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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2018

Chris Hatton

The purpose of this paper is to examine data on absences and exclusions from school amongst children with learning disabilities and autistic children in England in 2016/2017.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine data on absences and exclusions from school amongst children with learning disabilities and autistic children in England in 2016/2017.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were drawn from Department for Education statistics for the school year 2016/2017 on school absences (authorised and unauthorised) and school exclusions (fixed-period and permanent) for children in the primary special educational needs categories of moderate learning difficulty (MLD), severe learning difficulty (SLD), profound and multiple learning difficulty (PMLD) and autistic spectrum disorder (ASD).

Findings

Authorised school absence rates were higher for all groups of children investigated compared to children without special educational needs, primarily due to illnesses and health-related appointments. Rates of unauthorised school absences were low. Rates of fixed-period and permanent school exclusions were higher for children with MLD and ASD compared to children without SEN, and lower for children with SLD and PMLD. Reasons given for exclusions were similar across children (persistent disruptive behaviour, physical assault against a pupil, verbal abuse against an adult), although physical assault against an adult was also commonly mentioned for children with SLD, PMLD or ASD.

Social implications

Reducing school absences for children with learning disabilities and autistic children will involve co-ordination of health and social care support arrangements to ensure they are convenient and efficient for children and families. In terms of exclusions, schools need to consider the extent to which they are making reasonable adjustments for children with learning disabilities and autistic children.

Originality/value

This paper presents in one place statistics concerning school absences and school exclusions for children with learning disabilities and autistic children in England.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 23 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1996

Andre Imich

Exclusion from school is currently an issue of public interest, with numbers on the increase and concern that this trend may indicate a deterioration in the standards of…

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892

Abstract

Exclusion from school is currently an issue of public interest, with numbers on the increase and concern that this trend may indicate a deterioration in the standards of pupil behaviour. Explores the data further, presenting a clear picture of who is being excluded and the reasons given for their exclusion. Also presents evidence that it is a minority of schools that exclude a majority of pupils. Identifies examples of good practice in schools with low exclusion rates, such as taking a child‐centred approach, providing support to inexperienced staff, working effectively with external support services and involving parents and the pupils themselves in positive problem‐solving approaches.

Details

Health Education, vol. 96 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2003

Carol Hayden

This paper focuses on the issue of exclusion from school in England. Exclusion from school is seen as indicative of behaviour that teachers find unacceptable within school

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2122

Abstract

This paper focuses on the issue of exclusion from school in England. Exclusion from school is seen as indicative of behaviour that teachers find unacceptable within school, as such it represents their limits to tolerance. Aggressive, disruptive and non‐compliant behaviour features strongly in reasons given by schools for excluding pupils. The word “violence” is still applied sparingly as a descriptor for pupil behaviour. An overview of the evidence about the scale and nature of school exclusion is provided, drawing on the author's empirical research in the field. The paper also presents an overview of policy responses to the issue and how these relate to broader issues of child welfare. The paper concludes by reviewing policy tensions relating to school exclusion, particularly in relation to the social inclusion agenda.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 41 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 28 April 2010

Daniel Briggs

Increasingly, punitive policies on ‘poblematic’ pupils are implemented in poor‐performing UK urban state schools. While some are permanently excluded and referred to local…

Abstract

Increasingly, punitive policies on ‘poblematic’ pupils are implemented in poor‐performing UK urban state schools. While some are permanently excluded and referred to local authority educational alternatives, others are unofficially ‘excluded’ and referred to other forms of off‐site educational centres, where pupils receive a significantly reduced timetable, undertake unchallenging courses and are unlikely to return to school. Based on an ethnographic research project with 20 excluded young people in one south London borough, this paper will discuss what happens to these young people after their ‘exclusion’ from school. I will suggest that this form of unofficial ‘exclusion’ has significant life implications for these young people, contributing not only to their social exclusion, but also to their increased exposure to crime and victimisation. Moreover, their life options are truncated despite the efforts that they may make otherwise.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

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Article
Publication date: 8 December 2020

Fanny Vainionpää, Marianne Kinnula, Netta Iivari and Tonja Molin-Juustila

The low number of women in the information technology (IT) field is a concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors behind the exclusion of girls from the IT field.

Abstract

Purpose

The low number of women in the information technology (IT) field is a concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors behind the exclusion of girls from the IT field.

Design/methodology/approach

The present work includes a narrative literature review and an exploratory interview study with ten girls and six study guidance counsellors (GCs) from Finnish senior high schools. Using the nexus analysis as a theoretical lens, the authors examined the exclusion of girls from IT.

Findings

Earlier literature directed attention to the cultural norms, assumptions and stereotypes still prevalent in society and the lack of role models and positive media as factors contributing to girls excluding themselves from the IT field. In this research study’s data, the authors not only found evidence of the unintentional exclusion of girls from IT by others but also by the girls themselves. Findings of this research study illustrate the various discourses, actors and their interactions, their background and history-related factors affecting girls' career choices. The novelty of this study is in approaching high school as a site of exclusion, where problematic discourses, interactions and histories come together, reproducing exclusion of girls from the IT field.

