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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Charlotte Cobb-Moore

Purpose – This chapter examines an episode of pretend play amongst a group of young girls in an elementary school in Australia, highlighting how they interact within the…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter examines an episode of pretend play amongst a group of young girls in an elementary school in Australia, highlighting how they interact within the membership categorization device ‘family’ to manage their social and power relationships.

Approach – Using conversation analysis and membership categorization analysis, an episode of video-recorded interaction that occurs amongst a group of four young girls is analyzed.

Findings – As disputes arise amongst the girls, the mother category is produced as authoritative through authoritative actions by the girl in the category of mother, and displays of subordination on the part of the other children, in the categories of sister, dog and cat.

Value of paper – Examining play as a social practice provides insight into the social worlds of children. The analysis shows how the children draw upon and co-construct family-style relationships in a pretend play context, in ways that enable them to build and organize peer interaction. Authority is highlighted as a joint accomplishment that is part of the social and moral order continuously being negotiated by the children. The authority of the mother category is produced and oriented to as a means of managing the disputes within the pretend frame of play.

Details

Disputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-877-9

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Book part
Publication date: 5 February 2019

Christopher J. Schneider

In this keynote address, I use Georg Simmel’s sociology of social forms approach to amend Erving Goffman’s interaction order perspective into a contemporary analytical…

Abstract

In this keynote address, I use Georg Simmel’s sociology of social forms approach to amend Erving Goffman’s interaction order perspective into a contemporary analytical framework for empirical analysis of everyday life in our twenty-first century mediated social order. For Goffman, the interaction order provides a foundational basis for social order. As a cornerstone of the human condition, Goffman maintained that most of us spend our daily lives in the direct presence of others. However, rapid advancements in interactive media formats in the last few decades have given rise to an unprecedented twenty-first century interaction order. Many of us now also spend our everyday lives in the mediated presence of others, the effects of which parallel those of face-to-face interaction in importance. These changes, I contend, provide a necessary occasion to reimagine Goffman’s interaction order. In what follows, I first provide a brief synopsis of Goffman’s interaction order. Next, I outline the twenty-first century interaction order and illustrate the importance of Simmel’s formal sociology in amending Goffman’s original framework in relation to this unforeseen order. Finally, to highlight a few key points – I incorporate empirical examples from my work as it relates to police legitimacy. I conclude with some suggestions for future research and note a few limitations.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

George K. Chako

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…

Abstract

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2010

Steve Baron and Kim Harris

The purpose of this paper is to offer a consumer‐centric perspective on experiences and interactions that is consistent with the foundational premises of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to offer a consumer‐centric perspective on experiences and interactions that is consistent with the foundational premises of the service‐dominant logic of marketing, and which incorporates an increased understanding of the value derived from consumer‐to‐consumer (C2C) interactions.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper offers a reoriented framework and process consumer experience modeling (CEM) for analyzing consumer interactions in experience domains. CEM uses qualitative analysis methods and software, underpinned by constructs relating to first‐, second‐ and third‐order interactions undertaken by consumers. It is illustrated with reference to the “gap year travel” experience domain.

Findings

The approach offers a means for identifying value enhancers and inhibitors for consumers. It provides, for organizations, a representation of consumer perspectives on interactions, giving due regard to C2C interactions. The example of the gap year travel experience demonstrates how this information can be used to inform the nature and emphasis of future marketing initiatives of organizations that are operating within the experience domain.

Research limitations/implications

The framework and some of its key concepts require verification in other experience domains to test their robustness. The increased availability of consumer “voice” data (via blogs, etc.) offers great opportunities for the development of consumer‐centric approaches to experience analysis.

Originality/value

This work represents one of the first reported attempts to adopt an empirical approach to issues that have been raised by the foundational premises of the service‐dominant logic of marketing, and consider, and provide a structure to interactions and experiences from a consumer perspective.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 24 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Book part
Publication date: 19 June 2019

Michael Schandorf

Abstract

Details

Communication as Gesture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-515-9

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Book part
Publication date: 19 September 2012

Amanda Bateman

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of…

Abstract

Purpose – This chapter demonstrates the social organization practices evident in early childhood disputes in order to promote a greater understanding of the role of non-verbal, embodied actions within the dispute process. In doing so, this chapter offers insight into children's co-construction of disputes and has practical implications for early childhood teachers.

Methodology – Ethnomethodology (EM), conversation analysis (CA) and membership categorization analysis (MCA) are applied to the current study of children's disputes in order to offer insight into the sequences of social organization processes evident in children's disagreements.

Findings – This chapter presents a detailed analysis of the everyday disputes which four-year-old children engage in during their morning playtime at a primary school in Wales, UK. It reveals the children's use of physical gestures to support their verbal actions in order to maximize intersubjectivity between the participants. This joint understanding was necessary during the social organization process.

Practical implications – Managing children's physical disputes within an educational context is recognized as a very difficult aspect of a teacher's routine as the timing and level of intervention are so subjective (Bateman, 2011a). This chapter offers insight into the organization of physical disputes between young children, and so enables teachers to make an informed decision in their practice.

Details

Disputes in Everyday Life: Social and Moral Orders of Children and Young People
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-877-9

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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2020

Peter Ekman, Peter Dahlin, Cecilia Erixon and Steven Thompson

To explore the emergent characteristics of IT portfolios in business-to-business (B2B) firms. The goal is to develop a model that clarifies what interaction capabilities…

Abstract

Purpose

To explore the emergent characteristics of IT portfolios in business-to-business (B2B) firms. The goal is to develop a model that clarifies what interaction capabilities B2B firms develop and to what form of IT this corresponds to.

