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Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Johannes von Bloh

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (EES) is among the fastest growing entrepreneurship research topics. With even greater vigour, the non-scientific world of economic development…

Abstract

Purpose

Entrepreneurial Ecosystems (EES) is among the fastest growing entrepreneurship research topics. With even greater vigour, the non-scientific world of economic development agencies, administrations and policymakers has adopted the construct and applies it widely “in the field”, often lacking a solid empirical foundation and pursuing sub-optimal approaches. Improving policy instruments for EES development requires a data driven approach to first understand an EES of a specific region before making any attempts to change it. The paper showcases an empirical approach to create empirically rooted EES policy implications, contributing to closing the gap for insight in regional EES data of sub-national regions.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploring a mixed method design, utilising quantitative Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data and combining it with EES stakeholder interviews, focusing on dysfunctions, redundancies, power asymmetries and cut off elements as well as in-layer division and public organisation behaviour.

Findings

One finding is, that regional economic development agencies (EDA), as a main public instrument to foster regional entrepreneurial activity, seem to bring the potential of a negative impact on Entrepreneurial Ecosystems bottom-up development and the ability to become self-sustained if they assume the role of competitors towards private organisations and businesses.

Research limitations/implications

As other work on EES, the approach used in this paper only sub-optimally covers temporal system dynamics.

Practical implications

This paper contributes to future EES support policies being rooted in an empirical foundation.

Originality/value

This paper not only progresses the empirical basis for research on regional EES but also lays the foundation for specific policy implications for a sub-national level entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship and Public Policy, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-2101

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Hui Chen, Jose Miguel Baptista Nunes, Gillian Ragsdell and Xiaomi An

The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain the role of individual learning and development in acquiring tacit knowledge in the context of the inexorable and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain the role of individual learning and development in acquiring tacit knowledge in the context of the inexorable and intense continuous change (technological and otherwise) that characterizes our society today, and also to investigate the software (SW) sector, which is at the core of contemporary continuous change and is a paradigm of effective and intrinsic knowledge sharing (KS). This makes the SW sector unique and different from others where KS is so hard to implement.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employed an inductive qualitative approach based on a multi-case study approach, composed of three successful SW companies in China. These companies are representative of the fabric of the sector, namely a small- and medium-sized enterprise, a large private company and a large state-owned enterprise. The fieldwork included 44 participants who were interviewed using a semi-structured script. The interview data were coded and interpreted following the Straussian grounded theory pattern of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The process of interviewing was stopped when theoretical saturation was achieved after a careful process of theoretical sampling.

Findings

The findings of this research suggest that individual learning and development are deemed to be the fundamental feature for professional success and survival in the continuously changing environment of the SW industry today. However, individual learning was described by the participants as much more than a mere individual process. It involves a collective and participatory effort within the organization and the sector as a whole, and a KS process that transcends organizational, cultural and national borders. Individuals in particular are mostly motivated by the pressing need to face and adapt to the dynamic and changeable environments of today’s digital society that is led by the sector. Software practitioners are continuously in need of learning, refreshing and accumulating tacit knowledge, partly because it is required by their companies, but also due to a sound awareness of continuous technical and technological changes that seem only to increase with the advances of information technology. This led to a clear theoretical understanding that the continuous change that faces the sector has led to individual acquisition of culture and somatic knowledge that in turn lay the foundation for not only the awareness of the need for continuous individual professional development but also for the creation of habitus related to KS and continuous learning.

Originality/value

The study reported in this paper shows that there is a theoretical link between the existence of conducive organizational and sector-wide somatic and cultural knowledge, and the success of KS practices that lead to individual learning and development. Therefore, the theory proposed suggests that somatic and cultural knowledge are crucial drivers for the creation of habitus of individual tacit knowledge acquisition. The paper further proposes a habitus-driven individual development (HDID) Theoretical Model that can be of use to both academics and practitioners interested in fostering and developing processes of KS and individual development in knowledge-intensive organizations.

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

George Palaigeorgiou and Athina Grammatikopoulou

This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by pioneer educators with extensive Web 2.0 experience.

Design/methodology/approach

The testimonies of 26 Greek primary and secondary education teachers were collected. All teachers had an extensive involvement with Web 2.0 in their classrooms. The interviews were semi-structured and focused on personal case studies, students' views of Web 2.0, problems and prerequisites and educational opportunities of Web 2.0.

Findings

The teachers indicated that Web 2.0 learning activities promote the learner to the center of the learning process, open the schools’ doors to society and help students learn how to cooperate and create digital content, while enabling them to reflect more on their thoughts, extend the time-space of the educational dialogue and promote trust between students and teachers. The participants had also to cope with challenges which concerned their colleagues’ attitude and the educational environment, the parents’ attitude, the amount of time and effort required, the unpredictable character of the activities, the limitations imposed by the curriculum, the overestimation of students’ skills and the lack of training opportunities.

Practical implications

The findings can be transformed to a set of critical guidelines for policy makers and for educating the educators.

