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Book part

Jason Konefal, Maki Hatanaka and Douglas H. Constance

Efforts to increase sustainability are increasingly being promulgated using non-state forms of governance. Currently, there are multiple multi-stakeholder initiatives…

Abstract

Efforts to increase sustainability are increasingly being promulgated using non-state forms of governance. Currently, there are multiple multi-stakeholder initiatives (MSIs) working to develop sustainability standards and metrics for US agriculture. These include: LEO-4000, Field to Market, and the Sustainability Consortium. Using Paul Thompson’s (2010) tripartite sustainability framework, the proposed sustainability standards and metrics of the three MSIs are assessed. Our findings indicate that the current political economic stakeholder nexus is producing incremental adjustments to the status quo of industrial agriculture. Put differently, the standards and metrics being produced by these initiatives are largely advancing programs of sustainable intensification in which sustainability is equated with increasing resource efficiencies. Hence, our research problematizes the efficacy of non-state governance approaches for transformative change in food and agriculture. The findings in this chapter are based on fieldwork conducted between 2011 and 2013.

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Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

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Article

Li Genpan

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the sustainable development thought is one good reason why Chinese civilization is continuously developing, and it can be…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the sustainable development thought is one good reason why Chinese civilization is continuously developing, and it can be used as a reference for the development of Chinese agriculture today.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a historical analysis approach to examine the sustainable thoughts concerning Chinese traditional agriculture, including view of sancai, farming season, fertility, the nature of matters, recycling, and economization.

Findings

The results reveal that the nature of Chinese traditional agriculture is akin to ecological agriculture, which is precious heritage for China and the whole world.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper is that it confirms the fundamental reason of the continuous development of Chinese civilization which, based on organization of sustainable development thought, lies in traditional agriculture.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Book part

Radivoje Drobnjak

Montenegrin economy is characterized by large disparities in terms of level of economic development as well as regional development. Although the northern region of…

Abstract

Montenegrin economy is characterized by large disparities in terms of level of economic development as well as regional development. Although the northern region of Montenegro offers a very good precondition for economic development in terms of its potentials, the situation is quite opposite. There are significant differences between the southern, central and northern region when it comes to development, income level and unemployment rate. With respect to natural resources and potential with which the northern region is endowed, agriculture emerges as one of the factors of economic development. Almost all future-oriented strategic activities recognize agriculture as an instrument for overcoming differences and thus ensuring sustainable development. Agriculture in Montenegro appears to be an instrument which can, coupled with an entrepreneurial activity, contribute to a better quality of life and thus the future sustainable development of the whole country and its individual regions.

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Green Economy in the Western Balkans
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-499-6

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Article

Mahdi Bastan, Reza Ramazani Khorshid-Doust, Saeid Delshad Sisi and Alimohammad Ahmadvand

Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the basic natural resources through which organizational and technological changes are lead to meet present…

Abstract

Purpose

Sustainable development is the management and conservation of the basic natural resources through which organizational and technological changes are lead to meet present and future needs of humans. In developing and analyzing the solutions based on sustainable development principles, an integrated and holistic approach needs to be pursued. Not only system dynamics has the essential tools for systemic analysis, but also it is an appropriate approach for perceiving problems and offering solutions. The aim of this study is to present an integrated and systemic model to analyze the existent dynamics in sustainable development of Iran’s farming industry.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve the mathematical equations and values of model’s variables, a simulation is carried out using the data gathered from Damavand city, Tehran, Iran. The parameters of the model are selected and calculated considering the specifications of this case study. After modeling the system, Vensim simulation software has been employed, followed by identifying the leverage points of the model; then, a set of scenarios have been generated and tested through simulation to achieve a much improved understanding of the system’s dynamic behavior.

Findings

The results show that two factors are among the most important leverage points: “profit gained from agriculture” and “required water”. The authors could also observe that the main issue in Damavand is the lack of water for which saving policies would be a major step toward agriculture’s sustainable development in this area.

Originality/value

The paper shows how System Dynamics simulation approach can provide deep insights into the field of sustainable development and present efficient policies for agriculture sustainability.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Book part

Maki Hatanaka and Jason Konefal

Multi-stakeholder initiatives have proliferated as a leading form of standard-development, as they are understood to be more legitimate than other forms of non-state…

Abstract

Multi-stakeholder initiatives have proliferated as a leading form of standard-development, as they are understood to be more legitimate than other forms of non-state governance. The legitimacy of multi-stakeholder initiatives is a result of their perceived congruence with normative democratic principles. Using a case study of a multi-stakeholder initiative to develop a National Sustainable Agriculture Standard (LEO-4000) for the United States, this chapter examines the practices and politics of legitimation in non-state governance. The analysis of LEO-4000 indicates that, first, the simultaneous construction of legitimacy and standards affects the kinds of standards developed. Second, understandings of legitimacy are influenced by the standpoint of actors. Third, legitimacy has become a strategic dimension of standard-development, which actors use to further their interests. Based on these findings, we contend that non-state governance that relies on normative democratic principles for legitimation is constrained in its ability to develop stringent standards. Thus, there may be limits to non-state governance as a regulatory tool, and to achieve non-economic objectives such as increased sustainability. For rural areas, the implication is that they are becoming enmeshed in an emerging system of non-state governance that continues to be highly contested, particularly regarding who has the right to govern such areas. The findings in this chapter are based on qualitative data, including 34 interviews and participant-observation.

