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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Ganesaraman Kalyanasundaram, Sitaram Ramachandrula and Bala Subrahmanya Mungila Hillemane

Entrepreneurs nurture their ambitions of founding tech start-ups that facilitate significant innovations despite vulnerability and considerable uncertainty by resolutely…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurs nurture their ambitions of founding tech start-ups that facilitate significant innovations despite vulnerability and considerable uncertainty by resolutely addressing multiple challenges to avert failures. The paper aims to answer how soon do tech start-ups fail, given their lifecycle comprising multiple stages of formation and what attributes hasten failure of tech start-ups over their lifecycle? These questions have not been answered adequately, particularly in the context of India's emerging economy, where an aspiring start-up ecosystem is striving to flourish at an exceptional rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The study addressed two specific objectives: (1) Does life expectancy vary between life-cycle stages? and (2) What attributes impact tech start-ups' failures? Primary data were gathered from 151 cofounders (101 who have experienced failure and 50 who are successful and continuing their operations) from India's 6 leading start-up hubs. The survival analysis techniques were used, including non-parametric Kaplan–Meier estimator, to study the first objective and semi-parametric Cox proportional hazard regression to explore the second objective.

Findings

The survival probability log-rank statistics ascertain that life expectancy is different across the life-cycle stages, namely emergence, stability and growth. The hazard ratios (HRs) throw light on attributes like stage, revenue, conflict with investors, number of current start-ups, cofounder experience, level of confidence (LoC) and educational qualifications as the key attributes that influence start-up life expectancy over its lifecycle.

Practical implications

The empirical study on tech start-ups' life expectancy has practical implications for entrepreneurs and investors besides guiding the ecosystem's policymakers. First, the study helps entrepreneurs plan for resources and be aware of their start-up journey's potential pitfalls. Second, the study helps investors to establish the engagement framework and plan their future funding strategy. Third, the study helps policymakers to design and establish progressive support mechanisms that can prevent a start-up's failure.

Originality/value

First and foremost, start-up life expectancy study by life-cycle stages provide detailed insights on start-ups' failures. The theoretical framework defined is replicable, scalable and distinctly measurable for studying the start-up failure phenomenon. The life expectancy of tech start-ups by life-cycle stage is a critical empirical contribution. Next, the attributes impacting start-up life expectancy are identified in the context of an emerging economy.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Mário Franco, Diogo Neves, Heiko Haase and Margarida Rodrigues

This study aims to analyse the importance of intellectual capital (IC) in networks formed by start-ups, with a view to obtaining resources that individually they would be…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyse the importance of intellectual capital (IC) in networks formed by start-ups, with a view to obtaining resources that individually they would be unable to acquire.

Design/methodology/approach

To achieve this aim, a qualitative approach was adopted, and within this, the case study method was used. The data-collecting instrument was the semi-structured interview, held with the business-people/managers of five start-ups present in an incubator (Startup Rém) based in Portugal, and with the person in charge of this incubator, together with observation and documentary analysis.

Findings

From content analysis, the results suggest that the business people recognise the presence of IC at the moment of creating their business and that this is a means to attain sustainability and, consequently, business survival. The results also show that in the absence of network formation, the relation between the incubator and the incubated firms can be affected and limited, interfering directly with firms’ use of IC.

Practical implications

This research aimed to highlight the importance of IC as an essential resource for business survival and sustainability and to encourage start-ups to regard networks as a way to share and convey knowledge. This study also intends to help firms understand the role of cooperation and mutual assistance in seeking sustainability and economic growth.

Originality/value

This study is innovative because it has filled the gaps identified in the literature, particularly the absence of studies on the importance of IC in networks formed by start-ups, and the study of the impact of IC on firms focussing on cooperation networks.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2021

