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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Chunwei Li, Quansheng Sun and Yancheng Liu

As the service time of bridges increases, the degradation of bending capacity, the lack of safety reserves and the decrease in bridge reliability are common in early built…

Abstract

Purpose

As the service time of bridges increases, the degradation of bending capacity, the lack of safety reserves and the decrease in bridge reliability are common in early built bridges. Due to the defective lateral hinge joints, hollow slab bridges are prone to cracking of hinge joint between plates, transverse connection failure and stress of single plates under the action of long-term overload and repeated load. These phenomena seriously affect the bending capacity of the hollow slab bridge. This paper aims to describe a new method of simply supported hollow slab bridge reinforcement called polyurethane–cement (PUC) composite flexural reinforcement.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper first studies the preparation and tensile and compressive properties of PUC composite materials. Then, relying on the actual bridge strengthening project, the 5 × 20 m prestressed concrete simply supported hollow slab was reinforced with PUC composites with a thickness of 3 cm within 18 m of the beam bottom. Finally, the load test was used to compare the performance of the bridge before and after the strengthening.

Findings

Results showed that PUC has high compressive and tensile strengths of 72 and 46 MPa. The static test revealed that the measured values and verification coefficients of the measured points were reduced compared with those before strengthening, the deflection and strain were reduced by more than 15%, the measured section stiffness was improved by approximately 20%. After the strengthening, the lateral connection of the bridge, the strength and rigidity of the structure and the structural integrity and safety reserves were all significantly improved. The application of PUC to the flexural strengthening of the bridge structure has a significant effect.

Originality/value

As a new type of material, PUC composite is light, remarkable and has good performance. When used in the bending strengthening of bridge structures, this material can improve the strength, rigidity, safety reserve and bending capacity of bridges, thus demonstrating its good engineering application prospect.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2020

Hongshuai Gao and Quansheng Sun

With the rapid development of transportation and the continuous increase of traffic volume and load level, some bridges cannot meet the use requirements, and the demand…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid development of transportation and the continuous increase of traffic volume and load level, some bridges cannot meet the use requirements, and the demand for bridge strengthening is growing. Furthermore, bridges are affected by factors such as structure and external environment. With the increase of service time, the deterioration of bridges is also increasing. In order to avoid the waste caused by demolition and reconstruction, it is necessary to strengthen the bridge accurately and effectively to improve the bearing capacity and durability, eliminate the hidden dangers, and ensure the normal operation of the bridge. It is of great significance to study the strengthening methods. Compared with traditional strengthening methods, the advantages of using new materials and new technology to strengthen bridges are more obvious. This paper introduces a new method for bridge active strengthening, called modified polyurethane cement with prestressed steel wire rope (MPC-PSWR).

Design/methodology/approach

Relying on the actual bridge strengthening project, five T-beams of the superstructure of the bridge are taken as the research object, and the T-beams before and after strengthening are evaluated, calculated, and analyzed by finite element simulation and field load test. By comparing the numerical simulation and load test data, the strengthening effect of modified polyurethane cement with prestressed steel wire rope on stiffness, strength, and bearing capacity is verified, which proves that the strengthening effect of MPC-PSWR is effective for strengthening.

Findings

MPC-PSWR can effectively reduce deflection, cracks, and strain, thereby significantly improving the flexural capacity of existing bridges. Under the design load, the deflection, crack width, and stress of the strengthened beams decrease in varying degrees. The overall performance of the beams strengthened by MPC-PSWR has been improved, and the flexural performance meets the requirements of the code.

Originality/value

MPC-PSWR is an innovative bridge-strengthening method. Through the analysis of its MPC-PSWR effect, the MPC-PSWR method with reference to significance for the design and construction of similar bridges is put forward.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 June 2017

Danie Roy Anasco Bastin, Umesh Kumar Sharma and Pradeep Bhargava

The main aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of various strengthening techniques in restoring the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of various strengthening techniques in restoring the structural performance of reinforced concrete (RC) beams damaged by elevated temperatures.

Design/methodology/approach

Three different strengthening techniques, namely, high-strength fibre reinforced concrete (HSFRC), ferrocement (FC) jacketing and externally bonded fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) were used. Series of RC beams were casted, heated, strengthened and tested to investigate the influence of various variables. The variables of the study were type of strengthening and level of heat damage.

Findings

Externally bonded FRP was found to be the best among the various techniques, especially with respect to strength and stiffness restoration. On the contrary, the FRP strengthening was not that effective in restoring the energy absorption capacity of beams compared to HSFRC and FC techniques of strengthening. The chosen strengthening techniques were able to restore the failure mode of beams to flexural failure, which was found to have changed to shear failure in case of heated unstrenghthened beams.

