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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

– The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A Freedom of Information request was submitted to all trusts in England (n=57) and health boards in Wales (n=7) asking them to provide a copy of any policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4). Documents were analysed using content analysis. Specific attention was given to any deviations from the national Mental Health Act Codes of Practice.

Findings

In total, 41 (67.2 per cent) organisations had a policy on the implementation of Section 5(4). There was a high level of consistency between local guidance and the Mental Health Act Codes of Practice. There were however; different interpretations of the guidance and errors that could lead to misuse of the section. Some policies contained useful guidance that could be adopted by future versions of the national Codes of Practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of examining the relationship between national and local guidance. Further research should be undertaken on the frequency and reasons for any reuse of the section.

Practical implications

Greater attention should be given to considering the necessity of local policy, given the existence of national Codes of Practice.

Originality/value

This is the only research examining the policy framework for the implementation of Section 5(4).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Filzah Md Isa, Shaista Noor, Goh Wei Wei, Sharifah Diyana Binti Syed Hussain, Hairunnisa Mohamad Ibrahim and Muhd Afiq Syazwan Ahmdon

Malaysia is considered to be a relatively young country as compared to other older countries such as Japan, China and Australia in terms of the ageing population. However…

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Abstract

Purpose

Malaysia is considered to be a relatively young country as compared to other older countries such as Japan, China and Australia in terms of the ageing population. However, until 2035, Malaysia will be in the ageing group countries as 15% of the entire population will be above 60 years of age. This situation is quite alarming as more and more ageing care centres will be required to fulfill the ongoing demands of the ageing population. The elderly care centres in Malaysia are categorised as public (sponsored by the government), private, and charity based that comes under religious centres. Currently, there are about 365 registered elderly care centres working in the main states of Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak, two states of the East Malaysia. Due to the importance of ageing population issues, the present study is conducted to explore the demographics facet of Malaysian’s elderly care centres. The main reason behind that lies on the fact that many of these centres are still labelled as being not well equipped and lacking behind in trained staff, equipment and also suffering from severe financial constraints but some still capable of working on a sustainability basis.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative Research Strategy has been adopted, and 28 centres throughout Malaysia are included in this study. About 18 Operators from different centres and 15 caregivers were interviewed to get the holistic view of ageing care and facilities in their respective centres.

Findings

The results highlight that the majority of centres are not receiving any financial help from the government, and few centres are doing small business such as supplying consumable medical and non-medical items and providing renting and rehabilitation centres facilities to sustain. The caregivers are facing issues such as excess workload, less salary, peer conflicts and non-cooperative centre leadership.

Originality/value

The present study may help to provide useful information to the policymakers, which enables them to formulate the strategies for ageing care centres in Malaysia. As this study provides insight of components that have an impact on the overall wellbeing of elderly care centres, hence, it could help the care services providers to act as a rising star for Malaysian’s social life comfort.

Details

PSU Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2399-1747

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Md. Saiful Islam

This study aims to examine the influence of socioeconomic development on inflation in South Asia using the foreign exchange rate and money supply as control variables.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the influence of socioeconomic development on inflation in South Asia using the foreign exchange rate and money supply as control variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses annual panel data for five South Asian economies, namely, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka over the period 1990–2018, applies cointegrating regression techniques, namely, the panel dynamic ordinary least square (OLS) and fully modified OLS estimators to examine the long-run relations and conducts the Toda-Yamamoto Granger causality test to detect the direction of causality among variables.

Findings

The cointegrating regression estimations have documented that the socioeconomic development proxied by the human development index (HDI) has no significant impact on inflation. Although economic development represented by gross domestic product (GDP) growth causes inflation, socioeconomic development represented by HDI has no impact on inflation and has demonstrated as a better macroeconomic indicator, and thus creates no inflationary pressure in the economy. The foreign exchange rate has a positive impact on inflation. The broad money supply has the usual positive effect on domestic inflation that endorses the monetarist view about prices. The Toda-Yamamoto Granger causality test has confirmed several unidirectional causalities: inflation causes HDI, money supply causes both inflation and HDI and the foreign exchange rate causes HDI.

Practical implications

The study has practical implications for policymakers in South Asia, to improve HDI, particularly GDP per capita, education and health-care facilities to realize continuous socioeconomic development, which will take care of inflation. Moreover, these counties may follow a conservative monetary policy to control inflationary pressure in their economies.