Vartuhi Tonoyan and Robert Strohmeyer

Existing entrepreneurship literature has provided mixed evidence as to whether resource providers discriminate against female-led innovative start-up ventures in their…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing entrepreneurship literature has provided mixed evidence as to whether resource providers discriminate against female-led innovative start-up ventures in their resource commitment decisions either in terms of the likelihood or conditions of resource provision. While some studies revealed evidence indicative of negative discrimination against female entrepreneurs, others have provided evidence suggestive of positive discrimination. In light of these divergent findings, the purpose of this paper is to develop a more nuanced and integrative approach to studying gender biases in entrepreneurial resource provision with greater attention paid to both moderating contingency factors and mediating mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors develop a conceptual model and empirically testable propositions describing whether, how and when entrepreneurial resource providers are likely to under-, over- and equivalue female-led innovative start-up ventures relative to equivalent male-led start-up ventures. The model applies not only to institutional or private investors as providers of financial capital to start-up ventures as discussed extensively in extant entrepreneurship literature but also to prospective employees as providers of human capital and prospective consumers as providers of money in exchange for an entrepreneurial product or service. The authors discuss the gender-typing of the entrepreneur's core product/service offering as a key contingency factor likely to moderate the proposed relation. The authors further delineate the importance of what they refer to as the “first”- and “second-order” mediating mechanisms underlying the hypothesized relation between resource provider evaluations of the male versus female founder-CEO, the attractiveness of his/her start-up venture and the (conditions of) resource provision to their start-ups.

Findings

Building on social-psychological theories of descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes and extant entrepreneurship literature, the authors establish that gender biases are likely to occur because of resource providers' perceptions of women entrepreneurs at the helm of male-typed start-up ventures to be less competent and agentic, as well as less warm and other-oriented than equivalent male entrepreneurs leading male-typed start-up ventures. The authors discuss the implications of such gender-biased evaluations for the application of stricter performance standards to female-led-male-typed start-up ventures and the likelihood and conditions of resource provision to their companies. The authors further discuss why and when female founder-CEOs of a female-typed (gender-neutral) start-up venture are likely to be overvalued (equivalued) compared to equivalent male founder-CEOs. The authors also develop propositions on additional contingency factors and mediators of the gendered evaluations of founder-CEOs and their start-up ventures, including resource providers' “second-order” gender beliefs, the high-cost versus low-cost resource commitment, individual differences in gender stereotyping and the perceived entrepreneurial commitment of the founder-CEO. The authors conclude by suggesting some practical implications for how to mitigate gender biases and discrimination by prospective resource providers.

Originality/value

Discussing the implications of descriptive and prescriptive gender stereotypes on evaluative decisions of entrepreneurial resources providers, this study advances not only the women's entrepreneurship literature but also the more-established scholarship on the role of gender stereotypes for women's advancement opportunities in the corporate world that has traditionally viewed entrepreneurship as the solution for women fleeing the gender-stereotype-based discrimination in the corporate setting to advance their careers.

Details

International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-6266

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Article
Publication date: 17 September 2021

Deepkumar Varma and Pankaj Dutta

Across industries, firms want to adopt data-driven decision-making (DDDM) in various organizational functions. Although DDDM is not a new paradigm, little is known about…

Abstract

Purpose

Across industries, firms want to adopt data-driven decision-making (DDDM) in various organizational functions. Although DDDM is not a new paradigm, little is known about how to effectively implement DDDM and which problem areas to focus on in these functions. This study aims to enable start-ups to use DDDM in human resources (HR) by studying five HR domains using a narrative inquiry technique and aims to guide managers and HR practitioners in start-ups to enable data-driven decisions in HR.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopts the narrative inquiry technique by conducting semi-structured interviews with HR practitioners and senior members handling HR functions in start-ups. Interview memos are thematically analyzed to identify repeated ideas, concepts or elements that become apparent.

Findings

The study findings indicate that start-ups need to have canned operational reports with right attributes in each of these HR domains, which members should use when performing HR tasks. Few metrics, like cost-to-hire in recruitment, distinctly surfaced relatively higher in importance that each start-up, should compute and use in decision-making.

Practical implications

Managers, HR practitioners and information technology implementation teams will be able to consume the findings to effectively design or evaluate HR processes or systems that empower decision-making in a start-up.

Originality/value

Start-ups have a fast-paced culture where creativity, relationships and nimbleness are valued. Prevalent decision models of larger organizations are not suitable in start-ups’ environments. This study, being cognizant of these nuances, takes a fresh approach to guide start-ups adopt DDDM in HR and identify key problem areas where decision-making should be enabled through data.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Hashem Abdullah Alnemer

The purpose of this paper is to explore the start-up intention among the female population in Saudi Arabia using the social cognitive theory (SCT).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the start-up intention among the female population in Saudi Arabia using the social cognitive theory (SCT).