Originality/value

The set of findings are derived from teachers with a long-term, intensive, daily practice with Web 2.0 and offer an holistic systematic view of problems and opportunities.

Details

Interactive Technology and Smart Education, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-5659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Cemil Ciftci and Hakan Ulucan

This study aims to analyze the wage differentials of the majors in college education in Turkey, which is a country implementing an ongoing expansion in college education…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze the wage differentials of the majors in college education in Turkey, which is a country implementing an ongoing expansion in college education in recent years.

Design/methodology/approach

The study implements Mincreian wage regression using ordinary least squares, Heckman two-step estimation and quantile regression with sample selection correction by using household labor force surveys of TurkStat from the years 2014–2017.

Findings

The findings indicate one of the highest heterogeneity, close to 0.50 log points, between majors in the literature. The within-heterogeneity created by majors is highest among the graduates of social-behavioral sciences, law, biology, physics, mathematics, statistics, computer, engineering and manufacturing, as shown by a 90–10 difference, which is almost 700% for some of these majors. This study shows that the natural science and technical majors that are expected to be more productive and to be paid more fall behind in the wage distribution.

Research limitations/implications

Estimation results show that natural science majors, except for subjects allied to medicine and engineering, are paid lower than law and service-sector-related majors. This indicates that the predictions of the skill-biased technical change hypothesis are not valid in the wage profiles in Turkey and that some majors supply more than the sectoral needs. This casts doubts on the effectiveness of the ongoing higher education expansion process of the country.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on wage differentials of college majors, an area with limited studies. This is the first study analyzing wage differentials of the field of studies by correcting sample selection bias for the Turkish case.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2021

Vasiliki Brinia and Paraskevi Psoni

Through the present study, the authors investigate whether online practicum in teaching, with fellow teacher-candidates acting as students, can be effective and whether…

Abstract

Purpose

Through the present study, the authors investigate whether online practicum in teaching, with fellow teacher-candidates acting as students, can be effective and whether the teacher-candidates actually developed skills useful for their future teachings, through this form of practicum, which is necessary when, out of necessity, like in the case of the COVID-19 pandemic, there is no other option for universities.

Design/methodology/approach

The method selected was qualitative research through in-depth interviews, since the present research question and the research topic in general have not been examined in the past. The authors gathered 45 teacher-candidates' journals on this experience, and, then, they interviewed them through semi-structured interviews.

Findings

The findings indicated that the teacher-candidates got acquainted with new technologies in education to a great extent. Moreover, they developed skills that will be proven useful for their future teachings, like adaptability, flexibility and handling of students' interaction in online settings.

Originality/value

The present case study consists of a paradigm of international value, since it fills in a gap in literature on an online alternative of practicum in teaching in cases of crisis, like the COVID-19 pandemic. Valuable insights are gained for researchers, practitioners and policymakers and best-practices for online teaching practicum have derived for future use.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 21 October 2013

Ivan-Damir Anic, Milivoj Markovic and Nikola Knego

The purpose of this chapter was to investigate consumer perceptions of retail agglomeration (RA) characteristics in Zagreb region. Perceived RA characteristics were…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter was to investigate consumer perceptions of retail agglomeration (RA) characteristics in Zagreb region. Perceived RA characteristics were compared between two major types of RA: Planned retail agglomerations (PRA) and Evolved retail agglomerations (ERA).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected with consumer survey and analyzed using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

Findings indicate that four factors of RA characteristics can be identified: convenience, accessibility, atmosphere, and image. The shoppers’ ratings indicate the strength and weaknesses of RA, and also the dominant position of PRA as compared to evolved RA.

Originality/value

Results show that there were significant differences in shoppers’ perceptions between Planned and evolved RA in Zagreb region. Shoppers evaluated PRA better than ERA on all four factors. Convenience and atmosphere are the best-rated PRA characteristics. Managerial implications are discussed in the study.

Details

Challenges for the Trade of Central and Southeast Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-833-4

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2021

Patrik T. Hultberg, David Santandreu Calonge and Ty Choi

The purpose of the study is twofold: to offer a theoretical model that illuminates families' motivation to invest in private tutoring and to consider the implications of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is twofold: to offer a theoretical model that illuminates families' motivation to invest in private tutoring and to consider the implications of such investments in the context of South Korea. Given that parents invest in private tutoring for their child if the perceived expected benefits, at the time of enrollment, are greater than the direct and indirect costs of such tutoring, the study explores how private tutoring may affect educational inequities and possibly lead to inferior social outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model based on the human capital approach was developed. Three questions based on stylized facts were addressed: (1) Why would a household send a child to private tutoring? (2) Why do different households invest in different amounts of private tutoring? (3) Why may a household over-invest in private tutoring?

Findings

The findings of this study indicate that the demand for private tutoring services decreases with the costs of private tutoring, while increasing as levels of academic readiness and aptitude, levels of household education, levels of current wealth and expected returns to private tutoring increase. These findings imply that private tutoring may exacerbate social inequities and cause an inferior social outcome, but that a government can influence the demand for tutoring through taxation.

