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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Russell Ashmore and Neil Carver

– The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4) written by NHS mental health trusts in England and health boards in Wales.

Design/methodology/approach

A Freedom of Information request was submitted to all trusts in England (n=57) and health boards in Wales (n=7) asking them to provide a copy of any policy or guidance on the implementation of Section 5(4). Documents were analysed using content analysis. Specific attention was given to any deviations from the national Mental Health Act Codes of Practice.

Findings

In total, 41 (67.2 per cent) organisations had a policy on the implementation of Section 5(4). There was a high level of consistency between local guidance and the Mental Health Act Codes of Practice. There were however; different interpretations of the guidance and errors that could lead to misuse of the section. Some policies contained useful guidance that could be adopted by future versions of the national Codes of Practice.

Research limitations/implications

The research has demonstrated the value of examining the relationship between national and local guidance. Further research should be undertaken on the frequency and reasons for any reuse of the section.

Practical implications

Greater attention should be given to considering the necessity of local policy, given the existence of national Codes of Practice.

Originality/value

This is the only research examining the policy framework for the implementation of Section 5(4).

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2022

Manisha Chakrabarty and Subhankar Mukherjee

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of convergence/divergence among the districts in India. Specifically, this…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the patterns of convergence/divergence among the districts in India. Specifically, this paper investigates if the impact is heterogeneous among different cohorts of districts (based on income distribution). The differential impact may lead to heterogeneous long-run growth paths, resulting in unbalanced development across regions within the country. A study of convergence can ascertain the possible trajectory of such development across regions. Investigation of this phenomenon is the primary aim of this study.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses the panel regression method for estimation. This paper uses high-frequency nighttime light intensity data as a proxy for aggregate output.

Findings

The authors observe a significant reduction in the convergence rate as a result of the pandemic. Across the cluster of districts, the drop in ß-convergence rate, compared to the pre-pandemic period, varied from approximately 33% for the poorer districts to close to zero for the richest group of districts. These findings suggest that the pandemic may lead to a wider disparity among different regions within the country.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature in the following ways. First, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on the convergence rate. A detailed look into the possible disparity in convergence among various regions is critical because a larger drop in convergence, especially among the poorer regions, may call for policy attention to attain long-term equitable development. The authors perform this exercise by dividing the districts into four quantile groups based on the distribution of night-light intensity. Second, while previous studies on convergence using nighttime light data have used a cross-sectional approach, this study is possibly the first attempt to use the panel regression method on this data. The application of this method can be useful in tackling district-level omitted variables bias. Finally, the heterogeneity analysis using different quantiles of the distribution of night-light intensity may help in designing targeted policies to mitigate the disparity across districts due to the shock.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 15 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2022

Jean-Joseph Minviel and Faten Ben Bouheni

Research and development (R&D) is increasingly considered to be a key driver of economic growth. The relationship between these variables is commonly examined using linear…

Abstract

Purpose

Research and development (R&D) is increasingly considered to be a key driver of economic growth. The relationship between these variables is commonly examined using linear models and thus relies only on single-point estimates. Against this background, this paper provides new evidence on the impact of R&D on economic growth using a machine learning approach that makes it possible to go beyond single-point estimation.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use the kernel regularized least squares (KRLS) approach, a machine learning method designed for tackling econometric models without imposing arbitrary functional forms on the relationship between the outcome variable and the covariates. The KRLS approach learns the functional form from the data and thus yields consistent estimates that are robust to functional form misspecification. It also provides pointwise marginal effects and captures non-linear relationships. The empirical analyses are conducted using a sample of 101 countries over the period 2000–2020.

Findings

The estimates indicate that R&D expenditure and high-tech exports positively and significantly influence economic growth in a non-linear manner. The authors also find a positive and statistically significant relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions. In both cases, the effects are higher for upper-middle-income and high-income countries. These results suggest that a substantial effort is needed to green economic growth. Internet access is found to be an important factor in supporting economic growth, especially in high-income and middle-income countries.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to underlining the importance of investing in R&D to support growth and shows that the disparity between countries is driven by the determinants of economic growth (human capital in R&D, high-tech exports, Internet access, economic freedom, unemployment rate and greenhouse gas emissions). Moreover, since the authors find that R&D expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions are positively associated with economic growth, technological progress with green characteristics may be an important pathway for green economic growth.