Design/methodology/approach

We apply an a priori conceptual framework that is based on the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group's theoretical focus on business relationships. The framework depicts the business relationship as dealing with uncertainty and equivocality as well as building and upholding reliance and trust. We utilize a case study approach involving a focal firm and ten of its customers and suppliers. Building on 60 interviews, field observations and archival data, we analyze interviewee responses and the complementary data to evaluate the role of IT in supporting or automated various aspects of organizational relationships.

Findings

Results show how “high tech” and “high touch” relate to different interaction capabilities, which firms develop based on the characteristics of their business relationships. Although IT is associated with “high tech” and “high touch” interaction capabilities, some forms of IT are deployed to support the former, while other forms support the later. Both forms of technology-enabled interaction capabilities require investment, and firms must balance investment costs against the value created by improved interaction capabilities.

Originality/value

Our findings emphasize the interorganizational perspective (dyadic or network) rather than a solely organizational perspective for understanding IT portfolio development. This perspective is presented through an emergent tech–touch interaction capability model that shows how B2B firms can align their IT portfolio based on the specific characteristics of their business relationships.

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2020

Betsy Campbell

This paper seeks to advance research into entrepreneurial uncertainty. Few researchers have attended to the endogenous means by which entrepreneurial teams account for…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to advance research into entrepreneurial uncertainty. Few researchers have attended to the endogenous means by which entrepreneurial teams account for uncertainty in context. This article begins to unpack the concept of uncertainty as an entrepreneurs’ phenomenon by investigating entrepreneurial teams’ situated ways of verbally attending to and accounting for uncertainty in their routine work.

Design/methodology/approach

The study draws on the ethnomethodological traditions of Conversation Analysis and interaction order to analyze naturally occurring interactions that have been recorded by entrepreneurial teams in context. It considers entrepreneurial uncertainty as a matter that teammates draw upon and orient to in the process of their naturally occurring workplace interactions.

Findings

First, it suggests that the endogenous means by which entrepreneurs recognize, account for, and respond to uncertainties is identifiable in a team’s naturally occurring conversations. It transforms entrepreneurial uncertainty as a matter of cognition into a matter of practice that is observable in the structure and order of authentic interaction. Second, it reveals the “epistemic engine” that entrepreneurial teams use to demonstrate greater or lesser levels of knowing and to move to closure that is not marked by the full elimination of uncertainties but by the establishment of a shared sense of not knowing.

Practical implications

By adhering to the detailed interactional focus of Conversation Analysis, this article emphasizes the value that the structure and order of entrepreneurial conversations can offer to research on entrepreneurship as practice. It points to future research on matters of effectuation and expertise that will be relevant to scholars and educators of entrepreneurship. It also helps to bridge the gap between scholarly research and entrepreneurial work as experienced by practitioners.

Originality/value

This article shows the mundane verbal means by which entrepreneurs account for uncertainties in their everyday work. It reframes entrepreneurial uncertainty, transforming it from a matter of cognition to an accomplishment of practice. It suggests that entrepreneurial uncertainty is a practical matter that is recognized by and accounted for in the conversations of entrepreneurial teams in context.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Jacques Masounave, Youssef A. Youssef, Yves Beauchamp and Marc Thomas

Investigates the effects of the most influential cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool nose radius, tool length and work piece length) on…

Abstract

Investigates the effects of the most influential cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, tool nose radius, tool length and work piece length) on surface roughness quality and on the formation of built‐up edge in a lathe dry turning process of mild carbon steel samples. A full factorial design (384 experiments), taking into account the three‐level interactions between the independent variables has been conducted. The results show that the following three‐level interactions: feed rate × cutting speed × depth of cut, feed rate × cutting speed × tool nose radius and tool nose radius × depth of cut × tool length have significant effects on surface roughness in this type of machining operation. Shows that the analysis of main effects alone and even two‐level interactions could lead to a false interpretation of the results. The analysis of variance revealed that the best surface roughness is achieved with a low feed rate, a large tool nose radius and a high cutting speed. The results also show that the depth of cut has no significant effect on surface roughness when operating at cutting speeds higher than 160m/min. Furthermore, it is shown that built‐up edge formation deteriorates surface roughness when machining mild carbon steel at specific feed rate, tool nose radius and cutting speed levels. Proposes a new model for evaluating the limiting cutting speed to avoid the built‐up edge formation. Finally, shows through experimentation that an increase in depth of cut would lead to improved surface roughness when tool vibration is increased.

Details

International Journal of Quality Science, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8538

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Gemunu Nanayakkara

The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that affect the “performance” of microfinancing institutions (MFIs) around the world and to further analyse the interaction

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find the factors that affect the “performance” of microfinancing institutions (MFIs) around the world and to further analyse the interaction and higher order effects of these factors on the performance. Although MFIs can have various objectives from a commercial focus to a social focus when performing their operations, this study analyses the factors that contribute to “performance” of MFIs in relation to their ability to “alleviate poverty in a sustainable manner”.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data relating to 234 MFIs across 63 countries, this study analyses eight factors that can affect performance of MFIs (as defined in this study) and their higher order and interaction effects using multiple regression models.

Findings

The results show that gender (female), literacy level of the borrowers, operational efficiency, offering only loans (not diversifying), age and emphasis on profitability have a significant effect on the performance. Analysis of higher order effects shows that the relationship of age with performance is a downward concave curve and that with operational efficiency is an upward concave curve. The interaction effects of gender and literacy, age and emphasis on female borrowers, and also age and emphasis on profitability were found to be significant.k

Originality/value

The findings contribute to understanding the factors that affect the performance of MFIs to alleviate poverty in a sustainable manner and help the policy makers and managers of MFIs to improve their performance in this area. Considering the hundreds of millions of dollars injected into microfinancing, improvement in performance as a result of these findings can lead to savings in millions of dollars.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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