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Transforming the Rural
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-823-9

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Book part

Douglas H. Constance, William H. Friedland, Marie-Christine Renard and Marta G. Rivera-Ferre

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common…

Abstract

This introduction provides an overview of the discourse on alternative agrifood movements (AAMs) to (1) ascertain the degree of convergence and divergence around a common ethos of alterity and (2) context the chapters of the book. AAMs have increased in recent years in response to the growing legitimation crisis of the conventional agrifood system. Some agrifood researchers argue that AAMs represent the vanguard movement of our time, a formidable counter movement to global capitalism. Other authors note a pattern of blunting of the transformative qualities of AAMs due to conventionalization and mainstreaming in the market. The literature on AAMs is organized following a Four Questions in Agrifood Studies (Constance, 2008) framework. The section for each Question ends with a case study to better illustrate the historical dynamics of an AAM. The literature review ends with a summary of the discourse applied to the research question of the book: Are AAMs the vanguard social movement of our time? The last section of this introduction provides a short description of each contributing chapter of the book, which is divided into five sections: Introduction; Theoretical and Conceptual Framings; Food Sovereignty Movements; Alternative Movements in the Global North; and Conclusions.

Details

Alternative Agrifood Movements: Patterns of Convergence and Divergence
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-089-6

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Article

Bélyse Mupfasoni, Aad Kessler and Thomas Lans

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the emerging literature on sustainable entrepreneurship by studying knowledge, motivation and early stage outcomes of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the emerging literature on sustainable entrepreneurship by studying knowledge, motivation and early stage outcomes of sustainable agricultural entrepreneurship in the context of farmer groups in Burundi.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative and qualitative data were combined in a multiple-source case study. Data were analyzed using content analysis and basic statistics.

Findings

Results revealed that farmer groups’ prior knowledge (PK) on environmental sustainability is better developed than their social and economic sustainability. This is reflected in the environmental sustainability part of the business plans (BPs), which is generally better than the economic and social sustainability parts. Moreover, the top groups on PK identified opportunities directly related to their PK. Pro-activeness of the group was a more determining factor than risk taking and innovativeness. Furthermore, there seemed to be a positive interplay between the groups’ PK, entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge motivation (KM) and the quality of the sustainable BP. In particular, KM seemed to be important, but other variables also explained the quality of the BP, such as level of education.

Originality/value

This research fills a gap in literature because there are few empirical studies on agricultural entrepreneurship that focus on the earliest phase of opportunity recognition, let alone studies that focus on sustainable opportunity recognition in the context of emerging economies such as Burundi. Furthermore, in this research, the authors studied well-known knowledge, motivations and outcomes of sustainable entrepreneurship.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

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Article

Surya P. Subedi

Posits that trade in agriculture constitutes the main element of the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations, with the World Trade Organisation, which has a conclusion…

Abstract

Posits that trade in agriculture constitutes the main element of the ongoing multilateral trade negotiations, with the World Trade Organisation, which has a conclusion date of 1 January 2005. Acknowledges that liberalization of trade in this sector was the prime reason why developing countries joined the WTO. Reckons that developed countries resist mounting pressure of decisive moves towards agricultural improvement, during the trade negotiations, by trying to protect their own agricultural sectors from foreign competition.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 45 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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Article

Bruno Dyck

Describes three approaches to incorporating sustainable development intothe agri‐food system. Presents the argument that long‐term sustainabledevelopment demands…

Abstract

Describes three approaches to incorporating sustainable development into the agri‐food system. Presents the argument that long‐term sustainable development demands trans‐formational change, whereas stop‐gap sustainable development measures can be introduced on an add‐on piecemeal basis. Rooted in strategic choice theory and the punctuated equilibrium paradigm, focuses on how ideology influences organizational design, and compares the current agri‐food system with Community Shared Agriculture (CSA) and the Seikatsu Club. The current agri‐food system protects the environment by regulating the use of environmentally‐unfriendly agricultural practices and chemicals. The Seikatsu Club provides economic incentives for farmers to emphasize sound ecology. CSA values ecological and economic concerns equally, with an additional emphasis on social justice. Discusses implications for future study of changes that incorporate sustainable development.

Details

Journal of Organizational Change Management, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0953-4814

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Article

Seema Joshi

Several empirical studies have shown that the “servicization” of India ' s economy has taken place in terms of structural changes in GDP. But the structural changes…

Abstract

Purpose

Several empirical studies have shown that the “servicization” of India ' s economy has taken place in terms of structural changes in GDP. But the structural changes in terms of employment have been slow, as agriculture is still the mainstay of more than 50 per cent of the total workforce. Though agriculture is still the predominant sector of the economy in terms of employment and livelihood, it is losing its dynamism. The country has been striving to achieve target of 4 per cent growth in agriculture since the 8th Five Year Plan so essential for achieving the objective of “inclusive growth”. However, the country is nowhere near the goal even in the penultimate year of 11th Five year Plan. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the need for application of science and technology in India ' s agriculture to ensure sustainable development of agriculture with food security and also for tapping the “demographic dividend”. The agricultural crisis in India motivated the author to take up this study.

Design/methodology/approach

The present study mainly used secondary sources of data. The analysis of secondary data available in various documents, reports etc. revealed that agriculture in India is indeed passing through crisis. The review of literature revealed that science and technology can play a crucial role in rejuvenation of India ' s agriculture.

Findings

The paper shows that an integrated application of science and technology with social wisdom can help in checking the most serious form of brain-drain (i.e. migration of youth from rural to urban areas), mitigate the adverse impact of climate change and rejuvenate/revive India ' s agriculture so very essential for sustainability of India ' s growth, as has been stressed by Swaminathan.

Originality/value

The paper emphasizes the need for application of science and technology in India ' s agriculture to ensure sustainable development of agriculture with food security.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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