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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2016

Jeffrey P. Bakken

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to…

Abstract

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom and curriculum. This chapter will briefly discuss special education as well as inclusion. Inclusion will be defined, and benefits and also myths of inclusion will be discussed. In addition, research that supports inclusion will be described. This chapter lays the foundation for the other chapters in this volume that will discuss inclusion and students with specific types of disabilities.

Details

General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-541-6

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Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Peterson K. Ozili

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are…

Abstract

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal and incentive-inefficient both for users and providers of financial services.

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Girish Joshi, Bindya Kohli and Sandeep Nalawade

This paper aims to investigate whether small finance banks (SFBs) in India are working towards financial inclusion through qualitative studies.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate whether small finance banks (SFBs) in India are working towards financial inclusion through qualitative studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a phenomenological approach in which semi-structured interviews were conducted with the employees of two SFBs in Mumbai with different specializations. Employee experience was captured to grasp, interpret and code data for the creation of different themes.

Findings

This research shows that the current literature on financial inclusion is inadequate to explain the behavior of the needy in India. Study found multiple themes of financial inclusion, namely, financial literacy, self-esteem, use of technology, prompt repayment, credit identity, cross-referencing and financial stability. Although overall results are positive, to generalize the results, SFBs need to spend some more time in business. The findings of this study can be of global benefit to micro-finance organizations of a similar scale to achieve financial inclusion and business improvement.

Research limitations/implications

This qualitative study was performed at a single location and with a limited sample size, which underlines the need for repeated exercises at multiple locations with a larger sample size to establish a broader logical generality. It also points out the need for a study of employee themes to enhance the business processes of SFBs.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this qualitative study is first attempt to figure out the extent of work done by SFBs in India in promoting financial inclusion. Themes related to financial inclusion can provide further thought process for policymakers for financial inclusion and business improvement. Findings refer not only to Indian organizations but also to small banks around the world to recognize the underpinnings of financial inclusion and what small banks and micro-finance institutions can do to make it meaningful.

Details

Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-4179

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Biplob Kumar Nandi, Gazi Quamrul Hasan and Md. Humayun Kabir

This study aims to examine the impact of financial inclusion on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at varying degrees of financial inclusion for a sample of 76…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the impact of financial inclusion on per capita gross domestic product (GDP) at varying degrees of financial inclusion for a sample of 76 developing countries between 2011 and 2017. To evaluate the heterogeneous impact, this paper constructs the multi-dimension index of financial inclusion to classify sample countries into two sub-samples in terms of the value of FIID, taking account of three dimensions of financial inclusion: access, usage and availability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study attempts to identify the presence of reverse causality and long-run relationship between financial inclusion and economic growth by using the Granger causality test (Wald test) and three alternative panel cointegration tests (Kao Test, Pedroni Test, Westerlund Test) respectively. Because of the existence of the bi-directional causality between financial inclusion and per capita GDP, this study uses a fixed effect instrumental variable model with lagged dependent variable to get unbiased estimators from the panel regressions for sample countries.

Findings

This paper finds a strong positive impact of financial inclusion on per capita GDP growth in sample developing countries, controlling for labor market structure, financial institutions’ efficacy, infrastructural and governance issues. This study suggests that economic growth will be high in developing economies with a higher level of financial inclusion; however, the positive impact for two sub-samples countries (low and medium level of inclusion and high level of inclusion) are heterogeneous. The estimated result explains that a 1% increase in the financial inclusion index leads to a 0.0153% point increase in the per capita GDP for the countries with a low and medium level of financial inclusion, while this positive impact is significantly higher, 0.0794% point for countries with the high level of financial inclusion. This study also suggests that the higher concentration in the financial market by few agents and the lower level of governance may have an adverse impact on economic growth for the economies with a low and medium level of financial inclusion.

Originality/value

This study is an original study that contributes to the research gap by explaining the heterogeneous impact of financial inclusion on economic growth at varying degrees of inclusion in the two sub-sample countries. Moreover, this study posits greater appeal as it explores the issue using the sample of only developing economies.

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Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Mouna Amari and Jarboui Anis

This paper aim to fill the gaps by looking for the determinants and barriers related to financial inclusion. This study assesses the effect of socio-demographic variables…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aim to fill the gaps by looking for the determinants and barriers related to financial inclusion. This study assesses the effect of socio-demographic variables on the use of formal financial inclusion services.

