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Book part
Publication date: 30 August 2019

Theodore F. Figinski, Alicia Lloro and Phillip Li

This study provides new evidence on the effect of compulsory schooling laws on educational attainment and earnings. First, we re-examine the effect of compulsory schooling

Abstract

This study provides new evidence on the effect of compulsory schooling laws on educational attainment and earnings. First, we re-examine the effect of compulsory schooling laws for cohorts born between 1900 and 1964 (“older cohorts”) using newly available data that match administrative earnings records with the survey data. Second, we provide among the first evidence on cohorts born between 1977 and 1996 (“younger cohorts”). Our findings suggest that compulsory schooling laws increased the educational attainment of older cohorts, but had no economically significant effect on the educational attainment of younger cohorts. We are unable to find consistent evidence that compulsory schooling laws increased the earnings of older cohorts – a finding which adds to growing evidence that compulsory schooling laws are less beneficial than earlier studies suggest.

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Topics in Identification, Limited Dependent Variables, Partial Observability, Experimentation, and Flexible Modeling: Part A
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-241-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Prabal K. De

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some…

Abstract

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some essential vaccination. Though a positive association between maternal education and markers of child health like immunization has been long established, the literature has struggled to find a causal relationship, mainly because education is inextricably correlated with other socioeconomic variables like income. In this chapter, I propose a new instrument for women’s education in India using the following facts. First, due to lack of sanitary facilities in schools, particularly rural schools, large number of girls drop out of school once they reach puberty. Second, age at menarche is largely determined by biological factors and not social factors. Together, age at menarche can explain variations in schooling, yet be independent of outcome variables like child immunization. I find that additional years of maternal schooling (conditional on strictly positive years of schooling) do increase the probability of complete immunization of children.

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 2010

Jasmina Spasojević

Understanding health determinants and exactly how they affect health is an important social policy question. Empirical tests in the health literature typically find that…

Abstract

Understanding health determinants and exactly how they affect health is an important social policy question. Empirical tests in the health literature typically find that the number of years of formal schooling completed is the most important correlate of good health. However, there is less consensus as to whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship between more schooling and better health. This chapter capitalizes on a unique social experiment: the 1950 Swedish comprehensive school reform, which was implemented in stages and by municipal areas, through which people born between 1945 and 1955 went through two different school systems (one of which required at least one more year of schooling). It uses an instrumental variables technique to estimate formal schooling's causal effect on adult health in Sweden. The instrumental variable for degree of education (schooling) generated from compulsory school reform yields a consistent estimate of education's causal impact on health, as measured by an bad health index and of body mass index in the healthy range. The additional schooling generated by Sweden's compulsory school reform produces improved adult health (controlling for cohort and county effects, family background characteristics, and individual income).

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Current Issues in Health Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-155-9

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Book part
Publication date: 19 May 2010

Ragui Assaad, Deborah Levison and Hai-Anh Dang

How much work is “too much” for children aged 10–14 in Egypt? Our narrow focus here is on “work that does not interfere with school attendance.” For girls, work includes…

Abstract

How much work is “too much” for children aged 10–14 in Egypt? Our narrow focus here is on “work that does not interfere with school attendance.” For girls, work includes time spent in household chores and subsistence activities. We estimate simultaneous hours of work and school attendance equations as a joint Tobit and Probit model, then conduct simulations. Substantial negative effects on attendance are observed above about 10 hours per week (girls) and 14 hours (boys). For girls, heavy household work appears causal, but for boys, it seems that poor schooling leads to boys' dropout, then subsequent work.

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Child Labor and the Transition between School and Work
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-001-9

Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Sara R Curran, Chang Y Chung, Wendy Cadge and Anchalee Varangrat

Within individual countries, the paths towards increasing educational attainment are not always linear and individuals are not equally affected. Differences between boys…

Abstract

Within individual countries, the paths towards increasing educational attainment are not always linear and individuals are not equally affected. Differences between boys’ and girls’ educational attainments are a common expression of this inequality as boys are more often favored for continued schooling. We examine the importance of birth cohort, sibship size, migration, and school accessibility for explaining both the gender gap and its narrowing in secondary schooling in one district in Northeast Thailand between 1984 and 1994. Birth cohort is a significant explanation for the narrowing of the gender gap. Migration, sibship size, and remote village location are important explanations for limited secondary education opportunities, especially for girls.

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Inequality Across Societies: Familes, Schools and Persisting Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-061-6

Book part
Publication date: 11 June 2014

This chapter is about the modern, Western education system as an economic system of production on behalf of the capitalist mode of production (CMP) and globalization…

Abstract

This chapter is about the modern, Western education system as an economic system of production on behalf of the capitalist mode of production (CMP) and globalization towards a single, global social space around market capitalism, liberal democracy and individualism.

The schooling process is above all an economic process, within which educational labour is performed, and through which the education system operates in an integrated fashion with the (external) economic system.

It is mainly through children’s compulsory educational labour that modern schooling plays a part in the production of labour power, supplies productive (paid) employment within the CMP, meets ‘corporate economic imperatives’, supports ‘the expansion of global corporate power’ and facilitates globalization.

What children receive in exchange for their appropriated and consumed labour power within the education system are not payments of the kind enjoyed by adults in the external economy, but instead merely a promise – the promise enshrined in the Western education industry paradigm.

