Financial manipulation means the modification made knowingly and willfully by businesses in accounting records and transactions, in financial statements, through addition…
Financial manipulation means the modification made knowingly and willfully by businesses in accounting records and transactions, in financial statements, through addition and subtraction, for the purpose of misleading financial information users. Financial manipulations are expected to have an effect on the decisions of financial information users. The present study was established on the basis of two main objectives. The first objective is to determine whether banks, which are Public Interest Entities (PIE), manipulate their financial statements. As for the second objective, it is to reveal whether the detected financial manipulations have an effect on investor decisions. The research conducted to achieve the first objective is based on the examination of independent audit reports for the periods between 2009 and 2017, pertaining to 45 banks registered to the Banks Association of Turkey, in terms of presented opinions. Data acquired from examined reports were subjected to content analysis via the Microsoft Excel program. In line with the second objective of the study, investor numbers for the periods between 2010 and 2017, of 13 banks, which are within the scope of BIST BANK, were included in the analysis, according to data acquired from the Central Registry Agency. Financial statements of banks, with audit reports in which a qualified opinion is expressed, were considered to have been manipulated. SPSS 22.0 statistics pack software was used to analyze whether investment demands toward these banks had an effect on decisions of domestic and foreign investors. In the analysis, frequency and One-Way ANOVA tests were used. In consequence of the analyses conducted, it was determined that, around one fifth of financial statements of PIE banks, pertaining to the periods between 2009 and 2017, were manipulated; it was mostly committed by private banks, and majority of the manipulations were committed due to free provisions made. It was also observed that manipulations did not have an effect on decisions of neither domestic nor foreign investors. The reason behind the latter is the fact that while the level of manipulations in financial statements is significant, it is not a widespread occurrence.
The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating…
The increasing availability of eXtensible Business Reporting Language (XBRL) financial statements motivates additional investigation of whether XBRL’s search-facilitating technology (SFT) and enhanced viewing capabilities facilitate information search and improve financial analysis decision quality and efficiency. This experiment investigates how using XBRL technology to view financial statements influences novice investors’ decision quality by affecting decision processes such as search strategy and effort, as well as decision efficiency (accuracy/effort) in a financial statement analysis task. In the experiment, randomly assigned student participants (n = 102) invested in companies using either static PDF-formatted or XBRL-enabled financial statements. No differences in decision quality (i.e., accuracy) due to technology use were observed. However, participants in the XBRL condition examined less information, used more directed search processes, and evidenced greater efficiency than did participants assigned to the PDF condition. Hence, the results suggest that XBRL SFT affects the use of differing decision processes relative to PDF technology.
In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003…
In 2004, City of Gardena was unable to meet its obligations on $26 million in debt. The authors examined City of Gardena financial reporting as of June 30, 2004 and 2003 to determine if the publicly available financial reports adequately disclosed the situation. Information about the long-term debt was properly displayed in the financial statements and disclosed in notes. There was no mention of the situation in the MD&A either year. The auditors’ did not include an explanatory paragraph highlighting the debt, nor did they issue a ‘substantial doubt about the ability to continue to exist as a going concern’ report. This paper examines existing accounting and auditing standards to determine their adequacy to protect the public interest.
The objective of this study was to identify the impact of a perceived inadequacy of authoritative South African financial reporting guidance for long‐term insurers, on the…
The objective of this study was to identify the impact of a perceived inadequacy of authoritative South African financial reporting guidance for long‐term insurers, on the basic financial statement characteristic of comparability. The authors attempted to identify areas of non‐comparable presentation and disclosure and to suggest relevant guidance. To assess comparability, the financial statements of five insurers were evaluated using a checklist specifically developed for this study. This process identified seven main categories of significant non‐comparable presentation and disclosure practices. Solutions were proposed for these areas, based inter alia on existing international literature and guidance.
The purpose of this paper is to explain the SEC's proposal to require domestic and foreign public companies that prepare their financial statements in accordance with US…
The purpose of this paper is to explain the SEC's proposal to require domestic and foreign public companies that prepare their financial statements in accordance with US GAAP to file financial statements contained in registration statements and periodic reports in an interactive data format using XBRL, or “eXtensible Business Reporting Language”.
The paper explains the purpose of XBRL, provides an overview of the SEC's proposal, discusses the consequences of noncompliance, and explains the SEC's “bifurcated” approach to filers' liability for the interactive data they are required to provide.