Originality/value

The study is original and claims to be the first to examine the impact of socioeconomic development on inflation. The findings have socioeconomic values regarding controlling inflation in South Asia.

Details

Applied Economic Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN:

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Book part
Publication date: 13 May 2019

Saptarshi Chakraborty

Worldwide, the number of deaths from terrorism is rising at an alarming rate. Needless to mention, terrorism has a huge negative impact on the economy, mainly affecting…

Abstract

Worldwide, the number of deaths from terrorism is rising at an alarming rate. Needless to mention, terrorism has a huge negative impact on the economy, mainly affecting price, output, employment, trade balance, poverty, inequality, military expenditure, budget pattern of the governments, sociopolitical environment, and several others. Calculation of the impact of terrorism on economic variables is undoubtedly important as primarily it portrays the vividness of the activity. This chapter concentrates on the impact of economic variables on terrorism because it is believed that knowledge of such an impact is necessary for initiating policies for reducing terrorism. This chapter finds that, especially in India, increase in the level of human development, which otherwise is believed to reduce the terrorist activities of a country, increases the number of casualties due to terrorist activities primarily because of uneven social and economic development.

Details

The Impact of Global Terrorism on Economic and Political Development
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-919-9

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

Abhijit Bhattacharya

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from…

Abstract

In the postglobalized world, information and communication technology (ICT) has been considered a key driver of human development. The world is reshaping from resource-based economy to knowledge-based economy after rapid growth of ICT. ICT can be considered as an umbrella that incorporates any communication device such as radio, television, cell phones, computer and network hardware, satellite systems etc., and also various services and appliance with them such as video conferencing and distance learning (Akarowhe, 2017). ICT is a technological system that is able to meet the gap of formal communication system and ultimately affects the level of standard of living. Human development can be defined as a process of enlarging people's freedoms and opportunities and improving their well-being. Whereas, human development index (HDI) is a statistical tool used to measure a country's human development based on the health of people, their level of education attainment, and level of income. The present chapter tries to find out the impact of ICT on human development for selected high HDI and medium HDI countries during the period 2001–2018. Applying panel data technique result shows that ICT has a positive and significant impact on human development.

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2021

Ali Abbas, Imad Moosa and Vikash Ramiah

This paper is about the effect of human capital on foreign direct investment (FDI). The purpose of this paper is to find out if developing countries with high levels of…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is about the effect of human capital on foreign direct investment (FDI). The purpose of this paper is to find out if developing countries with high levels of human capital (educated people and well-trained labour force) are more successful in attracting FDI. The underlying hypothesis has been tested repeatedly without reaching a consensus view or providing an answer to the basic question. This is to be expected because FDI is determined by a large number of factors, making the results sensitive to the selected set of explanatory variables, which forms the basis of the Leamer (1983) critique of the use of multiple regression to derive inference. Furthermore, confirmation bias and publication bias entice researchers to be selective in choosing the set of results they report.

Design/methodology/approach

The technique of extreme bounds analysis, as originally suggested by Leamer (1983) and modified by Sala-i-Martin (1997), is used to determine the importance of human capital for the ability of developing countries to attract FDI. The authors use a cross-sectional sample covering 103 developing and transition countries.

Findings

The results show no contradiction between firms seeking human capital and cheap labour. No matter what proxy is used to represent human capital, it turns out that the most important factor for attracting FDI is the variable “employee compensation”, which is the wage bill, implying that multinational firms look for cheap and also skilled labour in the host country.

Originality/value

In this paper, the authors follow the procedure prescribed by Leamer (1983), and modified by Sala-i-Martin (1997), using extreme bounds analysis to distinguish between robust and fragile determinants of FDI, with particular emphasis on human capital. Instead of deriving inference from one regression equation by determining the statistical significance of the coefficient on the variable of interest, the extreme bounds or the distribution of estimated coefficients are used to distinguish between robust and fragile variables. This means that emphasis is shifted from significance, as implied by a single regression equation, to robustness, which is based on a large number of equations. The authors conduct tests on three proxies for human capital to find out if they are robust determinants of FDI and also judge the degree of robustness relative to other determinants.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2021

