Search results

1 – 10 of over 6000
Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Julia M. Schwenkenberg

This paper documents how gender differences in occupational status (defined by earnings, education, and returns to skills) have evolved over time and across generations…

Abstract

This paper documents how gender differences in occupational status (defined by earnings, education, and returns to skills) have evolved over time and across generations. The paper finds a persistent gender earnings gap, a reversal of the education gap, and a convergence in starting salaries and returns to experience. Divergent occupational choices might explain part of the persistent gender gaps and women’s failure to reach parity with men in the earnings distribution. Women choose more flexible jobs than men. But whereas men dominate women in high-powered occupations, they are also more likely to be in low-skilled low-pay occupations. Differential effects of children and time spent keeping house explain most of the gender gap in high-powered occupations but cannot explain fully why women choose more flexible occupations.

Details

Gender in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-141-5

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 July 2018

Akanksha Choudhary and Ashish Singh

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intergenerational occupational mobility for young women (vis-à-vis their mothers) in India and six of its states from its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the intergenerational occupational mobility for young women (vis-à-vis their mothers) in India and six of its states from its diverse geographic regions which contribute 39 percent of the Indian population.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses transition/mobility matrices and multiple mobility measures for examination of intergenerational occupational mobility among young females in India by using the data from the “India Youth Survey: Situation and Needs” from the year 2006 to 2007.

Findings

The study finds that intergenerational occupational mobility among the young women in India is about 71 percent, but surprisingly it is predominantly downwards. The urban areas have higher occupational mobility than the rural areas. However, upward intergenerational occupational mobility is lower among the young SC/ST women compared to the young women belonging to the “Others” caste category. Moreover, upward mobility in the economically and demographically poorer states is much lower than that of other states.

Originality/value

The present study is the only study which examines how women perform vis-à-vis their mothers in terms of occupational attainment in the Indian context.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 December 2016

Antonio Caparrós Ruiz

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causality between job mobility status, occupational career and wage growth. First, it will be verified whether the type of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the causality between job mobility status, occupational career and wage growth. First, it will be verified whether the type of job-to-job mobility has some influence on the occupational mobility and, second, whether the type of occupational change has some effect on wage growth for both movers and stayers.

Design/methodology/approach

The influence of job-to-job mobility on occupational mobility is explained through a random effect panel multinomial logit model to account for the unobserved individual heterogeneity. Next, the effect of occupational mobility on wage growth for both movers and stayers is obtained after applying Heckman’s two-step procedure that corrects the endogeneity of occupational mobility in a panel data framework.

Findings

The main results confirm, first, that inter-firm mobility is a mechanism used by the worker to achieve upward mobility. Second, the accumulation of human capital has a positive influence on promotions for movers and stayers, getting the highest probability of upward occupational mobility for workers with higher education. Moreover, promotion is a suitable mechanism for improving worker’s wages. In particular, the wage gain is between 5 percent for stayers and 9 percent for quitters compared to workers who do not change their occupation.

Social implications

The main findings of this research would justify the implementation of active labor market policies that increase market transparency and decrease information asymmetries between workers and employers. In this way, the adjustment process between job offer and demand would improve and workers would have more possibilities of ascending on the occupational ladder and getting better-paid jobs.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper is the first study in the economic literature discussing Spain that examines the links between change of firm, occupational mobility and wage dynamics.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 43 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Liis Roosaar, Pille Mõtsmees and Urmas Varblane

The purpose of this paper is to examine how occupational mobility varies over the business cycle and how selected factors contribute to occupational mobility in different…

1502

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how occupational mobility varies over the business cycle and how selected factors contribute to occupational mobility in different stages of the business cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

Using annual micro data from the Estonian Labour Force Survey (2001-2010) and implementing probit models with interaction terms, the paper investigates occupational mobility as a change of occupation in two successive years during recovery, boom and recession periods.