XBRL, like the other electronic formats currently used by registrants in their SEC filings, defines or “tags” data using standard definitions. The SEC believes that financial reporting based on the XBRL format would create new ways for investors, analysts, and others to retrieve and use financial information in documents filed with the SEC. XBRL tagging of financial statements most likely represents only the SEC's first step in moving toward more widespread adoption of XBRL reporting.
The paper contains practical guidance by experienced securities lawyers.
The Chief Financial Officers Act and subsequent legislation require federal agencies to produce corporate-style financial statements. Arguments for financial statements…
The Chief Financial Officers Act and subsequent legislation require federal agencies to produce corporate-style financial statements. Arguments for financial statements drew on private sector analogies and suggested policy makers and managers would use the information to make better public policy and management decisions and improve accountability for financial management and program performance. Nearly all major government agencies have unqualified audit opinions and improvements in financial management are claimed. But benefits for policy making and management are not yet well understood. This paper examines the question by comparison with the private sector and by examining what agencies say about the uses and users of financial statement information. The emerging challenge in the evolution of federal financial reporting is to develop better government-specific analytical tools and other financial information for policy makers and managers.
The use of the Internet for financial reporting creates unique opportunities and challenges for the auditing profession. This exploratory study identifies the key audit…
The use of the Internet for financial reporting creates unique opportunities and challenges for the auditing profession. This exploratory study identifies the key audit implications of Internet financial reporting through a comprehensive review of the academic and professional literature. Further, the study analyses the contents of all listed company Websites in New Zealand to assess the nature and extent of current audit‐related Web practices. The relatively high degree of similarity between New Zealand's auditing standards and those of other jurisdictions (e.g. International Standards of Auditing and auditing standards in countries such as the UK, Australia and the USA) contributes towards the international generalisability of the content analysis. The literature review highlighted issues relating to the auditor's role and responsibilities, the audit report, and audit procedures. The results of the content analysis of auditor Web‐related practices reveal several significant concerns for the auditing profession in relation to the presentation, context, and content of the audit report in a Web‐based environment.
The present study attempts to assess the relationship between management characteristics (managerial entrenchment, CEO narcissism and overconfidence, managers' myopia…
The present study attempts to assess the relationship between management characteristics (managerial entrenchment, CEO narcissism and overconfidence, managers' myopia, real and accrual-based earnings management) and financial statement readability of listed firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange. In other words, this paper seeks to answer the question that “whether management characteristics have a favorable effect on financial statement readability or not.”
Multivariate regression model is used to meet the purpose of this study and research hypotheses are also examined using a sample of 1,050 listed observations on the Tehran Stock Exchange during 2012–2017 and by employing multiple regression patterns based on panel data technique and fixed effects model. Moreover, exploratory factor analysis of six variables (tenure, board independence, CEO duality, CEO ownership, board compensation and CEO change) is used for calculating managerial entrenchment and the FGO index is used for measuring readability.
The obtained results show that there is a negative and significant relationship between managerial entrenchment and accrual-based earnings management and a positive and significant relationship between real earnings management, managers' myopia, managers' narcissism and overconfidence and financial statement readability.
Since the present study is the first paper to investigate such a topic in the emerging markets, it provides useful information about intrinsic and acquisitive characteristics of management for accounting information users, analysts and legal institutions that contribute greatly to financial statement readability. Besides, the results of this study aid the development of science and knowledge in this field and fill the existing gap in the literature.
This chapter describes three active learning activities developed for use in the introductory financial accounting class: an interview with a financial statement user, an…
This chapter describes three active learning activities developed for use in the introductory financial accounting class: an interview with a financial statement user, an internal control paper, and a financial statement project where students analyze two competing businesses. We gathered student surveys and direct assessment data to see if these activities add value to the introductory accounting course.
The learning activities were originally developed using Fink’s (2003) Taxonomy of Significant Learning, aligning the activities with Fink’s learning dimensions, which also support the higher order learning skills in Bloom’s revised taxonomy. Students completed surveys by comparing how well traditional class activities (i.e., homework and tests) and the new activities support the core competencies of the American Institute for Certified Public Accountants (AICPA). We also asked students open-ended questions on how they felt about these new activities. Researchers then compared pre- and postadoption assessment data to investigate the impact of the new learning activities on class completion rates and grades.
Based on faculty comments and student survey results, the three active learning assignments appear to be more effective in developing many of the AICPA’s core competencies and real world skill sets valued by professionals, providing more value than traditional teaching methods. In addition, the passing rates in the course at the Youngstown State University increased by 12% after adopting the learning innovations.