Design/methodology/approach

This article examines the barriers to formal financial inclusion, focusing on saving and credit strands. The authors propose the probit model, allowing distinguishing the outcome variable into three categories: Formal inclusion, informal inclusion and financial exclusion. The authors apply this model to the Findex 2017 survey data.

Findings

Estimation results propose that the trust to financial institutions, the distance to banks, the lack of documentation and the service costs are the main barriers, but these barriers affect the probability of using formal financial services differently according to the types of financial services (saving or credit).

Research limitations/implications

To advance the formal financial inclusion in Tunisia, the authors call for continuing promoting financial literacy among adults and the young population, which helps them understand the benefits of using formal financial services. Financial literacy throws in constructing the individual trust toward the financial sector in a country that experienced several decades of political and economic instability.

Originality/value

Financial inclusion promotes growth through a broadening of the system and technology that can be a major catalyst for greater financial inclusion. It helps in the overall economic development of the underprivileged population and contributes to poverty reduction. It can also enhance the security of payments, and thus lower the incidence of associated crime.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 July 2021

Daniel Wolfgruber, Lina Stürmer and Sabine Einwiller

The purpose of this article is to examine the communicative factors that facilitate or hamper the development of an inclusive work environment with an emphasis on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to examine the communicative factors that facilitate or hamper the development of an inclusive work environment with an emphasis on the communication about equality, diversity, and inclusion (EDI), while taking diversity characteristics of employees into account.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 84 persons employed in Austria and Germany, who feature various observable and non-observable diversity characteristics, were interviewed following a problem-centered approach.

Findings

The results indicate that employees with (observable) diversity characteristics, who tend to feel less included, observe more excluding and marginalizing communication and practices in their organizations. Moreover, formal interpersonal communication appears to be more important to develop a highly inclusive workplace than informal interpersonal communication and other forms of communication about EDI.

Research limitations/implications

The sample was rather imbalanced and comprised only employees in Austria and Germany, which limits the study's explanatory power. However, the findings stress the significance of formal interpersonal communication as the cornerstone of an inclusive workplace, which should be followed up in future research.

Practical implications

In terms of the development of an inclusive work environment the findings suggest that strategic (i.e. formal) organizational communication about EDI issues is key to increase the perception of inclusion.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating the importance of interpersonal communication as a key factor that facilitates, but also hampers an inclusive work environment.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2021

Alicja Pawluczuk, JeongHyun Lee and Attlee Munyaradzi Gamundani

This aim of this paper is to examine the existing gender digital inclusion evaluation guidance and proposes future research recommendations for their evaluation. Despite…

Abstract

Purpose

This aim of this paper is to examine the existing gender digital inclusion evaluation guidance and proposes future research recommendations for their evaluation. Despite modern progress in towards gender equality and women’s empowerment movements, women’s access to, use of and benefits from digital technologies remain limited owing to economic, social and cultural obstacles. Addressing the existing gender digital divide is critical in the global efforts towards the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In recent years, there has been a global increase of gender digital inclusion programmes for girls and women; these programmes serve as a mechanism to learn about gender-specific digital needs and inform future digital inclusion efforts. Evaluation reports of gender digital inclusion programmes can produce critical insights into girls’ and women’s learning needs and aspirations, including what works and what does not when engaging girls and women in information and communications technologies. While there are many accounts highlighting the importance of why gender digital inclusion programmes are important, there is limited knowledge on how to evaluate their impact.

Design/methodology/approach

The thematic analysis suggests three points to consider for the gender digital inclusion programmes evaluation: context-specific understanding of gender digital inclusion programmes; transparency and accountability of the evaluation process and its results; and tensions between evaluation targets and empowerment of evaluation participants.

Findings

The thematic analysis suggests three points of future focus for this evaluation process: context-specific understanding of gender digital inclusion programmes; transparency and accountability of the evaluation process and its results; and tensions between evaluation targets and empowerment of evaluation participants.

Originality/value

The authors propose recommendations for gender digital inclusion evaluation practice and areas for future research.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2021

Jiaojiao Qu, Shuming Zhao and Yixuan Zhao

This study aims to identify profiles of inclusion in the workplace to provide evidence-based guidance to build an inclusive organization.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to identify profiles of inclusion in the workplace to provide evidence-based guidance to build an inclusive organization.

