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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Gustavo Menoncin de Carvalho Pereira and Mario Henrique Ogasavara

The singularity of being the first Chinese manufacturer of drug-eluting stents to arrive in Brazil and the country being selected as the company's first experience outside…

Abstract

Purpose

The singularity of being the first Chinese manufacturer of drug-eluting stents to arrive in Brazil and the country being selected as the company's first experience outside its home country motivated the interest in the study of this case, vis-à-vis with the characteristic of internationalization medical device companies according to the Uppsala model. Considering this context, the following research question was outlined: “How did Microport internationalize before the distribution of its stents product in Brazil?” The aim of the study is to investigate Microport's internationalization process for the distribution of its drug-eluting stents in Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

Exploratory research under the qualitative method was adopted. It chose the single case study as a procedure for data collection, as it is a revealing, exemplary subject that offers opportunities for access to unusual research. The company MicroPort was chosen because in the period when Chinese medical device companies were focused on gaining market share in China, MicroPort began its international expansion, choosing Brazil as the first country to have its own subsidiary. It consists in the case of the internationalization of a high-tech EMNE in an emerging country that has institutional and cultural differences.

Findings

Taking advantage of new technology in highly internationalized environments favors its insertion; the internationalization of medical technology can expand according to the Uppsala Model, which does not explain internationalization, but rather its evolution. Cultural and behavioral issues reinforce that the development of the market for medical devices depends on local perspectives and values. The formation of an ecosystem in the local market for internationalization is observed. One implication of the study is that MicroPort's experience and the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion can serve as an important learning experience for Brazilian multinational companies.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical analysis carried out in the context of a single company. Although the results can be used as lessons learned from the application of the Uppsala model for international expansion of EMNE in an emerging market, caution should be exercised when generalizing its findings. Future studies could carry out comparative cases considering other emerging multinational companies, from the same sector or even from different industries, investing in other emerging markets. There is a limitation of the fact that the case studied does not explore the concepts of the later stages of the Uppsala model.

Practical implications

High-tech EMNEs internationalizing in other markets need to adopt aggressive strategies. The need to adopt different strategies for supply chain operations according to the specificities of the markets in which they operate. Important contributions to the Uppsala model, with regard to the process of passing stages, learning and networking. The findings of this study have similarities to the process described as a sequence of distinct phases of activities.

Social implications

A local top management team is essential to deal with institutional issues of government agencies when EMNE is internationalized in a culturally distant market. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the host country, the autonomy in the management of the foreign subsidiary positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-tech sector. When there are major institutional differences between the country of origin and the country of destination, the use of local social networks positively influences the acceleration of the internationalization process of companies in the high-technology sector.

Originality/value

Regardless of these limitations, the study provided an exciting case of internationalization of a Chinese company in Brazil operating in a high-tech medical sector. The challenges for the internationalization of EMNEs continue, which makes it opportune for future studies to include more research in this area. The propositions suggested in the study may be the first step.

Details

RAUSP Management Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2531-0488

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Article
Publication date: 22 November 2021

Ge Ren and Ping Zeng

Drawing on the gender self-schema theory, upper echelons theory and the literature on international business, this study aims to examine the impact of board gender…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on the gender self-schema theory, upper echelons theory and the literature on international business, this study aims to examine the impact of board gender diversity on firms' internationalization speed.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, secondary data of 886 listed Chinese manufacturing firms from 2009 to 2018 are studied using the ordinary least squares regression model as the baseline method, an instrumental variable method is adopted for endogeneity control and both fixed and random effect models are adopted for the robustness test.

Findings

Board gender diversity reduces firms' internationalization speed, and the negative effect between board gender diversity and internationalization speed is stronger when the average age of female directors is older and weaker when female directors have international experience or financial background.

Practical implications

First, Chinese firms need to increase or decrease board gender diversity to match the board to firms' internationalization strategy. Increasing board gender diversity may be a more appropriate choice for firms that are expanding rapidly internationally, and vice versa. Second, when introducing female directors to international firms, it is essential to address other characteristics of these directors beyond their gender.

Originality/value

First, the authors contribute to the literature on board gender diversity using Chinese manufacturing firms as our research sample, which provides new insights into the economic consequences of increasing the number of female directors. Second, this research contributes to the literature on firms' internationalization speed. Third, the authors capture in more detail the economic consequences of increasing board gender diversity in the context of China.

