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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2019

Francesca Costanza

The international community recognizes the role of entrepreneurship education in fostering economic growth and sustainable development. However, preparing the next…

Abstract

Purpose

The international community recognizes the role of entrepreneurship education in fostering economic growth and sustainable development. However, preparing the next generation of entrepreneurs is not an easy task, since today’s complexity requires the creation of skills and capabilities for which the traditional programs reveal their inadequacy. Some scholars remark how entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention are not necessarily related and, in line with policy makers’ concerns, call for educational programs more routed in financial skills’ enhancement. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential of system dynamics (SD) for entrepreneurial education, investigating the relationships between financial and entrepreneurial skills’ formation and business development.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper introduces the main elements of SD, describes literature streams of SD applications fitting the entrepreneurial education spheres and proposes an SD’ insight model based on selected literature and declined in terms of stock-and-flow and causal loop structures.

Findings

The study provides a causal model capturing the links between the processes of entrepreneurial skill formation and firms’ start-ups and closures. Such model introduces a double effect of financial literacy on entrepreneurial orientation and locates the contribution of simulated entrepreneurial decisions in formal and informal educational contexts.

Originality/value

The paper displays how SD can contribute to entrepreneurship and presents an original causal model highlighting the accumulation of financial and non-financial skills through education and experience, their impact on business development and the usefulness of SD methodology for skill achievement.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Maria Ferreira, Annemarie Künn-Nelen and Andries De Grip

This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills

Abstract

This paper provides more insight into the assumption of human capital theory that the productivity of job-related training is driven by the improvement of workers’ skills. We analyze the extent to which training and informal learning on the job are related to employee skill development and consider the heterogeneity of this relationship with respect to workers’ skill mismatch at job entry. Using data from the 2014 European Skills and Jobs Survey, we find – as assumed by human capital theory – that employees who participated in training or informal learning show greater improvement of their skills than those who did not. The contribution of informal learning to employee skill development appears to be larger than that of training participation. Nevertheless, both forms of learning are shown to be complementary. This complementarity between training and informal learning is related to a significant additional improvement of workers’ skills. The skill development of workers who were initially underskilled for their job seems to benefit the most from both training and informal learning, whereas the skill development of those who were initially overskilled benefits the least. Work-related learning investments in the latter group seem to be more functional in offsetting skill depreciation than in fostering skill accumulation.

Details

Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Seamus McGuinness and Konstantinos Pouliakas

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of…

Abstract

This paper uses data from the Cedefop European Skills and Jobs survey (ESJS) (Cedefop, 2014, ESJS microdata are Cedefop copyright and are reproduced with the permission of Cedefop. Further information is available at Cedefop, 2015), a new international dataset on skill mismatch of adult workers in 28 EU countries, to decompose the wage penalty of overeducated workers. The ESJ survey allows for integration of a rich set of variables in the estimation of the effect of overeducation on earnings, such as individuals’ job search motives and the skill needs of their jobs. Oaxaca decomposition techniques are employed to uncover the extent to which the earnings penalties of overeducated workers can be attributed to either (i) individual human capital attributes, (ii) job characteristics, (iii) information asymmetries, (iv) compensating job attributes, or (iv) assignment to jobs with different skill needs. Differences in human capital and job-skill requirements are important factors in explaining the wage premium. It is found that asymmetry of information accounts for a significant part of the overeducation wage penalty of tertiary education graduates, whereas job characteristics and the low skill content of their jobs can explain most of the wage gap for medium-qualified employees. Little evidence is found in favor of equilibrium theories of compensating wage differentials and career mobility. Accepting that much remains to be learned with regards to the drivers of overeducation, this paper provides evidence in support of the need for customized policy responses to tackle overeducation.

Details

Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

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Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Jaan Masso, Raul Eamets and Pille Mõtsmees

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of temporary migration on the upward occupational mobility by using a novel database from Estonia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of temporary migration on the upward occupational mobility by using a novel database from Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a unique data set of the online job search portal of Estonia that includes thousands of employees with foreign work experience. The authors study whether the presence of temporary migration in ones working career is associated with upward movement in the occupational ladder, defined either in terms of wages or required human capital.

Findings

The authors did not find any positive effect of temporary migration on upward occupational mobility and in case of females the effect was negative. The results could be related to the short-term nature of migration and the occupational downshifting abroad as well as the functioning of home country labour market.

Research limitations/implications

While the uniqueness of the data set is of value, one needs to acknowledge its weaknesses: the job-seekers work histories are self-reported and the authors do not know what information was left out as undesired by applicant.

Practical implications

The findings imply that the benefits of temporary migration from Eastern to Western Europe on the sending country via the returnees’ labour market performance might be limited, yet it does not exclude the benefits of return migration through other mechanism.

Originality/value

The literature on return migration is not big and there are only a few papers dealing with occupational change or mobility of the return migrants. Compared to earlier studies we have looked at wider set of occupations ranked by different ladders. Using the unique data set the authors have included in the study ca 7,500 return migrants while earlier studies have been based on rather small samples.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2019

Benedikt Blaseio and Colin Jones

Increasing regional wealth disparities have been explained by the role of agglomeration economies and the concentration of skilled mobile human capital. This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

Increasing regional wealth disparities have been explained by the role of agglomeration economies and the concentration of skilled mobile human capital. This paper aims to draw out the role of the housing market by considering the differential experience of Germany and the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical analysis is based on the comparison of regional house price trends in Germany and UK-based annual data from 1991 to 2015.

