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1 – 10 of over 21000
Article
Publication date: 1 May 1988

Ernest Raiklin

Studies concerning Soviet taxation demonstrate a diversity of opinions on the nature of turnover taxes. Four major views on the subject have emerged: (1) turnover taxes…

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Abstract

Studies concerning Soviet taxation demonstrate a diversity of opinions on the nature of turnover taxes. Four major views on the subject have emerged: (1) turnover taxes are simply a sales (excise) tax on articles' of consumption sold to the Soviet consumer; (2) not all turnover taxes are a sales tax, some of them are a substitute for rent on production of certain industrial materials; (3) in addition to being a sales (excise) tax on consumer goods and rent on some industrial materials, there exists a third type of turnover tax which is levied on agricultural production of the peasantry; (4) turnover taxes are a portion of the surplus product produced in industry and agriculture.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 15 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Article
Publication date: 2 November 2020

Richard Conde and Victor Prybutok

Previous sales research remains limited to analyzing the influence of sales activities with sales agent tenure. To date, research on this subject has focused on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous sales research remains limited to analyzing the influence of sales activities with sales agent tenure. To date, research on this subject has focused on the downstream direct or indirect impact of sales activities to sales performance, failing to consider whether sales activities impact a sales agent’s tenure. This paper aims to assess the effect of sales activities on sales performance and sales agent engagement on sales agent tenure through the lens of autonomous motivation to better understand sales activities as an overall sales process antecedent

Design/methodology/approach

Through the utilization of secondary sales operational data, this research demonstrates the influence of sales activities on multiple sales agent outcomes, while depicting the importance of sales managers creating an autonomous motivational climate.

Findings

This research demonstrates the direct relationship between sales activities to job engagement and sales performance. However, sales activities have a negative relationship to sales agent tenure, which require a sales manager to create an autonomous motivation to mediate the relationship between sales activities and sales agent tenure.

Practical implications

Organizations are provided with sample methodology and analysis to better determine how a culture grounded in autonomous motivation mediates sales activities and can be a catalyst for improving sales agent tenure. Then, provide a better understanding of the effect of actual sales activities on important sales department work outcomes.

Originality/value

The model is the first to test holistically the influence of sales activities on sales performance, sales agent engagement and tenure jointly by using actual secondary operational data. This study provides a glimpse of the real world balance a sales manager must consider between climate and activities. Plus, this study takes initial steps to study sales agent engagement, an under-researched construct in sales research.

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

Richard Dobbins

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to helpmanagers and potential managers to make sensible investment andfinancing decisions. Acknowledges that…

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Abstract

Sees the objective of teaching financial management to be to help managers and potential managers to make sensible investment and financing decisions. Acknowledges that financial theory teaches that investment and financing decisions should be based on cash flow and risk. Provides information on payback period; return on capital employed, earnings per share effect, working capital, profit planning, standard costing, financial statement planning and ratio analysis. Seeks to combine the practical rules of thumb of the traditionalists with the ideas of the financial theorists to form a balanced approach to practical financial management for MBA students, financial managers and undergraduates.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Michał Medowski, Jacek Pogorzelski and Marcin Ostachowski

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of…

Abstract

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.

The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).

Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Julie T. Johnson, Rodger W. Griffeth and Mitch Griffin

Examines turnover functionality (high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers) in a business‐to‐business sales setting. Prior research indicates that antecedents of…

3962

Abstract

Examines turnover functionality (high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers) in a business‐to‐business sales setting. Prior research indicates that antecedents of turnover frequency and turnover functionality are different. However, this may be an artifact of the way in which turnover has been measured. This study develops a new criterion of turnover functionality. Additionally, common antecedents of turnover frequency were examined to see if they could differentiate between high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers. The results indicate that several antecedents associated with turnover frequency are able to discriminate among different groups of high‐ and low‐performing quitters and stayers. Specifically, satisfaction with promotion, supervision, work, and global satisfaction contribute to our understanding of turnover functionality. Additionally, role conflict, role ambiguity, anxiety, evaluation of job alternatives, and intention to quit are also good discriminators of turnover functionality.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 January 2014

Brent M. Wren, David Berkowitz and E. Stephen Grant

To contribute to the understanding of how to manage turnover, the purpose of this paper is to determine if sales managers have the ability to predict high levels of…

1136

Abstract

Purpose

To contribute to the understanding of how to manage turnover, the purpose of this paper is to determine if sales managers have the ability to predict high levels of propensity to leave (PL) from variables readily available in personnel records, and on commonly used employee surveys.

