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Article
Publication date: 31 August 2021

Peng Luo, Eric W.T. Ngai, Yongli Li and Xin Tian

This study examines the dynamic relationships of visit behavior in the multiple channels [personal computer (PC) and mobile channels] on online store sales performance.

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the dynamic relationships of visit behavior in the multiple channels [personal computer (PC) and mobile channels] on online store sales performance.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical data were from an online store for the period between August 14, 2015 and May 15, 2016. The data consisted of consumer visit behavior and online store sales performance. Vector autoregression with an exogenous variables model was adopted to investigate the dynamic relationships.

Findings

The empirical results show significant relationships between visit behavior metrics (number of visitors, average number of visits per visitor and average length of each visit) in the two channels and online store sales performance. The number of visitors through the PC and mobile channels strongly and positively affects online store sales performance both in the short term and in the longer term. Moreover, the number of visitors in the PC channel has the strongest influence on sales performance metrics, followed by the number of visitors and the average number of visits in the mobile channel. The PC channel's visit behavior metrics explain a larger proportion of the sales performance variance than that in the mobile channel.

Originality/value

The previous literature on consumer behavior in multichannel marketing mainly focuses on channel selection or migration, and examines the different factors affecting channel choice behavior. Little is known about the impacts of visit behavior in the multiple channels. This study adopts the heuristic-systematic information processing theory to unveil the impacts of visit behavior metrics in the PC and mobile channels on online store sales performance.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Anestis K. Fotiadis and Chris Vassiliadis

The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison between the traditional methods for the calculation of customer relationship performance and the modern metrics

1684

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a comparison between the traditional methods for the calculation of customer relationship performance and the modern metrics suggested by the current literature in business-to-business (B2B) markets using the Greek maritime shipping industry as an example.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary research was conducted in two phases: quantitative analysis of actual measurements and qualitative evaluation of the results. More specifically, in the first phase, the measures used were a collection of traditional and modern customer relationship management (CRM) metrics applied to actual historical data along with statistical data for actual customers of a company supplying services for maritime transportation of containers in the Greek international trade market. For the qualitative evaluation of these results, a semi-structured interview was carried out with seven “specialists/experts” in this business sector, who provided an assessment of the relative worth of each set of CRM measures.

Findings

The use of modern customer-centred metrics (Share and Size of Wallet, recency, frequency, monetary value) in the shipping sector of Greek industrial activity is the most profitable and efficient means of decision-making. The qualitative research showed that the customer-centred metrics were judged to be more effective and useful, as they provided a multi-dimensional and multi-layered picture of the current and future situation for the company and its customer base.

Research limitations/implications

To ensure confidentiality of personal information, the research did not use, examine or evaluate the individualized data to preserve the anonymity of the survey sponsor and their specific customers.

Originality/value

This is the first study that examines the effectiveness of different types of CRM metrics in the B2B market, which has, until now, suffered a dearth of empirical studies in the field, especially in the context of national economies that face intense international trading problems and significant reductions in activity in their maritime shipping industry due to the economic recession.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Michael Allio

Most strategies stumble in the implementation phase. This article outlines a market‐validated process, and practical guidelines, for deploying well‐calibrated metrics to…

10569

Abstract

Purpose

Most strategies stumble in the implementation phase. This article outlines a market‐validated process, and practical guidelines, for deploying well‐calibrated metrics to optimize implementation. The primary audience is mid‐level and senior executives charged with the responsibility for implementing strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

This approach focuses on how to design and deploy a balanced set of performance metrics to guide the implementation of strategy. It reviews conventional approaches and pitfalls, citing examples from a diverse array of businesses, then presents “best practices” for measuring what’s important. A key thesis is that good metrics reinforce implementation, while poor metrics actually interfere with implementation.

Findings

Misaligned metrics often impede implementation, eliciting counterproductive behavior from key managers. A better approach involves creating and deploying a smaller set of multidimensional metrics, closely aligned with the firm’s strategies. Successful firms move beyond simple budgetary indicators: they formulate a small set of metrics that directs management focus outside the firm (into the marketplace); translate qualitative aspirations into quantitative targets, using a common language; align the firm’s metrics with other managerial systems (like rewards) to motivate and galvanize the management team.

Research limitations/implications

The approach and logic described are universal, but the actual metrics may need to be adapted to fit the strategies, stakeholders, and competitive position of each firm, and refined over time to dovetail with the firm’s budgetary process.

Practical implications

Strategy programs need to be expanded to focus on the implementation process – where performance measurement is instrumental. More attention should be given to simplifying and distilling performance indicators, and broadening and its stakeholders will help facilitate implementation, and ultimately, enhance stakeholder value. managerial perspective so that implementation challenges can be flushed out and resolved.