Originality/value

This research program has contributed to the fundamental understanding of designing post fire retrofit solutions for RC beams.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2022

Nursyamsi Nursyamsi, Johannes Tarigan, Muhammad Aswin, Badorul Hisham Abu Bakar and Harianto Hardjasaputra

Damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements is inevitable. Such damage can be the result of several factors, including aggressive environmental conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Damage to reinforced concrete (RC) structural elements is inevitable. Such damage can be the result of several factors, including aggressive environmental conditions, overloading, inadequate design, poor work execution, fire, storm, earthquakes etc. Therefore, repairing and strengthening is one way to improve damaged structures, so that they can be reutilized. In this research, the use of an ultra high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) layer is proposed as a strengthening material to rehabilitate damaged-RC beams. Different strengthening schemes pertaining to the structural performance of the retrofitted RC beams due to the flexural load were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 13 normal RC beams were prepared. All the beams were subjected to a four-point flexural test. One beam was selected as the control beam and tested to failure, whereas the remaining beams were tested under a load of up to 50% of the ultimate load capacity of the control beam. The damaged beams were then strengthened using a UHPFRC layer with two different schemes; strip-shape and U-shape schemes, before all the beams were tested to failure.

Findings

Based on the test results, the control beam and all strengthened beams failed in the flexural mode. Compared to the control beam, the damaged-RC beams strengthened using the strip-shape scheme provided an increase in the ultimate load capacity ranging from 14.50% to 43.48% (or an increase of 1.1450 to 1.4348 times), whereas for the U-shape scheme beams ranged from 48.70% to 149.37% (or an increase of 1.4870–2.4937 times). The U-shape scheme was more effective in rehabilitating the damaged-RC beams. The UHPFRC mixtures are workable, as well easy to place and cast into the formworks. Furthermore, the damaged-RC beams strengthened using strip-shape scheme and U-shape scheme generated ductility factors of greater than 4 and 3, respectively. According to Eurocode8, these values are suitable for seismically active regions. Therefore, the strengthened damaged-RC beams under this study can quite feasibly be used in such regions.

Research limitations/implications

Observations of crack patterns were not accompanied by measurements of crack widths due to the unavailability of a microcrack meter in the laboratory. The cost of the strengthening system application were not evaluated in this study, so the users should consider wisely related to the application of this method on the constructions.

Practical implications

Rehabilitation of the damaged-RC beams exhibited an adequate structural performance, where all strengthened RC beams fail in the flexural mode, as well as having increment in the failure load capacity and ductility. So, the used strengthening system in this study can be applied for the building construction in the seismic regions.

Social implications

Aside from equipment, application of this strengthening system need also the labours.

Originality/value

The use of sand blasting on the surfaces of the damaged-RC beams, as well as the application of UHPFRC layers of different thicknesses and shapes to strengthen the damaged-RC beams, provides a novel innovation in the strengthening of damaged-RC beams, which can be applicable to either bridge or building constructions.

Details

Construction Innovation , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 November 2021

Kexin Zhang, Dachao Li, Xinyuan Shen, Wenyu Hou, Yanfeng Li and Xingwei Xue

This paper aims to describe carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) bars as a way to strengthen a 40-year-old stone arch bridge. To investigate effectiveness of the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) bars as a way to strengthen a 40-year-old stone arch bridge. To investigate effectiveness of the strengthening method, fielding-load tests were carried out before and after strengthening.

Design/methodology/approach

High-strength CFRP bars with minor radius, high tensile strain and good corrosion resistance were used in this reinforcement. The construction process for strengthening with CFRP bars – including CFRP bars cutting, crack grouting, original structural surface treatment, implant drilling, CFRP bars installation and pouring mortar – was described. Ultimate bearing capacity of the bridge after strengthening was discussed.

Findings

The results of concrete stress and deflection show that the strength and stiffness of the strengthened bridge are improved. The strengthened way with CFRP bars is feasible and effective.

Originality/value

This paper describes CFRP bars as a way to strengthen a 40-year-old stone arch bridge.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Jiawei Wang, Yanmin Jia, Guanhua Zhang, Jigang Han and Jinliang Liu

Most existing studies are confined to model beam tests, which cannot reflect the actual strengthening effects provided by prestressed carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer…

Abstract

Purpose

Most existing studies are confined to model beam tests, which cannot reflect the actual strengthening effects provided by prestressed carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plates to existing bridges. Hence, the actual capacity for strengthening existing bridges with prestressed CFRP plates is becoming an important concern for researchers. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Static load tests of in-service prestressed concrete hollow slabs before and after strengthening are conducted. Based on the results of the tests, the failure characteristics, failure mechanism and bending performance of the slabs are compared and analyzed. Nonlinear finite element method is also used to calculate the flexural strength of the strengthened beams prestressed with CFRP plates.

Findings

Test results show that prestressed CFRP plate strengthening technology changes the failure mode of hollow slabs, delays the development of deflection and cracks, raises cracking and ultimate load-carrying capacity and remarkably improves mechanical behavior of the slab. In addition, the nonlinear finite element analyses are in good agreement with the test results.

