical help to design and dam engineers.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

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