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor nationwide survey of 1,835 adult females in 2017. This is one of the most comprehensive surveys for assessing the start-up climate across the globe including Saudi Arabia. The data have been analyzed using simple techniques such as chi-square statistics, correlation, and logistics regression. The factors affecting start-up intentions have been identified using the social cognitive theory (SCT).

Findings

Out of 1,835 adult females surveyed under Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, 568 of them have reported start-up intention, i.e. 31.9 percent. The profile of females with and without start-up intention has been mapped in terms of age, family size, working status, education level, region, and citizenship to understand the potential group. The results of the correlation coefficient indicated a significant and positive relationship between start-up intention (SI) among females and self-efficacy (SE), career choice (CC), employment generation (EG), and social welfare (SW). The regression estimates proved that both the constructs, i.e. self-efficacy beliefs and outcome expectations of the social cognitive model are positive and significant.

Practical implications

The result of this paper provides empirically meticulous evidence for understanding the start-up intention of females in Saudi Arabia based on the social cognitive theory. This study provides a key strategy for changing the start-up ecosystem for females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. By focusing on the required knowledge, skill, and experience among females belonging to young, small family size, not-working and having higher family income may provide better start-up intention for all those who are willing to venture into a new business as a career choice, have the intention to create jobs and wish to solve social problems.

Originality/value

Considering the current focus of the government for establishing a knowledge-based economy by promoting new programs in the kingdom for start-ups and SMEs, the findings of this research can be valuable for the rapid acceleration of a new model of growth supported by the grass-root rise of women entrepreneurs.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Donald Crestofel Lantu, Yulianto Suharto, Ira Fachira, Anggraeni Permatasari and Grisna Anggadwita

The development of teaching methods in the field of entrepreneurship education is a challenge for academics to achieve “real active learning.” This paper aims to…

Abstract

Purpose

The development of teaching methods in the field of entrepreneurship education is a challenge for academics to achieve “real active learning.” This paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of learning experience through internship program at start-ups. This paper examines the benefits and challenges from stakeholders' experiences and perspectives (business students, start-ups and universities). The authors focus on the entrepreneurial values obtained by exploring start-up processes, culture and work environments.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses qualitative research with a case study approach by applying experiential learning. The objects of this research are students of the School of Business and Management and start-ups in Indonesia. This study divides the pilot program of internship at start-ups into three stages, designing process, execution and evaluation. The analysis technique uses an interpretive approach from interviews and observations of internships based on experiential learning.

Findings

The results showed that the internship program at start-ups in this study has benefits for all major stakeholders, especially students. The results of student learning experiences show that start-ups' characteristics such as a creative work environment, egalitarian work culture and dynamic workflow flexibility can increase their professional and moral values.

Research limitations/implications

This study has several limitations, including the internship program designed in this study, which is still raw and has several shortcomings. Time series in testing experiential learning is another limitation. For further study, it is necessary to conduct longitudinal research to measure the effectiveness of the start-ups' internship program.

Originality/value

This study provides new insights on experiential learning in developing an internship program at a start-up as an effort to increase entrepreneurial value for business students. This study highlights the possibility that an internship program at a start-up will have an impact on students' entrepreneurial values and competencies.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2021

Paola Paoloni and Giuseppe Modaffari

In recent years the role of business incubators (BIs) within the small-medium enterprise (SME) dimension has grown fast, supporting SMEs, especially during the early…

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Abstract

Purpose

In recent years the role of business incubators (BIs) within the small-medium enterprise (SME) dimension has grown fast, supporting SMEs, especially during the early stage. For these reasons, this paper aims to investigate how BI supports entrepreneurs in the early stage and what specific instruments are used? What kinds of relations do start-ups use (RQ2)? Finally, the authors intend to explore the long-term influence of these relationships on the economic value of the start-ups (RQ3)?

Design/methodology/approach

The present paper is supported by a qualitative methodology of a single case study. To reach the declared goal in terms of relationship observation, the paper applies the CAOS model (Paoloni, 2021), an interpretative model useful for analysing the relational capital within the SME dimension.

Findings

This first explanatory research confirms the crucial role of the BI in the firm’s development process. Especially in the early stage, the knowledge transfer from the BI allows the start-up to overcome its main difficulties: the organizational aspect and finance capacity.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation concerns the number of start-ups observed. Future lines of research will be focused on the study of other firms to acquire more data on the topic of BI programmes and start-ups.