Findings

Regional house price inequality is found to have increased in both countries with the spatial concentration of skilled human capital. However, the main conclusion is that there are differential paths to regional house price inequality explained by the parameters of each country’s housing market.

Originality/value

The research is the first to compare and explain differential regional house price trends across countries.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Georg von Krogh and Johan Roos

Highlights that although the idea that competences are underlyingsustainable competitive advanta ges is central, there has been nothorough investigation into the very…

Abstract

Highlights that although the idea that competences are underlying sustainable competitive advanta ges is central, there has been no thorough investigation into the very nature of competences in the strategic management literature. Uses theories on the sociology of knowledge to advance the resource‐based perspective of the firm into a coherent perspective of competences. Discusses the implications on sustainable competitive advantages by focusing on the processes of imitation of competences in different social contexts. Proposes that the emergent competence‐based perspective of the firm has several important implications for management research and theory building.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 12 April 2013

Marina Z. Solesvik

The purpose of this study is to explore the difference in entrepreneurial intentions, perceived entrepreneurial motivation, and cognitive profiles (attitudes towards…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the difference in entrepreneurial intentions, perceived entrepreneurial motivation, and cognitive profiles (attitudes towards entrepreneurship, perceived behaviour control, and subjective norms) between individuals who have participated in enterprise education programmes in the universities and those who have not. The paper also investigates the mediating role of attitudes towards entrepreneurship, perceived behaviour control, and subjective norms related to entrepreneurial motivation and the forming of entrepreneurial intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey information from 321 students from three universities in the Ukraine was hand collected. Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Individuals who participate in enterprise programmes tend to have higher entrepreneurial motivation and are more likely to become entrepreneurs. Empirical evidence shows that attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behaviour control mediate the relationship between perceived entrepreneurial motivation and entrepreneurial intentions.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on data collected from three universities in one city. The implications for education managers related to the inclusion of enterprise courses into the study plans of engineering students are also discussed here.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for the stimulation of student enterprise in transitional economies where attitudinal and resource (i.e. skill, competence and knowledge) deficiencies can retard enterprise. Entrepreneurial motivation is an important link between an intention and action. Enterprise education programs which stimulate entrepreneurial motivation should be offered to engineering students since many of them start ventures later. Engagement into enterprise development programs of engineering students might evoke earlier interest in self‐employment career path among young people.

Originality/value

The article contributes to the field of entrepreneurial motivation and intentions. The study extends insights from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) (i.e. subjective norms, attitudes toward this behaviour, and perceived behavioural control) by also considering the perceived entrepreneurial motivation profiles of students.

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Book part
Publication date: 2 June 2008

Abstract

Details

Contemporary and Emerging Issues in Trade Theory and Policy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-541-3

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Book part
Publication date: 1 October 2007

Kamal Saggi

What roles do trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) play in international technology transfer? Do technologies introduced by multinational firms diffuse to local…

Abstract

What roles do trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) play in international technology transfer? Do technologies introduced by multinational firms diffuse to local firms? How does the level of intellectual property rights (IPRs) protection in a country affect its ability to absorb foreign technologies? Using these questions as motivation, this paper surveys the recent trade literature on international technology transfer, paying particular attention to the role of FDI. Several useful conclusions emerge. First, the theoretical literature has shown that trade necessarily encourages growth only if knowledge spillovers are international in scope. Second, existing empirical evidence on the scope of knowledge spillovers (national versus international) is ambiguous. Third, recent empirical plant level studies have called into question earlier studies that argued that FDI has a positive impact on productivity of local firms that compete directly with multinationals. Fourth, there is strong evidence in support of vertical spillovers from FDI: i.e. those firms that either supply multinationals or use goods and services produced by them as intermediate inputs experience productivity gains from such interaction. Fifth, it is well established that the degree of global IPR protection affects the pattern of international trade and convincing evidence that it also influences flows of international technology transfer and FDI has also started to emerge.

Details

Intellectual Property, Growth and Trade
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-539-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Simon J. Roberts and Tim Stott

The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the “cut-off” date for entry into an academic year and for promoting the existence of RAEs. To date, there are only two studies which have examined the relative age phenomenon in a university setting specifically.

Design/methodology/approach

Data of student records from the years 2006-2009 were analysed. Specifically this included date of birth, The Universities and Colleges Admissions Service (UCAS) entry points, gender, grade point averages and final year degree classification.

Findings

Analysis of data collected from 460 university students revealed a significant RAE reversal. Specifically, relatively younger students achieved significantly higher first-class honours degrees than relatively older students (p < 0.01).

Research limitations/implications

Limitations include the following: the sample was modest and restricted to only 460 students located within one of the universities five faculties. Recent RAE studies in education have recruited thousands of students; therefore, these findings may not be totally representative of the broader UK university population.

Originality/value

This is only the second UK-based study to examine RAEs from a university perspective. The findings highlight an interesting and new insight into the RAE phenomenon and one that warrants further scientific attention.

Details

Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4883

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