Originality/value

Strengthening with prestressed CFRP plates has greater advantages compared to traditional CFRP plate strengthening technology and improves active material utilization. The presented finite element method can be applied in the flexural response calculations of strengthened beams prestressed with CFRP plates. The research results provide technical basis for maintenance and reinforcement design of existing bridges.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 9 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

R.V. Balendran, T.M. Rana and A. Nadeem

Presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and plates in the strengthening of concrete structures. An insight may be…

1871

Abstract

Presents an overview and discusses the applications of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) sheets and plates in the strengthening of concrete structures. An insight may be obtained from the discussions made to enhance the use of these techniques for productive use. In addition, selected case studies have been furnished where FRP materials have been used for repairing/retrofitting, emphasizing the application of different types of FRP materials in strengthening concrete structures. Concludes that the use of FRP material is rapidly gaining pace and replacing the traditional steel or metal based materials due to its enhanced properties and cost effectiveness.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Prashant Rangrao Jagtap and Sachin M. Pore

This study aims to use carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates to strengthen the compression flange of structural I-beam so as to avoid local failure of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to use carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates to strengthen the compression flange of structural I-beam so as to avoid local failure of compression flange and to take a load to its full capacity. Light weight beam (LB) 100 at 5.1 kg/m and LB 115 at 8.1 kg/m are used for this purpose. The compression flange of a beam is well prepared to ensure a rust-free surface so as to achieve proper bonding between the flange and fiber sheet to avoid de-bonding at the time of testing. A flange of the beam is strengthened using CFRP sheets applied to it with the help of adhesive. The beam with CFRP is cured in air for 48 h before testing. Experiments are performed in a loading frame of 100 T capacity. Results show that the load carrying capacity of the strengthened beam increased by 25-30 per cent compared to the control beam (non-strengthened), and the local failure of the compression flange due to the applied load is totally avoided. The elastic behavior of the strengthened beam is also increased compared to the non-strengthened beam, which gives a higher yield point.

Design/methodology/approach

Different methods exist for strengthening various structures. Use of CFRP appears to be an excellent solution. Vast research has been conducted on the use of CFRP for strengthening and retrofitting of steel structures. The load carrying capacities of steel beams can be increased by strengthening their compression flange by using CFRP and avoiding the local failure of beams at early stages.

Findings

The load carrying capacity of a beam strengthened with CFRP increased by 25-30 per cent compared to the non-strengthened beam. In addition, the elastic behavior of the strengthened beam is also improved.

Originality/value

The compression flange of the steel beam is strengthened using different layers of CFRP strips to avoid the local failure, and its deflection is observed using linear variable deformation transducer.

Details

Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1726-0531

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2021

Haiwei Zhu, Hongfa Yu, Haiyan Ma, Bo Da and Qiquan Mei

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine environments and ultimately to provide basis and recommendations for the durability design of reinforced concrete (RC) structures.

Design/methodology/approach

Slag concrete specimens mixed with four kinds of rust inhibitors and coated with four kinds of surface strengthening materials were corroded by seawater exposure for 365 days, and the key parameters of chloride ion diffusion were obtained by testing. Then a new service life prediction model, based on the modified model for chloride ion diffusion and reliability theory, was applied to analyze the effect of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life of RC structures in tropical marine environments.

Findings

Rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials can effectively extend the service life of RC structures through different effects on chloride ion diffusion behavior. The effects of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials on the service life extension of RC structures adhered to the following trend: silane material > cement-based permeable crystalline waterproof material > hydrophobic plug compound > spray polyurea elastomer > water-based permeable crystalline waterproof material > calcium nitrite > preservative > amino-alcohol composite.

Originality/value

Using a new method for predicting the service life of RC structures, the attenuation law of the service life of RC structures under the action of rust inhibitors and surface strengthening materials in tropical marine environments is obtained.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 68 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Yousef Al Rjoub, Ala Obaidat, Ahmed Ashteyat and Khalid Alshboul

This study aims to conduct an experimental study and finite element model (FEM) to investigate the flexural behavior of heat-damaged beams strengthened/repaired by hybrid…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to conduct an experimental study and finite element model (FEM) to investigate the flexural behavior of heat-damaged beams strengthened/repaired by hybrid fiber-reinforced polymers (HFRP).

Design/methodology/approach

Two groups of beams of (150 × 250 × 1,200) mm were cast, strengthened and repaired using different configurations of HFRP and tested under four-point loadings. The first group was kept at room temperature, while the second group was exposed to a temperature of 400°C.

Findings

It was found that using multiple layers of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) and glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) enhanced the strength more than a single layer. Also, the order of two layers of FRP showed no effect on flexural behavior of beams. Using a three-layer scheme (attaching the GFRP first and followed by two layers of CFRP) exhibited increase in ultimate load more than the scheme attached by CFRP first. Furthermore, the scheme HGC (heated beam repaired with glass and carbon, in sequence) allowed to achieve residual flexural capacity of specimen exposed to 400°C. Typical flexural failure was observed in control and heat-damaged beams, whereas the strengthened/repaired beams failed by cover separation and FRP debonding, however, specimen repaired with two layers of GFRP failed by FRP rupture. The FEM results showed good agreement with experimental results.

Originality/value

Few researchers have studied the effects of HFRP on strengthening and repair of heated, damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This paper investigates, both experimentally and analytically, the performance of externally strengthened and repaired RC beams, in flexure, with different FRP configurations of CFRP and GFRP.

Details

Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-2317

Keywords

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