In modern societies, young people, like chattel slaves, are compulsorily prevented from freely exchanging their labour power on the labour market while being compulsorily required to perform educational labour through a process in which their labour power is consumed and reproduced, and only at the end of which as adults they can freely (like freed slaves) enter the labour market to exchange their labour power.

This compulsory dispossession, exploitation and consumption of labour power reflects and reinforces the power distribution between children and adults in modern societies, doing so in a way resembling that between chattel slaves and their owners.

Book part
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Jason McGrath and John Fischetti

The digital technological revolution offers new ways for classrooms to operate and challenges the concept of whether brick and mortar schools should exist at all. At the…

Abstract

The digital technological revolution offers new ways for classrooms to operate and challenges the concept of whether brick and mortar schools should exist at all. At the same time, the changes to society as we move from a knowledge-based economy to an intelligent and innovation-based economy challenges us to reassess the purpose of education. This chapter investigates an overarching counterfactual question, “What if compulsory schooling was invented in the twenty-first century”? We used a foresight methodology, based on “anticipation,” to conceptualize possible models for a future system of compulsory schooling arising from an analysis of contemporary catalysts for remodeling. While anticipation does not predict the future, the concept is that when a current system and a model of a system interplay, they impact each other to change both the present as well as possible futures. The design principles of cities, such as Freiburg (Germany), Poundbury (England), and Christie Walk (Australia), which have been developed around the idea of ecologically sustainable and decentralized cities, are focused on approaches to living that can provide a springboard for exploring the impact of changing employment, economic, technological, and social change on future schooling models. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has opened up a new field of study to investigate neuroscience, which can inform teaching practice. Postmodern and indigenous ways of thinking provide different insights about how schooling might be reconceptualized. Alternative models of future schooling are conceptualized about (i) the role of the learner and teacher, (ii) design of a school, and (iii) the purpose of compulsory schooling. For each area of remodeling, deviations to current practices as well as paradigm shifts are framed as part of scenario building. Related questions include: how schooling might be different if it had been created today for the first time? How might it better meet the needs of contemporary society? What aspects of schooling now might be lost if it was only invented in the twenty-first century? What are possible side effects from any change ideas as part of research practice? A vital aspect of this chapter is to explore the concept of learning as a general concept versus the more specific concept of schooling. We are at the precipice of a new vision of schooling based on a counterfactual way of thinking about the future of schooling as we have known it in the West.

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The Educational Intelligent Economy: Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and the Internet of Things in Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-853-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Matthias Cinyabuguma, William Lord and Christelle Viauroux

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the…

Abstract

This paper addresses revolutionary changes in the education, fertility and market work of U.S. families formed in the 1870s–1920s: Fertility fell from 5.3 to 2.6; the graduation rate of their children increased from 7% to 50%; and the fraction of adulthood wives devoted to market-oriented work increased from 7% to 23% (by one measure).

These trends are addressed within a unified framework to examine the ability of several proposed mechanisms to quantitatively replicate these changes. Based on careful calibration, the choices of successive generations of representative husband-and-wife households over the quantity and quality of their children, household production, and the extent of mother’s involvement in market-oriented production are simulated.

Rising wages, declining mortality, a declining gender wage gap, and increased efficiency and public provision of schooling cannot, individually or in combination, reduce fertility or increase stocks of human capital to levels seen in the data. The best fit of the model to the data also involves: (1) a decreased tendency among parents to view potential earnings of children as the property of parents and (2) rising consumption shares per dependent child.

Greater attention should be given the determinants of parental control of the work and earnings of children for this period.

One contribution is the gathering of information and strategies necessary to establish an initial baseline, and the time paths for parameters and targets for this period beset with data limitations. A second contribution is identifying the contributions of various mechanisms toward reaching those calibration targets.

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Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Ira N. Gang

This chapter examines the differential effects of mother's schooling and father's schooling on the acquisition of schooling by their offspring. It does this in a…

Abstract

This chapter examines the differential effects of mother's schooling and father's schooling on the acquisition of schooling by their offspring. It does this in a “cross-cultural” context by comparing results across three countries: Germany, Hungary, and the Former Soviet Union. It looks within these countries, by gender, at different ethnic subgroups. Evidence is found, generally, that father's schooling is more important than mother's, but this does vary by ethnic group. Mother's schooling plays a relatively larger role for females.

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Migration and Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-153-5

Book part
Publication date: 21 May 2007

Diane Dancer and Anu Rammohan

This paper uses a sample of school age children from the Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) to examine the relationship between maternal education and child schooling

Abstract

This paper uses a sample of school age children from the Nepal Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) to examine the relationship between maternal education and child schooling in Nepal. Taking advantage of the two-stage stratified sample design, we estimate a sample selection model controlling for cluster fixed effects. These results are then compared to OLS and Tobit models. Our analysis shows that being male significantly increases the likelihood of attending school and for those children attending school, it also affects the years of schooling. Parental education has a similarly positive effect on child school, but interestingly we find maternal education having a relatively greater effect on the schooling of girls. Our results also point to household wealth as having a positive effect on both the probability of schooling and the years of schooling in all our models, with the magnitude of these effects being similar for male and female children. Finally, a comparison of our results with a model ignoring cluster fixed effects produces results that are statistically different both in signs and in the levels of significance.

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Aspects of Worker Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-473-7

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