Originality/value

The authors contribute with a literature review of the research study on gender and IT and the inclusion/exclusion dynamics around IT. Using the nexus analysis, the authors identify the exclusion dynamics in this complex social issue. Several decades of research have shown that the inclusion of women remains low in IT disciplines. In this study, high schools are viewed as sites of exclusion, engendering a prevalent lack of information and education on the field. The authors offer novel insights into the role of curriculum, GCs and online information excluding girls from the IT field.

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Claire Parker, Ruth Marlow, Marc Kastner, Felix May, Oana Mitrofan, William Henley and Tamsin Ford

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school between the ages of 4 and 12 years…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the association between children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school between the ages of 4 and 12 years and the role of psychopathology, development and attainment.

Design/methodology/approach

A case-control approach was conducted. Cases were children who had been excluded from school compared to those who had no reported exclusions and normative data where possible. A range of measures were used to collect information from the parent, child and teacher on areas covering the child’s mental health and well-being.

Findings

The findings showed the number of difficulties faced by children who are at risk of being or who have been excluded from school compared to gender- and age-matched controls and normative data increased. Behavioural difficulties were apparent in the majority of the cases and an alarming number of children reported self-harm. Interestingly nearly all the cases had recognised needs, but not all of them were accessing appropriate services.

Practical implications

There have been a number of changes regarding the identification and support of children’s mental health and well-being. This study highlights gaps in resources and provision, particularly around behavioural difficulties for children who are presenting as not coping in school.

Originality/value

The findings from the SKIP study indicate the complexities and compounded difficulties faced by children who are experiencing exclusion from school. By implementing a systematic group of assessments the study was able to identify these complexities of need across a vulnerable group of children.

Details

Journal of Children's Services, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-6660

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Book part
Publication date: 5 August 2011

Daniel Briggs

Purpose – UK urban state schools have recently experienced increased pressure to improve pupil performance levels and punitive policies appear to be one way of dealing…

Abstract

Purpose – UK urban state schools have recently experienced increased pressure to improve pupil performance levels and punitive policies appear to be one way of dealing with “problematic” young people. While some are permanently excluded for serious acts, others, who are by comparison less problematic, are unofficially “excluded” and referred to off-site educational provision (OSEP) where they receive reduced timetables and unchallenging courses. This research study set out to examine why 20 young people were “unofficially” excluded from school and their progress in OSEP.

Methodology – The study made use of ethnographic methods with 20 excluded young people in one south London borough in the UK. The research was undertaken from March 2009 to August 2009.

Findings – This chapter shows how “unofficial” exclusionary processes, to which these urban young people are exposed, have implications for their identity, self-worth and lifestyles, and makes them increasingly vulnerable to crime and victimization. The chapter makes use of labeling perspectives to understand the significance of the social reaction to deviant labels young people receive in school (Becker, 1953) and how they respond as a consequence (Lemert, 1972).

Details

The Well-Being, Peer Cultures and Rights of Children
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-075-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Carl Parsons and Danuta Orlowska

Abstract

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Peter Mittler, Sonia Jackson and Judy Sebba

This overview of policy and policy implementation is based on three individual papers presented in November 2001, and on their discussion by Fellows of the Centre for…

Abstract

This overview of policy and policy implementation is based on three individual papers presented in November 2001, and on their discussion by Fellows of the Centre for Social Policy at Dartington. It critically examines the challenge of ‘joined‐up’ working, and calls for better engagement of parents and children in action to promote social inclusion and improve opportunity. After a detailed general review by Peter Mittler, who led the seminar, specific consideration to the education of children in care is given by Sonia Jackson, and to the prospects for evidence‐based inter‐agency developments by Judy Sebba, who was a guest contributor.

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Sue Holttum

The purpose of this paper is to highlight research on the exclusion from school of children with disabilities, and especially those identified as experiencing emotional…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight research on the exclusion from school of children with disabilities, and especially those identified as experiencing emotional disturbance. Two studies of schools that are inclusive are then described in order to examine how they achieve good results.

Design/methodology/approach

Three papers are summarized. The first examines things that predict children with disabilities being excluded from school, including characteristics of children and of schools. The second is a qualitative study of four English schools involved in a national programme aimed at improving children’s mental health. The third is a case study of one American school identified for its high inclusivity and excellent educational results.

Findings

In the first study, children with emotional disturbance, and African-American children were most likely to be excluded from school. The study of four English schools suggested that implementation of the national programme was variable but leadership and planning seemed vital, as well as whole-school commitment. The high-performing inclusive American school had whole-school commitment, high quality planning alongside flexibility, on-going further training for teachers, and close pupil tracking.

Originality/value

The study of school exclusion was the first to examine children and schools together, as well as different disabilities and ethnicity. The study of English schools highlights the experiences of those directly involved in implementing a national programme to promote children’s mental health. The study of a high-performing inclusive school in America discovered much in common with inclusive high-performing schools in England, suggesting that some practices can be identified across the two cultures that aid successful inclusion of children with disabilities including mental health difficulties.

Details

Mental Health and Social Inclusion, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-8308

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