Originality/value

The rational, practical approach described offers managers specific guidelines for bringing strategies to life – for bridging the gap between aspirations and real performance. It illustrates common pitfalls, and outlines how to measure and optimize performance, improve implementation, and galvanize the management team.

Details

Handbook of Business Strategy, vol. 7 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1077-5730

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 11 October 2021

Boban Melović, Marina Dabić, Milica Vukčević, Dragana Ćirović and Tamara Backović

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of marketing managers in a transition country Montenegro with regards to marketing metrics. The paper examines…

3536

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perception of marketing managers in a transition country Montenegro with regards to marketing metrics. The paper examines the degree in which managers are familiar with the way marketing metrics are applied and how important they are in the process of making business decisions in a company operating in a Montenegro.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected during 2020 through a survey of 171 randomly selected companies and was analyzed using structural equation model and the statistical method of analysis of variance tests.

Findings

The obtained results show that managers are quite familiar with financial and non-financial metrics. Both groups are applied to a significant degree, as managers believe that these indicators provide valuable information needed during the decision-making process. Still, more emphasis is placed on the knowledge, implementation and importance of non-financial metrics compared to financial metrics. This is probably due to the specificities of the economic activities of the companies operating in Montenegro, as most of them are service companies, which is why non-financial metrics (such as consumer metrics) are the most important indicators when it comes to ascertaining the market position of the company. Additionally, in recent years the primary focus in Montenegro, as country that is still in the process of transformation from planned economy to a free-market form, has been placed on strengthening of competitiveness and advancing the market orientation of companies. This led to an increase in the importance that managers in transition countries attach to non-financial metrics.

Research limitations/implications

The fact that the survey only covers companies from one country is its limitation.

Practical implications

The obtained results will have a significant empirical contribution, which is reflected in providing guidelines for managers on how to improve the system of measuring and controlling marketing performance, all that to strengthen the competitiveness of the company, and can serve managers of hierarchy levels in a company as guidelines for making decisions on the implementation of marketing strategy and marketing metrics, to improve business performance, multi-context customer interaction, cost-saving and strengthen competitiveness.

Social implications

Obtaining necessary knowledge management and implementing marketing metrics are important conditions for consideration when it comes to the continuous monitoring and improvement of business results, increasing competitiveness and advancing the market position of the company.

Originality/value

The originality stems from the analysis of the interconnection that exists between marketing metrics and strategic decision-making, which is expected to be positively reflected in the development of society, i.e. strengthening the competitiveness of companies based on knowledge management achieved through the assessment of the degree of knowledge, the implementation and the significance of each of the metrics covered within this research in business decision-making processes. The paper provides insights into the extent to which managers understand the meaning of these indicators and are able to combine different marketing metrics to obtain more complex indicators, serving as necessary inputs when making strategic business decisions.

Details

Journal of Knowledge Management, vol. 25 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1367-3270

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Designing and Tracking Knowledge Management Metrics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78973-723-3

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Michał Medowski, Jacek Pogorzelski and Marcin Ostachowski

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of…

Abstract

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.

The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).

Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.

Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Richard Conde, Victor Prybutok and Kenneth Thompson

Previous sales control research has limited the definition of outcome controls exclusively to sales outcomes in an outside sales context. In addition to sales outcome…

Abstract

Purpose

Previous sales control research has limited the definition of outcome controls exclusively to sales outcomes in an outside sales context. In addition to sales outcome controls, inside sales managers use phone operational outcomes to influence inside sales agent performance, supporting the need to expand the broader definition of outcome controls. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to explore the need to bifurcate outcome controls into two distinct variables: sales and phone operational controls. Researchers know little about the application of sales outcome controls beyond sales-only outcomes, which, in turn, limits the definition of outcome controls.

Design/methodology/approach

Through the utilization of survey, secondary operational data and sales manager’s feedback, this paper demonstrates that the definition of outcome controls needs to be divided into two distinct areas, sales and phone operational controls for inside sales agents, which, in turn, acts collectively to impact an inside sales agent’s job performance and satisfaction.

Findings

This research demonstrates that inside sales managers depend on both sales and phone operational outcome controls to drive sales agent performance, varying in degrees by industry. Even as inside sales managers focus on creating an employee-centric autonomous motivational work culture, the overarching controlling factors associated with phone operational outcomes dampen an inside sales agent’s performance and job satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, as the first sales control research to examine an inside sales context, this study provides support to further study sales controls in an inside sales context. This research can be enhanced by examining business-to-consumer inside sales environments, behavior controls, greater sample size and additional work outcomes such as turnover and tenure.

Practical implications

The findings have important implications because they can help practitioners understand the effect that both sales and phone operational outcomes have on sales agent performance. It also illuminates the need for inside sales managers to be less controlling in their focus on phone operational outcomes, as such a practice has a negative influence on key sales agent job outcomes.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to triangulate multiple data sources to illustrate the need to evaluate both sales and phone operational outcomes as broader components of sales outcome controls. The study of sales controls in a different sales context suggests that sales management controls may differ by sales context, opening the door to extend the vast sales control literature beyond its current context of outside sales.

