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Financial manipulation means the modification made knowingly and willfully by businesses in accounting records and transactions, in financial statements, through addition…
Financial manipulation means the modification made knowingly and willfully by businesses in accounting records and transactions, in financial statements, through addition and subtraction, for the purpose of misleading financial information users. Financial manipulations are expected to have an effect on the decisions of financial information users. The present study was established on the basis of two main objectives. The first objective is to determine whether banks, which are Public Interest Entities (PIE), manipulate their financial statements. As for the second objective, it is to reveal whether the detected financial manipulations have an effect on investor decisions. The research conducted to achieve the first objective is based on the examination of independent audit reports for the periods between 2009 and 2017, pertaining to 45 banks registered to the Banks Association of Turkey, in terms of presented opinions. Data acquired from examined reports were subjected to content analysis via the Microsoft Excel program. In line with the second objective of the study, investor numbers for the periods between 2010 and 2017, of 13 banks, which are within the scope of BIST BANK, were included in the analysis, according to data acquired from the Central Registry Agency. Financial statements of banks, with audit reports in which a qualified opinion is expressed, were considered to have been manipulated. SPSS 22.0 statistics pack software was used to analyze whether investment demands toward these banks had an effect on decisions of domestic and foreign investors. In the analysis, frequency and One-Way ANOVA tests were used. In consequence of the analyses conducted, it was determined that, around one fifth of financial statements of PIE banks, pertaining to the periods between 2009 and 2017, were manipulated; it was mostly committed by private banks, and majority of the manipulations were committed due to free provisions made. It was also observed that manipulations did not have an effect on decisions of neither domestic nor foreign investors. The reason behind the latter is the fact that while the level of manipulations in financial statements is significant, it is not a widespread occurrence.
The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating…
The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating technology (SFT) and enhanced viewing capabilities facilitate information search and improve financial analysis decision quality and efficiency. This experiment investigates how using XBRL technology to view financial statements influences novice investors’ decision quality by affecting decision processes such as search strategy and effort, as well as decision efficiency (accuracy/effort) in a financial statement analysis task. In the experiment, randomly assigned student participants (n = 102) invested in companies using either static PDF-formatted or XBRL-enabled financial statements. No differences in decision quality (i.e., accuracy) due to technology use were observed. However, participants in the XBRL condition examined less information, used more directed search processes, and evidenced greater efficiency than did participants assigned to the PDF condition. Hence, the results suggest that XBRL SFT affects the use of differing decision processes relative to PDF technology.
This chapter focuses on the IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and IFRS 16 Leases in the airline industry considering the case of Air France – KLM (AF-KLM)…
This chapter focuses on the IFRS 15 Revenue from Contracts with Customers and IFRS 16 Leases in the airline industry considering the case of Air France – KLM (AF-KLM). This airline timely adopted IFRS 15 and early adopted IFRS 16 for the year 2018 and restated its 2017 financial statements using the full retrospective method so that the 2018 financial statements of the airline provide comparative financial information during the transition phase from IAS 18 to IFRS 15 as well as from IAS 17 to IFRS 16. In the first part of the chapter, liquidity, solvency, and profitability ratios along with cash flow ratios were used to analyze the cumulative effect of IFRS 15 and IFRS 16 using 2017 and restated 2017 financial statements. In this context, results indicate that the liquidity ratios decreased, and the solvency ratios increased in general. In addition, the cumulative effect of IFRS 15 and IFRS 16 created an upward change in general on profitability ratios based on the several performance parameters that should be considered during the transition from IAS 18 to IFRS 15 and from IAS 17 to IFRS 16. Overall, IFRS 15 has minor effect and IFRS 16 has major effect on the financial statements of AF-KLM. In the second part of the chapter, the compliance level of the mandatory disclosures requirements of the airline was examined from the lessee standpoint and the research pointed out that the airline fully complied with these disclosures at its first adoption of IFRS 16 and provided some voluntary disclosures as well.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the new fraud diamond model in explaining financial statement fraud.
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the new fraud diamond model in explaining financial statement fraud.
The variables used to examine the factors consist of motivation, opportunity, personal integrity and capability. This research used manufactured companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange of the 2015–2019 period as the population.
There has been a positive influence between personal financial need (OSHIP), nature of the industry (RECEIVABLE) and history of sale (SG) toward financial statement fraud, while the negative effect is found only in the effective monitoring (IND).
The new fraud diamond model theory which is used as a reference in this study is a new and under-developed theory. So the author suggests that further research on this theory be carried out to strengthen the new fraud diamond model theory and ensure whether it can be used as a reference to find out the causes of financial statement fraud. In addition, the object used in this study is limited to manufacturing companies, so the author suggests that further research combine several types of companies.
The research finding supports the new fraud diamond model theory in elaborating the financial statement fraud phenomenon.