Practical implications

The managerial implication refers to advancing knowledge and practice in the area of knowledge sharing actuated by BIs. The present work underlines the importance of relational capital as an intangible asset in the development of the younger company.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to two different fields: knowledge sharing by relational capital and gender studies.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Roberto Pugliese, Guido Bortoluzzi and Marco Balzano

This study aims to enrich the current theoretical debate on the growth of start-up firms by extensively investigating the ongoing empirical studies in this research…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to enrich the current theoretical debate on the growth of start-up firms by extensively investigating the ongoing empirical studies in this research stream. Moreover, this study identifies drivers whose support roles are confirmed in the literature and recommends further research opportunities.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, we analysed the results of 316 empirical studies on start-up firms and growth and also identified and categorised 66 growth drivers. We presented these drivers in three-dimensional charts: 1) the frequency of using each driver in the 316 studies, 2) the consistency of each driver as measured by the number of studies supporting its statistical significance and 3) the net effect (positive or negative) of each driver on growth.

Findings

Our analysis compares extant studies on growth drivers and shows some under-explored growth factors of start-up firms.

Practical implications

Both start-up managers and policymakers can benefit from this study. This study provided managers with a fine-grained tool on the main growth drivers and can guide policymakers in supporting policies for start-up firms.

Originality/value

This study provides a rich, fine-grained and coherent picture of several potential growth drivers of start-up firms. Moreover, we extended our analysis to various potential drivers more than previous studies on this topic, thereby providing fruitful insights into the critical growth factors for start-up firms.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Diego Matricano, Elena Candelo and Mario Sorrentino

The food industry has always been supplier dominated, characterised by low research intensity, product line extensions and me-too products. However, recent changes have…

Abstract

Purpose

The food industry has always been supplier dominated, characterised by low research intensity, product line extensions and me-too products. However, recent changes have led new firms operating in the food industry to invest in research and development (R&D) activities in order to introduce innovations into the market and achieve superior performance. This paper aims to verify whether these changes are noteworthy by investigating whether and which innovation-related factors (investments in R&D activities, qualified scientists/engineers and holding a patent) can affect the performance of food start-ups.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 108 innovative start-ups operating in the food industry in Italy was selected, and a stochastic frontier analysis was carried out. This methodology was chosen because of the factorisation of the error term, which is divided into a unilateral component (revealing the inefficiency of the statistical model) and a symmetric component (revealing random gaps).

Findings

Statistical elaborations provide two interesting results. One concerns the error term (only random inefficiency affects results) and the other relates to innovation-related factors. Only investments in R&D activities positively affect the performance of innovative start-ups in the Italian food industry.

Originality/value

Results confirm the relevance of investments in R&D activities for Italian start-ups aiming to achieve superior performance in the food industry. These results confirm relevant changes are occurring in what was a supplier-dominated industry and disclose how start-ups should master the dynamics of innovation and allow for speculation on future industry trends.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Praveen Kulkarni, Rohit Mutkekar, Shashidhar Chiniwar and Sanjeev Ingalagi

The purpose of this paper is to provide the insights on the challenges influencing rural start-ups. It provides insights with regards to managerial, operational, marketing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide the insights on the challenges influencing rural start-ups. It provides insights with regards to managerial, operational, marketing and finance-related challenges influencing the rural start-ups in the study. The study aims to expand the domain of start-ups by including a broader range of challenges and related aspects found in the start-up literature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper opted for an exploratory study using the open-ended approach of grounded theory, including 61 rural start-ups operating in Karnataka, India. The data were analysed through non-parametric test to understand the comparison between different sectors of rural start-ups.

Findings

It suggests that marketing techniques and infrastructure challenges influences the rural start-ups. Therefore, success of start-ups is influenced by these related variables.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, the research results may lack generalizability. Researchers are therefore encouraged to test the proposed propositions further in the area of challenges and growth in the domain of managerial, infrastructure, marketing, finance, human resource and logistics in rural start-ups. The study is restricted to rural start-ups located in districts of Karnataka, India.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for managing the challenges for enhancing the growth of start-ups. The paper provides insights on the significant challenges witnessed by the start-ups and provides directions for the growth of start-ups.

Social implications

This paper fulfils an identified need of the start-ups in rural sector and contribute to the growth of start-ups in rural sector of India.

Originality/value

This paper fulfils an identified need to study how rural start-ups operate and create a niece in the growth of Indian economy.

Details

World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5961

Keywords

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