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Marcos Dieste, Roberto Panizzolo and Jose Arturo Garza-Reyes

The lean philosophy has demonstrated its effectiveness to improve firms' operational performance. However, the impact of lean practices on financial performance is still…

3727

Abstract

Purpose

The lean philosophy has demonstrated its effectiveness to improve firms' operational performance. However, the impact of lean practices on financial performance is still unclear due to the poor understanding of the link between operational and financial measures and the conflictive results obtained by previous research. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a systematic literature review to understand whether lean companies have improved their financial performance. Moreover, this article aims to uncover research gaps in the literature and examine which time spans of research have been considered to analyse both the degree of lean implementation and the measurement of financial outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

A systematic literature review has been conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles that analyse the effect of the lean production paradigm on the financial performance measures of manufacturing companies. Then, the identified articles were processed using a combination of descriptive and content analyses methods to draw new conclusions, uncover gaps and find novel paths for research.

Findings

Various authors indicate that lean initiatives lead to an enhancement of financial performance measures. JIT and TQM lean practice bundles are suggested as the best enablers of financial performance in terms of sales and profit. In contrast, according to some scholars, lean does not necessarily improve companies' financial results if it is not properly implemented.

Originality/value

Several studies have focused on analysing the effects of lean on performance. However, only a small part of the literature has addressed the study of the effects of lean practices on financial performance metrics. The originality of this study lies in the investigation of the connections between lean practices and financial performance measures found in the literature. The outcome is the identification of various possible positive impacts of some lean practices on financial metrics.

Details

Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, vol. 32 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-038X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 October 2009

Ronald Zallocco, Ellen Bolman Pullins and Michael L. Mallin

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of sales performance measurement by developing an organizing framework for classifying sales performance…

5500

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of sales performance measurement by developing an organizing framework for classifying sales performance measures based on the various performance criteria used by researchers. Subsequently, the results of both a focus group and in‐depth interviews with sales managers and salespeople will be presented using the classification framework developed. The objective is to determine whether gaps exist between how researchers and practitioners view and classify salesperson performance measures as well as to provide insights to effective sales management practices in areas such as salesperson skill development, goal attainment, resource allocation, and customer relationship management.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study, using in‐depth interviews, explores the relationship between sales managers and salespersons and their respective views on sales performance measurement. The interview questions were developed using information derived from a sales executive focus group. In‐person in‐depth interviews were conducted with eight sales managers and eight salespeople from eight organizations.

Findings

The paper proposes a new method for organizing the types of performance measures that are used, crossing effectiveness‐efficiency with internally‐externally‐focused measures. The findings indicate that a gap appears to remain between the attributes of performance that researchers focus on and what occurs in the world of sales.

Research limitations/implications

The findings suggest that sales control theories can be used to present an organizing framework of sales performance based on sales outputs, salesperson skill/capability development, sales activities, and market indicators. Our typology might serve as a way to better understand certain research areas where there have been inconsistent findings, and should lead to new measure development for empirical research. In addition, a number of manager and salesperson recommendations for the practicing sales manager are reviewed.

Originality/value

This paper helps to clarify an area that is characterized by ambiguity and an identified need to identify new performance metrics.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 April 2022

Richard Conde, Victor Prybutok and Kenneth Thompson

For the past several decades, the sales control literature has focused on the outside sales context. This study aims to extend sales control research by examining formal…

Abstract

Purpose

For the past several decades, the sales control literature has focused on the outside sales context. This study aims to extend sales control research by examining formal and informal sales controls, embodied by cultural controls, used by sales managers in an inside sales context, where the sales agent’s performance focus extends beyond sales outcomes to include the influence of operational phone outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on 232 B2C and B2B inside sales agent survey responses, this study presents evidence that in an inside sales department, this study focuses on the congruent effect of formal sales and cultural sales controls on inside sales agent overall performance.

Findings

Based on 232 B2C and B2B inside sales agent survey responses, this study presents evidence that in an inside sales department, the operational focus of sales activities and resultant operational performance mediates the relationship between sales controls and inside sales agent sales performance, whereas cultural controls centered on maximizing inside sales autonomous motivation positively moderates the effect of operational outcomes on an inside sales agent’s sales performance.

Practical implications

By focusing on the tenants of an inside sales agent’s overall performance, this research provides practitioners a holistic view of the inherent conflict inside sales managers must balance between the impact of formal sales controls and the benefits of cultural controls.

Originality/value

By being the only study to examine sales controls in an inside sales context, with a broad definition of overall performance to include both sales and operational phone outcomes, this study extends sales control research to a new sales context. The need to jointly focus on operational results, as well as sales outcomes, illustrate the importance of cultural controls compared to other sales processes and outcome controls

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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