Findings

The analysis indicates that occupational mobility is higher during the recovery and boom periods and lower during the recession stage. The demographic characteristics (gender, marital status, knowledge of local language) influence the probability for occupational change during the recovery stage of the business cycle. The position of employees in the occupational hierarchy is significant during the recovery and boom periods. Employees working in the public sector have a lower probability for occupational change compared with private sector employees during the recession. Training has a positive effect on occupational mobility during recession. Tenure reduces the probability of occupational mobility over the whole business cycle.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature by providing new results about the role of different factors of occupational mobility over the business cycle. This is among the few studies addressing the variation in the occupational mobility of employees from the public and private sectors. Interactions between the position of the employees in the occupational hierarchy and the ownership form of their employers and the economic sectors add to the understanding about the mechanism of occupational mobility over the business cycle stages.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 31 March 2015

Sonia Pereira, Erik Snel and Margrietha ‘t Hart

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that…

Abstract

Purpose

To identify the trajectories of occupational mobility among non-EU immigrant workers in Europe and to test empirical data against neoclassical human capital theory that predicts upward occupational mobility and labor market segmentation theories proposing immigrant confinement to secondary segments.

Methodology/approach

Data from survey and semi-structured interviews (2,859 and 357, respectively) with immigrants from Brazil, Ukraine, and Morocco in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Portugal, and Norway. Multinomial regression analysis to test the likelihood of moving downward, upward, or stability and identify explanatory factors, complemented with qualitative evidence.

Findings

We found support for the thesis of segmented labor market theories of limited upward occupational mobility following migration. However, immigrants with longer residence in the destination country have higher chances of upward mobility compared to stability and downward mobility, giving also support for the neoclassical human capital theory. Frail legal status impacts negatively on upward mobility chances and men more often experience upward mobility after migration than women.

Research limitations/implications

Findings reflect the specific situation of immigrants from three origin countries in four destination areas and cannot be taken as representative. In the multinomial regression we cannot distinguish between cohort effects and duration of stay.

Social implications

Education obtained in the destination country is very important for migrants’ upward occupational mobility, bearing important policy implications with regards to migrants’ integration.

Originality/value of paper

Its focus on trajectories of mobility through migration looking at two important transitions: (1) from last occupation in the origin country to first occupation at destination and (2) from first occupation to current occupation and offers a wide cross-country comparison both in terms of origin and destination countries in Europe.

Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2008

Gueorgui Kambourov, Iourii Manovskii and Irina A. Telyukova

We study trends in occupational and geographic mobility of single and married men and women in the United States over the last 40 years. We find that while occupational

Abstract

We study trends in occupational and geographic mobility of single and married men and women in the United States over the last 40 years. We find that while occupational mobility has increased for almost all subgroups of males, most of the increase was accounted for by a sharp increase in the mobility of singles. Similarly, the rates of geographic mobility were virtually identical for single and married workers in the early 1970s, but diverged since then – the increase in the geographic mobility of single men was more pronounced than the increase for married men. We discuss several theories of worker mobility in light of these trends and suggest that the increased labor force attachment of women might have played a prominent role in driving these changes.

Details

Frontiers of Family Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-542-0

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Jaan Masso, Raul Eamets and Pille Mõtsmees

– The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of temporary migration on the upward occupational mobility by using a novel database from Estonia.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of temporary migration on the upward occupational mobility by using a novel database from Estonia.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a unique data set of the online job search portal of Estonia that includes thousands of employees with foreign work experience. The authors study whether the presence of temporary migration in ones working career is associated with upward movement in the occupational ladder, defined either in terms of wages or required human capital.

Findings

The authors did not find any positive effect of temporary migration on upward occupational mobility and in case of females the effect was negative. The results could be related to the short-term nature of migration and the occupational downshifting abroad as well as the functioning of home country labour market.

Research limitations/implications

While the uniqueness of the data set is of value, one needs to acknowledge its weaknesses: the job-seekers work histories are self-reported and the authors do not know what information was left out as undesired by applicant.

Practical implications

The findings imply that the benefits of temporary migration from Eastern to Western Europe on the sending country via the returnees’ labour market performance might be limited, yet it does not exclude the benefits of return migration through other mechanism.