In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003…
In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003 to determine if the publicly available financial reports adequately disclosed the situation. Information about the long-term debt was properly displayed in the financial statements and disclosed in notes. There was no mention of the situation in the MD&A either year. The auditors’ did not include an explanatory paragraph highlighting the debt, nor did they issue a ‘substantial doubt about the ability to continue to exist as a going concern’ report. This paper examines existing accounting and auditing standards to determine their adequacy to protect the public interest.
The objective of this study was to identify the impact of a perceived inadequacy of authoritative South African financial reporting guidance for long‐term insurers, on the…
The objective of this study was to identify the impact of a perceived inadequacy of authoritative South African financial reporting guidance for long‐term insurers, on the basic financial statement characteristic of comparability. The authors attempted to identify areas of non‐comparable presentation and disclosure and to suggest relevant guidance. To assess comparability, the financial statements of five insurers were evaluated using a checklist specifically developed for this study. This process identified seven main categories of significant non‐comparable presentation and disclosure practices. Solutions were proposed for these areas, based inter alia on existing international literature and guidance.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the SEC's proposal to require domestic and foreign public companies that prepare their financial statements in accordance with US…
The purpose of this paper is to explain the SEC's proposal to require domestic and foreign public companies that prepare their financial statements in accordance with US GAAP to file financial statements contained in registration statements and periodic reports in an interactive data format using XBRL, or “eXtensible Business Reporting Language”.
The paper explains the purpose of XBRL, provides an overview of the SEC's proposal, discusses the consequences of noncompliance, and explains the SEC's “bifurcated” approach to filers' liability for the interactive data they are required to provide.
XBRL, like the other electronic formats currently used by registrants in their SEC filings, defines or “tags” data using standard definitions. The SEC believes that financial reporting based on the XBRL format would create new ways for investors, analysts, and others to retrieve and use financial information in documents filed with the SEC. XBRL tagging of financial statements most likely represents only the SEC's first step in moving toward more widespread adoption of XBRL reporting.
The paper contains practical guidance by experienced securities lawyers.
The Chief Financial Officers Act and subsequent legislation require federal agencies to produce corporate-style financial statements. Arguments for financial statements…
The Chief Financial Officers Act and subsequent legislation require federal agencies to produce corporate-style financial statements. Arguments for financial statements drew on private sector analogies and suggested policy makers and managers would use the information to make better public policy and management decisions and improve accountability for financial management and program performance. Nearly all major government agencies have unqualified audit opinions and improvements in financial management are claimed. But benefits for policy making and management are not yet well understood. This paper examines the question by comparison with the private sector and by examining what agencies say about the uses and users of financial statement information. The emerging challenge in the evolution of federal financial reporting is to develop better government-specific analytical tools and other financial information for policy makers and managers.
The use of the Internet for financial reporting creates unique opportunities and challenges for the auditing profession. This exploratory study identifies the key audit…
The use of the Internet for financial reporting creates unique opportunities and challenges for the auditing profession. This exploratory study identifies the key audit implications of Internet financial reporting through a comprehensive review of the academic and professional literature. Further, the study analyses the contents of all listed company Websites in New Zealand to assess the nature and extent of current audit‐related Web practices. The relatively high degree of similarity between New Zealand's auditing standards and those of other jurisdictions (e.g. International Standards of Auditing and auditing standards in countries such as the UK, Australia and the USA) contributes towards the international generalisability of the content analysis. The literature review highlighted issues relating to the auditor's role and responsibilities, the audit report, and audit procedures. The results of the content analysis of auditor Web‐related practices reveal several significant concerns for the auditing profession in relation to the presentation, context, and content of the audit report in a Web‐based environment.
The purpose of this article is to identify problems and opportunities for improving the formation of financial statements (FS) in accordance with International Standards…
The purpose of this article is to identify problems and opportunities for improving the formation of financial statements (FS) in accordance with International Standards, which is the most important instrument for international economic integration.
In carrying out the research, we used the FS of the modern organizations, prepared in accordance with International Standards (IASs and IFRSs), posted on the official websites of these organizations. At the same time, we researched the FS of both Russian and foreign organizations in order to draw conclusions about the problems of preparing FS in accordance with International Standards, which are typical for most modern organizations in different countries. When conducting research, we used methods such as comparison, analysis and synthesis.
We identified the main problems that arise in practice when preparing FS in accordance with International Standards, which are typical for both Russian and foreign organizations. We also analysed the project of the IASB (the organization that develops these standards) to improve the requirements for the preparation of FS in accordance with International Standards. Based on the analysis carried out, we identified the main problems arising from the planned requirements of this project. As a result of the research carried out, we made proposals for solving the identified problems of the formation of FS in accordance with International Standards.
Our proposals can be used to improve the regulations of International Standards for the formation of FS, and can also be applied in the practical work of modern organizations.