Design/methodology/approach

Latent profile analysis (LPA), a person-centred classification analytical tool, was applied to determine the subtypes of inclusion with Mplus 7.4, using two-wave data collected from 368 employees in 8 Chinese companies.

Findings

Three subgroups were identified: identity inclusion group (the highest level of inclusion, 34.0%), value inclusion group (the moderate level of inclusion, 47.5%) and low inclusion group (the lowest level of inclusion, 18.5%). The findings indicate that groups with male, aged and highly educated members, as well as members from developed areas generally tend to feel more included and greater inclusion relates to more favourable outcomes and fewer detrimental consequences.

Research limitations/implications

As this study was conducted only in China, the results may not be generalizable to non-Chinese contexts.

Practical implications

The results may help organizational leaders develop a deeper understanding of the significance and the crux of inclusion. To address the duality of workforce diversity, managers can take initiatives to create an inclusive organization. To achieve inclusion, managers should pay attention to ways of improving the perceptions of inclusion among all employees.

Originality/value

This is among the first studies to identify the variants in inclusion in China using LPA. It reveals the subtypes and characteristics of inclusion and can serve as a starting point to explore how to realize organizational inclusion in theory and practice.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

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Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2021

Ibrahim Osman Adam and Muftawu Dzang Alhassan

In an increasingly digitalised society, digital participation is reliant on information communication technology (ICT) access and the ability to use technologies for…

Abstract

Purpose

In an increasingly digitalised society, digital participation is reliant on information communication technology (ICT) access and the ability to use technologies for everyday tasks. To this end, people risk being digitally excluded if they cannot access and use ICTs. The purpose of this paper is to examine globally the effects of ICT access and ICT use on digital inclusion on one hand and the mediating role of ICT usage on the linkage between ICT access and digital inclusion on the other.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a hypothesized model based on structuration theory and secondary data drawn from multiple archival sources in 121 countries. The authors test the model using partial least squares structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results from the PLS analysis shows that while ICT usage significantly influences digital inclusion at the global level, ICT access does not. Furthermore, the mediating role of ICT usage was not supported.

Originality/value

This study to the best of the authors’ knowledge is one of the very few studies to examine the effects of ICT access and ICT use on digital inclusion at the global level. The study contributes to the discourse on digital inclusion in ICT4D research.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

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Article
Publication date: 9 June 2021

Janet Davey, Eldrede Kahiya, Jayne Krisjanous and Lucy Sulzberger

While service inclusion principles raise the awareness of scholars to service that improves holistic well-being, little research explicitly investigates the spiritual…

Abstract

Purpose

While service inclusion principles raise the awareness of scholars to service that improves holistic well-being, little research explicitly investigates the spiritual dimensions of service inclusion. This study, therefore, aims to explore faith-based service inclusion in sub-Saharan Africa.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative case study of the Salvation Army’s Chikankata Services in Zambia was undertaken. Semi-structured interviews with the organization’s leaders and professionals were analyzed thematically.

Findings

Service inclusion pillars evince contextualized meaning and priority. In resource-constrained, vulnerable communities, faith-based service inclusion prioritizes two additional pillars – “fostering eudaimonic well-being” and “giving hope,” where existence is precarious, fostering (hedonic) happiness is of low priority. Findings reveal that pillars and processes are mutually reinforcing, harnessed by the individual and collective agency to realize transformative outcomes from service inclusion.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides unique insight into faith-based service inclusion but acknowledges limitations and areas warranting further research.

Practical implications

The study yields important managerial implications. Service providers can use the framework to identify the contextual priority and/or meaning of service inclusion pillars and relevant reciprocal processes. The framework emphasizes the harnessing potential of individual agency and capability development for transformative well-being.

Social implications

Faith-based service inclusion, predicated on inclusion, human dignity and holistic well-being, has important implications for reducing the burden on scarce resources while building resilience in communities.

Originality/value

By examining a faith-based service in sub-Saharan Africa, this paper provides a holistic framework conceptualizing pillars, processes, agency and outcomes to extend Fisk et al.’s (2018) service inclusion pillars and to better understand the shaping of service delivery for service inclusion.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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