Originality/value

The literature on return migration is not big and there are only a few papers dealing with occupational change or mobility of the return migrants. Compared to earlier studies we have looked at wider set of occupations ranked by different ladders. Using the unique data set the authors have included in the study ca 7,500 return migrants while earlier studies have been based on rather small samples.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Antonio Caparrós Ruiz

The purpose of this paper is to shed knowledge about the relationship between the inter-firm job mobility and the occupational transitions in Spain during the last years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed knowledge about the relationship between the inter-firm job mobility and the occupational transitions in Spain during the last years. In particular, it is tested whether if the type of job-to-job mobility (voluntary or involuntary) has some influence on the workers careers. The empirical analysis is based on panel data provided by the Living Condition Survey, which is conducted by the Spanish Statistics Institute (INE). The period analysed covers the years between 2005 and 2010 (both inclusive), what allows observing the labour mobility patterns in the recent Spanish economic crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The econometric specification used to analyse occupational mobility corresponds to a random effect panel multinomial logit model. The econometric model is estimated separately for workers that have remained at the same firm and for workers who have changed firms; for the latter group, a dummy variable indicating whether the individual quit or was laid off is included as a regressor.

Findings

The results derived from the estimates of the econometric specifications show that individuals who voluntarily leave a firm find the decision has a positive effect on their careers, as their probability of upward occupational mobility is more than 90 per cent higher than for individuals who leave their previous position as a result of having been laid off.

Social implications

This result is an argument in favour of adopting active labour market policies that help improve information flows in the labour market and allow workers a better understanding of potential job offers from outside firms.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the relationship between inter-firm mobility and occupational transitions that has not yet addressed in the economic literature for Spain.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 36 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2018

Francieli Tonet Maciel and Ana Maria Hermeto C. Oliveira

The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent dynamics of the Brazilian labour market, by analysing occupational mobility patterns, specially the transitions between…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss recent dynamics of the Brazilian labour market, by analysing occupational mobility patterns, specially the transitions between formal and informal labour, and verify the earnings mobility resulting from these transitions, separately by gender.

Design/methodology/approach

The changes in the mobility patterns are analysed by performing an estimation of the transition probabilities between different occupational status between 2002 and 2012, using a multinomial logit model and the microdata from the Monthly Employment Survey (PME). The earnings mobility is analysed by using quantile regressions.

Findings

The results indicate a high degree of mobility from unemployment to formal employment in the period but suggest the persistence of mobility patterns. Women are better off in the period, but only among individuals with better attributes. The earnings mobility results, for women and men, suggest an increase in valuation of the formal labour relatively to informality (informal salaried employment and self-employment), especially at the bottom of the earnings distribution.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to a better understanding of recent changes in occupational mobility patterns between formal and informal labour and the earnings mobility underlying these patterns, accounting for the differences along the earnings distribution and gender issues. That is, it allows identify which groups of workers benefited more from the formalisation process to infer about trends in formal–informal dynamics over the period and discuss the challenges in conducting policies to promote inclusive and quality employment.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2014

Raul Eamets and Krista Jaakson

Recent economic recession has highlighted the role of labour market flexibility as a key factor of competitiveness of a country. Despite the fact that labour mobility can…

1396

Abstract

Purpose

Recent economic recession has highlighted the role of labour market flexibility as a key factor of competitiveness of a country. Despite the fact that labour mobility can essentially be seen as part of labour market flexibility, there is notable research gap concerning spatial mobility and other facets of labour market flexibility. The purpose of this special issue is to fill these gaps.

Design/methodology/approach –

The papers in the special issue represent various quantitative methods and databases, whereas mainly micro data (workplace, labour force or immigrant surveys, job search portal, etc.) is used. However, the type of labour market flexibility addressed is both micro- and macro-level.

Findings

It is demonstrated that labour occupational mobility is determined by the business cycle, numerical flexibility, occupational categories, and sector. Spatial mobility may have counterintuitive effects on individual occupational mobility depending on gender and it is related to various flexibilities in the workplace. It is also suggested that different types of flexibilities on a firm level are interdependent of each other.

Originality/value

The special issue adds to the labour market related knowledge by integrating labour market flexibility and mobility. Individually, both phenomena have been studied before, but not much research is devoted to their inter-linkages. The special issue also contributes by examining labour market flexibility and spatial mobility in the context of different countries, economic cycles, and institutional settings.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 6000