Originality/value

This paper uses an innovative machine learning method to provide new evidence that innovation supports economic growth.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Adelaide P. S. Duarte, Jacques Silber, João Sousa Andrade and Marta C. N. Simões

This paper extends a methodology proposed by Nissanov and Silber (2009) who decomposed the coefficient β used in convergence analysis into three components checking…

Abstract

This paper extends a methodology proposed by Nissanov and Silber (2009) who decomposed the coefficient β used in convergence analysis into three components checking respectively whether there was σ-convergence, whether ‘pure mobility’ (upward or downward income mobility) was lower among the poor and what the extent of ‘residual mobility’ (the third component) was.

The present paper extends this analysis by applying it to the analysis of regional per capita income levels but also to that of within regions inequality and regional welfare levels. The empirical illustration uses Portuguese data on average earnings at the level of NUTS3.

Details

Economic Well-Being and Inequality: Papers from the Fifth ECINEQ Meeting
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-556-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Aleksei V. Bogoviz, Svetlana V. Belyaeva, Evgeny E. Shvakov, Elena V. Grib and Inna Y. Timofeeva

The purpose of the work is to determine the signs of conflicts in social effects of crises of economic systems and to determine perspectives of studying crises on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the work is to determine the signs of conflicts in social effects of crises of economic systems and to determine perspectives of studying crises on the basis of the concept of economic conflicts.

Methodology

For determining the signs of conflicts in social effects of crises of economic systems, this work uses the method of qualitative break-even analysis, the methods of systemic, problem, and structural and functional analysis, and the method of formalization (table presentation of authors’ conclusions).

Conclusions

It is substantiated that social causes and social manifestations and consequences of crises of economic systems have signs of conflicts – violation of balance of socio-economic phenomena and processes and the following negative reaction of economic subjects. Causal connections of distribution of conflicts within social effects of crises of economic systems are determined and a preferable method of their regulation is offered.

Originality/value

A new method of state regulation of socio-economic system for overcoming its crisis and crisis management is offered. An advantage and essential difference of this method from the traditional one is influence on social cause of crisis (not on its economic and social consequences), due to which it is possible to quickly overcome the crisis and reduce the risk of its renewal.

Abstract

Details

Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries: Perspective, Methods and Examples
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-982-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 4 July 2019

Zinaida N. Kozenko, Yuri A. Kozenko, Konstantin Y. Kozenko and Galina N. Zvereva

The purpose of the chapter is to determine common regularities and peculiarities of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems in view of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the chapter is to determine common regularities and peculiarities of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems in view of developed and developing countries.

Methodology

The methodology of this research includes the developed author’s conceptual model of conflict of socio-economic system as an analog of the model of economic cycle. As crisis is a manifestation/example of economic conflict, this model could be used for studying it. Also, the method of comparative analysis is used for comparing the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems from various categories. The objects of the research are selections of countries according to classification of the International Monetary Fund – leading developed countries (advanced economies) and emerging market and developing economies. The studied indicator is annual growth rate of GDP in constant prices.

Conclusions

Modeling and analysis of the influence of the 2008 crisis on development of socio-economic systems of developed and developing countries are performed, with crisis considered as a wave of economic cycle. Apart from common regularities of the 2008 crisis in socio-economic systems – vivid and short negative reaction and double wave of crisis – we determined peculiarities of influence of this crisis on economies of developed and developing countries. These peculiarities are connected to the fact that the 2008 crisis was deeper in developed countries than in developing countries, but the crisis was developing according to the optimistic scenario (long waves) and was overcome in 2012. In developed countries, the crisis was developing according to the pessimistic scenario (short waves), and negative reaction renewed in 2012, with another one expected in 2021.