Research limitations/implications

This study did not address the non-pecuniary benefits that may be derived from private tutoring. The most important limitation and potential source of weakness of the study is that the model is theoretical. These results therefore need to be interpreted with caution.

Practical implications

The study indicates the need for private households, as well as government officials, to carefully consider the costs and benefits of private tutoring in South Korea. Although the study focuses on South Korea, the findings may apply to other countries in which private tutoring offerings are prominent.

Social implications

The educational choices that families make for their children have important financial and social implications in all countries, but especially in South Korea. The important implication is that private tutoring will tend to aggravate educational and social inequality.

Originality/value

The existing body of research on private tutoring investment in South Korea suggests that the phenomenon is ubiquitous, growing and spreading to other countries. Furthermore, the motivation behind households' decisions to invest in private tutoring for their children is not always addressed in the published literature. Also, far too little attention has been paid to the economic impact private tutoring has on households and children, as well as society in general.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Michael Chi-man NG

Sustainable economic growth is a major policy target of many governments over the world; Hong Kong also has no exception after its sovereignty handover on 1st July 1997…

Abstract

Sustainable economic growth is a major policy target of many governments over the world; Hong Kong also has no exception after its sovereignty handover on 1st July 1997. Hong Kong has also been inertly receiving more than one hundred Chinese immigrants every day for several decades which mainly serves the purpose of family reunion through One-way Permit scheme. There exists a public voice in relation to Chinese immigrants' intentions of migrating to Hong Kong; some people argued Chinese immigrants are not simply aimed to reunifying their family but purposely grasping public resources of Hong Kong; public resources include public healthcare benefits and subsidized public housing; such hidden motivation and immigrants' economic contribution are not theoretically mutually exclusive. This chapter summarizes literature in relation to various concerns about immigrants' contribution towards economic growth, also consolidates immigrants' survey results which regularly conducted by Hong Kong Home Affairs Department and Immigration Department, and utilized Hong Kong census and by-census datasets to empirically compare the return rates of schooling and work experience between Chinese immigrants and natives over the past forty years, and investigate the causality between Hong Kong economic growth rates and these two return rates.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Hong Kong
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-937-3

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 11 May 2017

Lorenzo Cappellari, Paolo Castelnovo, Daniele Checchi and Marco Leonardi

We use OECD-PIAAC data to estimate the earnings effects of both years of education and of numerical skills. Our identification strategy exploits differential exposure to…

Abstract

We use OECD-PIAAC data to estimate the earnings effects of both years of education and of numerical skills. Our identification strategy exploits differential exposure to educational reforms across birth cohorts and countries. We find that education has the strongest earnings effect. A one standard deviation increase in years of education raises earnings by almost 22 percentage points (corresponding to a return to education above 7 percentage points), which compares with a lower percentage points return to an equivalent increase in numerical skills. Our results suggest that the same set of unobservables drives the accumulation of both formal years of education and numeracy skills. OLS estimates underestimate returns to human capital, consistently with the idea that educational reforms favor the human capital acquisition of abler children from disadvantaged parental backgrounds. When we consider numerical skills alone education reforms cannot identify any significant effect of skills on wages, however, when we jointly consider schooling and skills as endogenous factors in a recursive structure we find a significant role for skills in determining wages.

Details

Skill Mismatch in Labor Markets
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-377-7

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 19 November 2020

Anchal Arora, Jinesh Jain, Sanjay Gupta and Ajay Sharma

In today's competitive environment, sustainability is talked out in every sphere of life. Sustainability is a key to stability and for that roots are being focused by…

Abstract

Purpose

In today's competitive environment, sustainability is talked out in every sphere of life. Sustainability is a key to stability and for that roots are being focused by incorporating sustainability in higher education. The basic purpose of this paper is to prioritize the sustainability drivers in the higher education system. This research will provide fruitful insight into the sustainability drivers in the higher education system to the education industry and policymakers.

Design/methodology/approach

The present research is conducted on the 400 students studying in four major universities in the state of Punjab. Fuzzy analytical hierarchy process was applied to prioritize the sustainability drivers in the higher education system. The primary factors considered for the present study include social-people (social responsibility), environmental-planet (sustainable environmental practices) and financial-profit (economic value created).

Findings

The most influential criteria were environmental-planet (sustainable environmental practices) and social-people (social responsibility). The five most influential subcriteria were “Student engagement in eco co-curricular activities (C21)”, Energy efficiency measures (C23)”, “The HEI as a job driver in the city (C11)”, “Total direct energy consumption (C31)” and “Support from the HEI for local initiatives and help in growing the sustainability of the community or region (C12)”.

Research limitations/implications

Although the sample survey conducted in this study was focused on a small sample selected from the state of Punjab which genuinely represented the total population, it is still considered as a limitation for the present study.

Practical implications

The outcome of this research provides policymakers with a better understanding of the sustainability drivers in higher education. This will further help them toward achieving the aim of sustainability.

Originality/value

The present research is based on the available literature on sustainability and the results of the study would add value to the existing knowledge base.

Details

Higher Education, Skills and Work-Based Learning, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-3896

Keywords

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