Design/methodology/approach

The data used for the analysis of the study variables were collected from the sales forces of a total of ten firms across a variety of consumer and industrial product categories, resulting in a sample of 604 respondents. Data were analyzed via multiple discriminant analysis.

Findings

The analysis and test results demonstrate that discriminant sets of attitudinal variables, personal characteristics, and aspects of the job can be identified and used to establish meaningful classifications of a salesperson's PL. Organizational commitment, satisfaction with pay, family status, job involvement, level of education, and compensation plan were all found to be significant. Analysis fails to support the existence of several attitudinal variables generally thought to be predictors of PL.

Originality/value

The overarching implication to be drawn is that any effort to address salesperson turnover must be holistic, rather than limited to a narrow set of variables. These findings hold implications for sales management researchers and human resource/personnel managers.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 11 November 2014

M. H. Bala Subrahmanya

This paper probes the factors which influence (i) the degree of internationalization and (ii) the subsequent economic performance, achieved by SMEs in India. These two…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper probes the factors which influence (i) the degree of internationalization and (ii) the subsequent economic performance, achieved by SMEs in India. These two objectives have been examined in the context of firm level push/pull factors, barriers/challenges, firm resources, and strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is based on empirical data gathered through a semi-structured questionnaire from 84 exporting SMEs in the (most internationalized) engineering industry of Bangalore in India during January 2012 to February 2013. The two key research questions have been analyzed using stepwise multiple regression models. The degree of internationalization is defined as the percentage of foreign sales in total sales turn over, as of 2010/2011, and economic performance is represented by (i) the value of sales turnover as of 2010/2011, and (ii) growth of sales turnover from inception till 2010/2011, alternatively. Firm level variables (age of firms, firm size, nature of firm organization), entrepreneurial characteristics (age of the founder and education), time taken to enter the export market for the first time, mode of entry, degree of initial internationalization, years of experience in the international market, whether operated in the international market continuously or not, number of markets currently exported, and number of learnings made are used as the possible explanatory factors for the first objective. In addition, current degree of internationalization is used as the possible explanatory factor for the current level of economic performance whereas initial degree of internationalization for the growth of sales turnover.

Findings

It is firm age, size and experience, and education of the CEO which influenced the degree of internationalization of SMEs. In addition, continuous operation in the international market after an early entry, leading to more learnings positively influenced the degree of internationalization. Further, those who adopted the MNC route as the mode of entry achieved a higher degree. However, what is more significant is the degree of initial internationalization achieved by the SMEs which had strongly influenced its current degree of internationalization. All these bring out that (i) firm level resources & competence and (ii) firm level strategy, together significantly contributed to the degree of internationalization achieved by the SMEs in an emerging economy like India. However, the degree of internationalization had a negative influence on the current sales turnover achieved. Whereas those SMEs, older in age, organized as private limited companies and led by more qualified CEOs, which catered to more number of countries could achieve a higher sales turnover. But degree of internationalization did not have any influence on firm growth. Only younger and smaller firms grew faster than older and larger firms, irrespective of the degree of internationalization.

Research implications

The above results bring out that to achieve a larger firm size, entering the international market need not be the only route, in the current era of globalization. It is possible to achieve a higher economic performance even with a domestic market focus, especially when the domestic market is registering a higher growth compared to the international market.

Originality

The degree of internationalization and its impact on the economic performance of SMEs have been hardly probed adequately based on empirical data in the context of emerging economies. This study fills this void. It reveals that in the era of globalization where domestic firms might have to face competition though not as much as those which operate in the international market, a larger firm size can be achieved with larger focus on the domestic market and with limited focus on the international market.

Details

Emerging Market Firms in the Global Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-066-7

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Francisco Starke, Rangamohan V. Eunni, Nuno Manoel Martins Dias Fouto and Claudio Felisoni de Angelo

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of ISO 9000 certification on three dimensions of firm performance that are theoretically derived to have a…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of ISO 9000 certification on three dimensions of firm performance that are theoretically derived to have a relationship with the adoption of ISO 9000 standards, namely, sales revenue, cost of goods sold/sales revenue, and the asset turnover ratio (sales/total assets).

Design/methodology/approach

Employing a panel data approach covering all publicly traded companies in Brazil that had adopted the ISO 9000 standards from 1995 to 2006, the authors investigate the impact of the certification on firm performance using three categories of economic regression models: the pooling of cutting data with ordinary least squares, the fixed effects and the random effects.

Findings

ISO 9000 certification is found to be associated with an increase in sales revenues, decrease in cost of goods sold/sales revenue and increase in the asset turnover ratios of the certified firms.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings suggest that companies large or small, irrespective of their capital structure (i.e. debt/equity) and cutting across industries will benefit from the adoption of ISO 9000 standards. However, the extent to which firms benefit from such adoption is likely to vary. Moreover, the generalizability of the research findings is limited by the size of the sample.