Originality/value

It is substantiated that insufficiently intensive and successful management of crisis in developing countries will probably become a cause of increase of differentiation of countries in the global economic system, which is expressed in growth of underrun of developing countries from developed countries.

Details

“Conflict-Free” Socio-Economic Systems
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-994-6

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries: Perspective, Methods and Examples
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-982-4

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 November 2019

Dipyaman Pal, Chandrima Chakraborty and Arpita Ghose

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13…

Abstract

The present study aims to determine the existence of simultaneous relationship between economic growth, income inequality, fiscal policy, and total trade of the 13 emerging market economies as a group for the period 1980–2010. After establishing the existence of simultaneity between the above relationships, a simultaneous panel model has been formulated and estimated incorporating the nonlinearity among the variables as suggested by the existing literature. An inverted U-shape relationship is evident between (1) economic growth, income inequality, and total trade in economic growth equation, (2) income inequality, economic growth, and per capita income in income inequality equation, and (3) total trade and economic growth in total trade equation. Thus, the existence of a two-way nonlinear relationship is highlighted between economic growth, income inequality, and total trade. Apart from these nonlinear relationships, positive and significant effect of (1) gross capital formation, inflation, population growth, human capital, fiscal policy, monetary policy, and domestic credit to private sector on economic growth; (2) civil liabilities on income inequality; (3) gross capital formation and inflation on total trade; (4) total trade, population growth of those aged 65 years and above, political system on fiscal policy is highlighted. Also, negative and significant effect of (1) fiscal policy on income inequality and (2) income inequality on fiscal policy is revealed.

Details

The Gains and Pains of Financial Integration and Trade Liberalization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-004-7

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 16 September 2022

Anastasia A. Sozinova, Elena N. Makarenko, Elena Y. Zolochevskaya and Evgeny N. Tishchenko

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to scientifically test the credibility (proof or refutation) of the existing argument for a technological leap in the COVID-19…

Abstract

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to scientifically test the credibility (proof or refutation) of the existing argument for a technological leap in the COVID-19 pandemic and the post-pandemic period.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The conducted review of existing sources of research literature showed that they have formed an insufficient scientific background for a clear understanding of digital deprivation of services, social contradictions and conflict management as components of technological leap amid the COVID-19 pandemic and in the post-pandemic period. To fill the identified gap in the system of scientific knowledge, this work uses the method of comparative analysis of statistical data. Some countries of the world, the EU countries and the United States, which are characterized by the largest population and the largest contribution of investments to the digitalization of value chains and the development of innovations, were selected as objects for this study.

Findings: Research has shown that rapid digitalization is impacting all aspects of life, including not only how value is created and exchanged, but also how we interact, operate, purchase and receive services. In this process, data and its international flows are becoming increasingly important for development. The usual digital gap associated with connectivity, reflecting significant differences between and within countries in readiness to use the power of data, is exacerbated by what might be termed the data gap. Countries with limited opportunities to transform digital data into digital analytics and entrepreneurial opportunities, and to use them for economic and social development, are obviously at a disadvantage.

Originality/Value: Digital data have been proven to be one of the top strategic assets for creating both private and public value. Our ability to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, 2015) depends a lot on how these data are applied. The idea of sustainable development arose, as it is known, for overcoming significant fluctuations in the positive transformation of society, and for the alignment in the pace and results of the transition of various countries to the post-industrial scenario of progress. There are many obstacles on the path of sustainable development, which hinder the transition to this vector of transformation. First, the gap in economic and social development between the countries of the ‘golden billion’ and many other countries has not been reduced. Second, the digital gap continues to deepen. But a new and extremely threatening danger on the path to the transition to sustainable development has become the global crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic that emerged in early 2020 and is still ongoing.

Determining the right course for the future is a difficult task, but its solution cannot be postponed. Data are multidimensional, and their use has an impact not only on trade and economic development but also on human rights, peace and security. In addition, measures should be taken to reduce the risk of misuse and unauthorized use of digital data by states, non-states or the private sectors to avoid the possibility of global social conflict.

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