Anne Marie Thake

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology…

Abstract

Purpose: The main objective of this study is to provide an overview of the extent of labor and skills shortages that exist in the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in Malta and gain insights into the dependency on foreign labor. Methodology: This study draws upon primary data generated from two research instruments, namely in-depth interviews and an online questionnaire. Various in-depth interviews were conducted with key institutional actors. In addition to the interviews, six locally based companies were requested to complete an online questionnaire. Secondary data from ICT surveys, official documents were consulted. Findings: Findings emerged from this study relate to each of the four seminal thematics, namely, demand and supply, rationale for employing foreign labor, wages, and challenges of foreign labor employment. Practical Implications: This study examined the current contribution of foreign labor in the ICT sector. Unsustainable growth in the ICT sector creates a demand for skilled labor which is currently not locally available. Significance: ICT is one of the most rapidly developing economic sectors in Malta. Labor shortages can slow down economic growth, if not addressed. The annual number of ICT graduates is insufficient. For this sector to continue to thrive and further consolidate itself within the Maltese economy, there will be a continued dependency on the importation of highly skilled foreign labor.

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Book part
Publication date: 9 June 2020

Benediktus Margiadi and Amin Wibowo

The purpose of this study is to provide an extensive bibliometric literature review on authentic leadership as a term and concepts to deliver authentic leadership research…

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to provide an extensive bibliometric literature review on authentic leadership as a term and concepts to deliver authentic leadership research with Publish and Perish (PoP) software, Mendeley software, and databases from Google Scholar index. Article located through PoP software based on a Scopus index database. A total of 122 articles refined and analyzed from various qualifying journals starts on January 1999 to December 2018 (20 years). The Mendeley software is used to help manage the references and brief resumes of each article. This chapter presents five clusters to review authentic leadership literature. The clustering process assisted by the VOSviewer software by matching words that often appear in each group, namely antecedents, commitment, performance, positive effects, organizational behavior, and leadership effectiveness. Each of these clusters shows authentic leadership research areas. The five clusters produced through the VOSviewer software provide an overview and research stream of the authentic leadership. Researchers and practitioners need to pay attention to trends and research areas in authentic leadership for improving authentic leadership development.

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Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Irina Tsvetkova, Evgenia Zhelnina, Tatiana Ivanova and Natalia Gorbacheva

The chapter is devoted to analysis of the structure of regional identity. Topicality of this issue is caused by the processes of social differentiation of regions. The…

Abstract

The chapter is devoted to analysis of the structure of regional identity. Topicality of this issue is caused by the processes of social differentiation of regions. The purpose of the research is to describe the factors of regional identity. Regional identity is predetermined by natural, geographical, socio-cultural, ethnic, and socio-political factors. Regional identity is viewed as a complex dynamic structure. It is analyzed on the basis of application of concepts of constructivism and symbolic capital. The authors come to the conclusion that dynamics of regional identity are determined by individuals’ evaluation of the conditions of the territory for satisfying the needs and implementation of life plans. This aspect is analyzed from the positions of the concept of constructivism. It is also concluded that dynamics of regional identity depends on attractive image of the territory and realization of its uniqueness. This aspect of regional identity is viewed as a symbolic capital, which stimulates the development of territory.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2015

Ebrahim Azimi

Although preference for sons has been documented among parents in developing countries, it is an open question whether and to what extent intra-household resource…

Abstract

Although preference for sons has been documented among parents in developing countries, it is an open question whether and to what extent intra-household resource allocation is influenced by family sex composition. This study investigates the effects of sex composition on intra-household resource allocation based on the collective household model of Dunbar, Lewbel, and Pendakur (2013). I extend their model to estimate the influences on a household member’s resource share by observing how budget shares of a private assignable good vary not only with total expenditure and family size, but also with family sex composition. Using data from the 2005 Iranian Household Income and Expenditure Survey, I find that family composition significantly affects intra-household resource allocation in Iranian rural areas. Specifically, rural parents assign 1.6–1.9 percentage points more resources toward their sons. These resources are essentially coming at the expense of mothers. In all-boy families, mothers get 2.8–3.6 percentage points fewer resources than they do in all-girl families. These effects are more pronounced among farmer families than nonfarmer families. However, I find no significant role for gender composition in intra-household resource allocation in urban areas.

Details

Gender in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-141-5

Keywords

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