Search results

1 – 10 of over 69000
Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2016

Jeffrey P. Bakken

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to…

Abstract

Inclusion is a concept that has been around for years and is implemented in our schools. Some schools do it well and others are still working on it. Inclusion is meant to include students with disabilities in the general education classroom and curriculum. This chapter will briefly discuss special education as well as inclusion. Inclusion will be defined, and benefits and also myths of inclusion will be discussed. In addition, research that supports inclusion will be described. This chapter lays the foundation for the other chapters in this volume that will discuss inclusion and students with specific types of disabilities.

Details

General and Special Education Inclusion in an Age of Change: Impact on Students with Disabilities
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-541-6

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 19 July 2022

Peterson Kitakogelu Ozili

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter revisits digital financial inclusion as an international development agenda and discusses everything you need to know about digital financial inclusion.

Methodology: This chapter uses conceptual discourse methodology to explain digital financial inclusion.

Findings: This chapter identifies the definitions of digital financial inclusion, the goal of digital financial inclusion, the components of digital financial inclusion, the types of providers of digital financial services, the instruments for digital financial inclusion, the benefits of digital financial inclusion, the risks of digital financial inclusion, and the regulatory issues associated with digital financial inclusion. It also proposes suggestions on how to make digital financial inclusion work for the good of all. This chapter concludes by offering some implications for policymaking and practice in the digital finance ecosystem.

Details

Big Data: A Game Changer for Insurance Industry
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-606-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 28 September 2020

Peterson K. Ozili

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are…

Abstract

This chapter examines various conditions for optimality in financial inclusion. The optimal level of financial inclusion is achieved when basic financial services are provided to members of the population at a price that is affordable and that price is also economically sufficient to encourage providers of financial services to provide such financial services on a continual basis. Any level of financial inclusion that does not meet these conditions is sub-optimal and incentive-inefficient both for users and providers of financial services.

Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2022

Peterson K. Ozili

Purpose: This chapter aims to present the arguments for and against central bank digital currency (CBDC) increasing financial inclusion. Financial inclusion is one of the…

Abstract

Purpose: This chapter aims to present the arguments for and against central bank digital currency (CBDC) increasing financial inclusion. Financial inclusion is one of the many reasons for issuing a CBDC.

Need for the study: There is a need to offer a critical perspective on the proposed financial inclusion benefits of CBDC. This is the first paper to present arguments supporting and statement against CBDC for financial inclusion.

Method: This chapter uses discourse analysis methodology to identify the arguments about CBDC promoting financial inclusion

Findings: The arguments in support of CBDC increasing financial inclusion are that CBDCs can digitise value chains, CBDCs can improve access to digital financial services, CBDCs can help to enlarge the digital economy, CBDCs can enhance the efficiency of digital payments, CBDCs can be used offline when there is no internet coverage, and CBDCs have low transaction costs. Some criticisms are that CBDC may not prioritise financial inclusion, a high price to purchase digital devices for holding a CBDC, non-interest-bearing CBDCs, the strong preference for cash over digital currency, the burdensome identification and regulatory requirements, and the imposition of transaction costs.

Implications: Overall, the arguments presented in this chapter show that there is still disagreement over whether a central bank’s digital currency can increase financial inclusion. Nevertheless, in the light of recent events, many central banks are determined to issue a CBDC for many reasons. Even though CBDCs do not achieve the intended financial inclusion objective, at least the other goals for publishing a CBDC will be performed, such as a significant reduction in cash management costs and the effective conduct of monetary policy.

Details

Big Data Analytics in the Insurance Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80262-638-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2022

Shijian Wang, Qiyuan He, Quanwei Liang, Jie Cui, Qing Jiang, Chang Liu, Chao He, Lang Li and Yao Chen

The study aims to examine the effect of inclusions and inherent microstructure on fatigue behavior of 34Cr2Ni2Mo steel.

Abstract

Purpose

The study aims to examine the effect of inclusions and inherent microstructure on fatigue behavior of 34Cr2Ni2Mo steel.

Design/methodology/approach

Fatigue behavior of 34Cr2Ni2Mo steel was investigated for up to 1E10 cycles.

Findings

Results showed that both inclusion and inherent microstructure have an influence on the crack initiation mechanism. Fatigue cracks mostly initiated from inclusions, whereas substrate-induced crack initiations were also observed. Fatigue life of inclusion-induced failures is mostly determined by the location of inclusions rather than the loading stress. The inherent microstructure seems to tolerate inclusions at a lower stress level in very high-cycle regime owing to the absence of internal inclusion-induced failure. For the substrate-induced crack initiations, high-density dislocations are found to be accumulated around the carbide particle-matrix interface, which may be the cause of crack initiation in the inherent structure due to strain localization.