Originality/value

The paper's chief contribution lies in the validation of the signaling theory in the context of business organizations and extending the domain of research on this topic to emerging markets generally.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 35 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

J. Colin Dodds and Richard Dobbins

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these…

Abstract

Although the focus of this issue is on investment in British industry and hence we are particularly concerned with debt and shares, the transactions and holdings in these cannot be separated from the range of other financial claims, including property, that are available to investors. In consequence this article focuses on an overview of the financial system including in Section 2 a presentation of the flow of funds matrix of the financial claims that make up the system. We also examine more closely the role of the financial institutions that are part of the system by utilising the sources and uses statements for three sectors, non‐bank financial institutions, personal sector and industrial and commercial companies. Then we provide, in Section 3, a discussion of the various financial claims investors can hold. In Section 4 we give a portrayal of the portfolio disposition of each of the major types of financial institution involved in the market for company securities specifically insurance companies (life and general), pension funds, unit and investment trusts, and in Section 4 a market study is performed for ordinary shares, debentures and preference shares for holdings, net acquisitions and purchases/sales. A review of some of the empirical evidence on the financial institutions is presented in Section 5 and Section 6 is by way of a conclusion. The data series extend in the main from 1966 to 1981, though at the time of writing, some 1981 data are still unavailable. In addition, the point needs to be made that the samples have been constantly revised so that care needs to be exercised in the use of the data.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 11 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Article
Publication date: 16 February 2021

Vincent Onyemah, Jay P. Mulki and Martha Rivera-Pesquera

A significant amount of research has shown that drivers of employee attitudes, and behaviors leading to outcome variables such as turnover intentions, are strongly…

Abstract

Purpose

A significant amount of research has shown that drivers of employee attitudes, and behaviors leading to outcome variables such as turnover intentions, are strongly influenced by national culture. This study focuses on the difference in relationships among some critical variables between two emerging economies with similar cultural indices.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaire was used to collect responses from salespeople in two countries. Correlation analysis and structural equation modeling were used to provide support for the stated hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that Mexican and Indian salespeople differ in how their level of trust in supervisor, regulation of emotion, interpersonal conflict and felt stress related to drive turnover intention. Findings also confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on survey responses and should be interpreted with the associated limitations of method bias. The hypothesized model of relationships among constructs was based on theory and prior research, but researchers understand that there could be other statistically equivalent models with equal fit. Moreover, stress can result from numerous other combinations of variables in addition to those used in this model. The relationships among constructs as presented could also be due to the absence of other key variables. This study looked at turnover intentions from an employee perspective using responses made when economic conditions worldwide were robust. This is not the case today because of the global pandemic. Economic conditions wield substantial influence on employee responses as well as on turnover intentions. In addition, economic downturn lowers turnover potential and heightens stress level.

Practical implications

Findings confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention. Efforts to keep stress within a productive range should be encouraged, because while the direct costs of turnover can be substantial, indirect costs may be even greater. For example, when salespeople leave an organization, the customer relationships they formed and developed may be at risk, exposing their companies to potential reduction in revenue. Sales organizations that pay inadequate attention to high turnover rate among their salespeople become susceptible to a phenomenon Dudley and Goodson (1988) identified as “low sales recruiting ceiling syndrome.”

Social implications

Most of the current studies results from developing countries have been compared to those from developed countries where the theories and seminal research originated. The outcome of the authors' research lends yet another argument in favor of more comparative studies on East versus East or developing economies versus developing economies. Such effort could further delineate the applicability of “foreign” theories and inform the development of “local” theories for richer insight on local management practice. The current drive to inject diversity, equity and inclusion in the workplace should be reflected in the development of theory and the conduct of research. No one country or individual or group of individuals can claim ownership of theory development and standards for assessing theories originating elsewhere. Diversity, equity and inclusion have a place in academic research and should be encouraged. Second, the results obtained in this paper offer a cautionary note against over-generalization. Just as small details matter in life, likewise, small differences in variables that explain a phenomenon can make a big difference. Third, the findings confirm a strong positive relationship between felt stress and turnover intention. This is true for the two countries examined in this research.

Originality/value

This study seeks to understand why potential drivers of turnover intention might manifest differently in countries that have a similar cultural outlook. The current research leverages the contingency theory and zeroed in on turnover intention. In addition, two additional cultural dimensions (long-term orientation and uncertainty avoidance) were incorporated, and the model was tested using salespeople (rather than plant workers).

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 21000