Originality/value

The effect of inclusions and inherent microstructure on fatigue behavior of 34Cr2Ni2Mo steel up to 1E10 cycles.

Highlights

  • Fatigue failure occurs even at a lifetime of 5.76E9 cycles.

  • Surface inclusion induced premature failures.

  • Inherent microstructure tolerates inclusions at lower stress level.

  • Internal carbides promote substrate-induced crack initiations.

Fatigue failure occurs even at a lifetime of 5.76E9 cycles.

Surface inclusion induced premature failures.

Inherent microstructure tolerates inclusions at lower stress level.

Internal carbides promote substrate-induced crack initiations.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 August 2022

Eddy S. Ng, Diana Rajendran and Wahed Waheduzzaman

Although skilled migrants have a high capacity for integration, many report experiences of exclusion which impacts their ability to contribute fully to the host country…

Abstract

Purpose

Although skilled migrants have a high capacity for integration, many report experiences of exclusion which impacts their ability to contribute fully to the host country. This experience of exclusion, which can diminish their self-efficacy at work, is especially acute for skilled migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds when functioning in a new or exclusionary environment. In this paper, we explore the relationship between workplace inclusion and self-efficacy and identify factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for skilled migrant workers.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were recruited through social network groups representing migrant workers via LinkedIn. Through snowball sampling, participants were asked to recommend recent (3–5 years) skilled migrants to participate. A total of 210 skilled migrant workers to Australia completed the survey. Structural equation modelling (SEM) is used to test our model on the relationship between inclusion and self-efficacy.

Findings

Migrants' perceptions of inclusion at work are related to their self-efficacy at work. We also find that some dimensions of inclusion are more important than others in enhancing self-efficacy for skilled migrants. Meaningful exchanges with supervisors, a sense of belonging at work and workgroup cohesion (being accepted by co-workers) are more important than senior management support or getting involved in organizational social activities as determinants of perceived inclusion.

Social implications

Although skilled migrants are often assumed to be a self-select group of highly motivated, high achieving workers, many experience poor adjustment and feel excluded after arriving in the host country. Public policies have limited effects in promoting inclusion of skilled migrant workers in organizations. These policies may be supplemented with an inclusive organizational climate to improve migrant worker success. Organizations and employers are thus critical partners in fostering migrant workers' sense of inclusion and supporting the career outcomes of skilled migrant workers in the host country.

Originality/value

This study supports the link between perceived inclusion and self-efficacy among skilled migrant workers. It also sharpens the evidence of organizational-level factors that contribute to perceived inclusion for migrant workers.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 8 August 2022

Radwa Ahmed Abdelghaffar, Hebatalla Atef Emam and Nagwa Abdallah Samak

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nexus between financial inclusion and human development for countries belonging to different income groups during…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nexus between financial inclusion and human development for countries belonging to different income groups during 2009–2019, and whether this relation differs across these groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper constructs an index of financial inclusion (IFI) for different income group countries employing dynamic panel data models estimated by generalized method of moments (GMM) to analyse the relation between financial inclusion and human development.

Findings

Financial inclusion in low and lower-middle-income countries has higher effect on human development than in high and upper-middle income countries.

Research limitations/implications

The study examines the effect of IFI on the human development index (HDI) at the aggregate level. Future research can tackle the IFI effect on every component of HDI and other aspects of financial inclusion could be incorporated like financial technology.

Originality/value

The originality lies in constructing an index for financial inclusion using the most recent data for a wide range of countries, in addition to examining the impact of financial inclusion on the human development levels of different income groups allowing for more accurate analysis tackling the differences in terms of adopted policies across various income groups; unlike other studies that are carried out on a one country basis or only across one or two country groups that do not allow for comparison across various groups of countries.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-279X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 July 2022

Victor Ediagbonya and Comfort Tioluwani

In recent times, various governments in the developing and emerging markets are increasingly embracing financial technology to help improve financial inclusion and…

Abstract

Purpose

In recent times, various governments in the developing and emerging markets are increasingly embracing financial technology to help improve financial inclusion and integration within the governments' countries. One of the primary goals of using such technology is to reduce poverty. This paper explores Fintech innovations' effectiveness in developing and emerging markets in driving financial inclusion using Nigeria as a case study. The paper explores the challenges militating against financial inclusion and the role of government, financial institutions, and fintech companies in ensuring financial inclusion for the vast majority of the unbanked population in the developing and emerging markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on doctrinal, sociological, and comparative research methodologies. The researchers conducted a content analysis drawing on data from both primary and secondary sources, including existing legislation, journal articles, newspaper reports, and policy documents.

Findings

The research showed that the financial inclusion gap has expanded despite the government, regulators, and financial institutions' various efforts by developing various digital platforms, including encouraging the use of smartphones for mobile payments and automated teller machines (ATMs) and mobile money. Several reasons are responsible for the gap in financial inclusion: illiteracy, poor infrastructural facilities, intermittent power supply, poor mobile receptions, especially in rural areas, constant banks' network failures, unnecessary charges, information asymmetry and data privacy breaches, amongst others.

Practical implications

Financial inclusion through fintech is essential in eradicating poverty in developing and emerging markets if adequately implemented. Therefore, this paper will be useful to researchers exploring how technology influences financial inclusion. The paper will also aid policymakers and practitioners in financial technology regulation to improve the effectiveness of policymakers and practitioners' policies and implementation strategies of financial inclusion in developing and emerging markets.

Originality/value

This research is significant, especially in developing and emerging markets, by exploring issues and challenges of fintech in promoting financial inclusion in challenging institutional contexts. This paper suggested potential areas for further research, particularly women's attitudes and expectations towards services provided by fintech companies and other financial institutions.

Details

Technological Sustainability, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2754-1312

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Maheen Iqbal Awan, Amjad Shamim, Muhammad Shoaib Saleem and Shahbaz Shabbir Gill

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for measuring service inclusion for tourists with disabilities in tourism and hospitality services. Transformative service…

39

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for measuring service inclusion for tourists with disabilities in tourism and hospitality services. Transformative service research serves as the basis for the conceptualization and dimensionality.

Design/methodology/approach

To develop and purify the items as well as develop dimensions, standard scale development procedures were applied. Two studies were undertaken. In Study 1, the factorial structure of the service inclusion was constructed and confirmed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In Study 2, the field study was conducted to validate the scale.

Findings

The study developed a new scale for measuring service inclusion. The results show that service inclusion is a higher-order construct with four dimensions, namely, enabling opportunity, offering choice, relieving suffering and fostering happiness. Furthermore, service inclusion has a significant effect on tourists’ well-being perception, which results in more favorable behavioral responses. The newly constructed scale is declared as valid and reliable by the study that examined it for nomological validity by examining the relationship between service inclusion and tourists’ perceptions of their well-being.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to develop measurement scale for service inclusion in the tourism and hospitality industry. The scale is proven as reliable and valid and is well suitable for measuring service inclusion for tourists with physical disabilities. It has potential to use for other relevant service contexts.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 June 2022

Rania Mousa and Peterson K. Ozili

The purpose of this paper is to analyze Grameen America's response to COVID-19 pandemic. This is accomplished by identifying and analyzing the key initiatives implemented…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze Grameen America's response to COVID-19 pandemic. This is accomplished by identifying and analyzing the key initiatives implemented by Grameen America within the framework of selected United Nations' Sustainability Development Goals (UN’s SD Goals).

Design/methodology/approach

This study has used qualitative content analysis to analyze financial and nonfinancial information of Grameen Bank.

Findings

This study follows a qualitative content analysis method to precisely gauge the shift in Grameen’s strategy and focus, as well as to assess the impact of its initiatives on the small business community before and after the pandemic. The findings showcase that Grameen’s longstanding mission to alleviate poverty is in line with the UN’s SD Goal 1. Also, Grameen’s commitment to create partnerships with external organizations to offer credit and noncredit services and support is consistent with UN’s SD Goal 17.

Research limitations/implications

Notwithstanding the significant contributions of this case study, the findings are limited in some respects. First, this case study focuses on the Grameen America’s unique experience regarding its response to COVID-19 pandemic. This may affect the interpretation and generalization of the findings of this study. Performing comparative views across wide range of relevant microlending institutions could help improve the generalization of the findings. Also, this case study examines the impact on women and minority groups who were particularly affected by the pandemic. The results should, therefore, be interpreted with care as circumstances may change over time.

Practical implications

The implication for practice is that policymakers should encourage the creation of more member-based financial and non-financial institutions that can help members integrate financially and socially into society. Also, practitioners should increase their ethical duties and responsibilities to their members in society in good and bad times as members tend to value the ethical aspect of financial businesses.

Social implications

The social implication of the findings is that helping members of society to cope with the difficulties brought about by COVID increased the sense of belonging among members and made them feel cared for, thereby increasing financial and social inclusion among underserved people.

Originality/value

Prior literature addressed the initiatives of microlending institutions such as Grameen Bank to achieve financial inclusion among financially vulnerable women. This case study contributes to the literature on financial inclusion and poverty alleviation by examining Grameen America’s response to the pandemic by identifying and assessing Grameen America (GA’s) key initiatives and their impact within the framework of the UN’s SD Goals in the post COVID-19 world.

Details

International Journal of Ethics and Systems, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9369

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 69000