Details

Baltic Journal of Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5265

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Felix Maringe

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of integration of internationalisation into the strategic mission of individual institutions. Little is also known about challenges faced by institutions in their quest to integrate internationalisation into their broad strategic choices. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study is conducted in six universities in the UK selected from the Russell pre‐1992 group, the post‐1994 group and former colleges of higher education (HE). The study has three distinct but interrelated aims: how internationalisation is conceptualised in the study institutions; the available evidence for its structural integration into the university services and understanding the perceived challenges institutions face in the quest to integrate the idea as a broad strategic element of those institutions.

Findings

There exist a range of distinct barriers working against the full integration of the concept into the institutional cultures. These include: conceptual and structural deficiencies in the organisation of institutional internationalisation; over emphasis on human exchange initiatives over cultural integration efforts and increasing undercurrents of feelings among staff and students of local neglect at the expense of global attention.

Originality/value

The paper creates a sound basis for a more broad‐based study across the HE sector. Specifically, the paper suggests that the increasing cultural diversity in UK HE brought about in part by internationalisation and also by general human migration occasions new thinking and practices in organisational and management terms to address the needs of the “mosaic or cultural melting pot” phenomena characterising the increasingly multicultural HE learning environments.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Graham Elkin, Faiyaz Devjee and John Farnsworth

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of…

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3390

Abstract

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of interationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – The 11‐dimension model was developed as a result of a literature search and interviews with academic and non‐academic university staff. The model was trialled with a range of New Zealand and overseas universities. Findings – The model received widespread support as a useful way of conceptualising and visualising the internationalisation of universities. Measurement of internationalisation was demonstrated. The model was useful for the facilitation of the planning of investment in the various dimensions that make up internationalisation. The “star” model displayed both the current and ideal levels of internationalisation in visual form for an institution. It can be used to make systematic decisions about future institutional activity resource investment. Research limitations/implications – The testing is limited and will need to be extended to other countries, types of universities, faculties, departments and programmes. Originality/value – The model is useful to those who manage the intenationalisation of univerities, clarifying the concept and making systematic action to increase internationalisation possible.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Graham Elkin, John Farnsworth and Andrew Templer

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the…

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3674

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the level of desire for the future internationalisation and to further validate the model of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for business schools and business facilities using the Elkin, Devjee model of internationalisation concerning the current and desired levels of internationalisation of the business schools. In addition schools were asked six key questions about strategic focus.

Findings

It was observed that those schools with complete strategic focus had higher levels of current internationalisation and greater aspirations for even higher levels of internationalisation than schools without a complete strategic focus. It was also found that there may be a connection between research intensity and internationalisation.

Research limitations/implications

Future samples would be better to clearly separate whole universities and business schools and the role and status of respondents.

Practical limitations

In order to be successful in internationalisation institutes need to develop a complete strategic focus.

Originality/value

The use of the model of internationalisation was further validated and the model was used for the first time in conjunction with strategic focus to illustrate strategy in practice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Augusto Dalmoro Costa, Aurora Carneiro Zen and Everson dos Santos Spindler

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between family succession, professionalization and internationalization in family businesses within the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between family succession, professionalization and internationalization in family businesses within the Brazilian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper presents a multiple-case study method with three Brazilian family businesses that have at least two generations of the owning family involved in the business and an international presence of at least three years. In-depth interviews and secondary data were undertaken with family and non-family members of each case.

Findings

The authors' results show that a family business can boost its internationalization by introducing both succession planning and professionalization on international activities. As family members tend to be more risk-averse and focused on keeping the family business within the family, professionalization is a way of improving the firm's ability to expand internationally. This process tends to lead to lower performance by the firm for the first few months or the first year after the investment, but afterward, international performance tends to grow exponentially.

Originality/value

Only a few studies have been concerned on the relationship of these three dimensions. Thus, the research takes into account that professionalization and succession lead family businesses to improve their internationalization strategies.

Details

Journal of Family Business Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-6238

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2021

Marcelo André Machado and Viviane Bischoff

This paper aimed to evaluate the differences in the use and knowledge of export promotion programs (EPPs) between Brazilian SMEs that internationalized early and SMEs that…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aimed to evaluate the differences in the use and knowledge of export promotion programs (EPPs) between Brazilian SMEs that internationalized early and SMEs that internationalized in a gradual, traditional fashion. Additionally, it tested hypotheses that distinguish these two types of SME internationalization processes in an emerging market context.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors tested four hypotheses in a sample of 540 SME Brazilian exporters. The sample was divided into two groups according to the born global (BG) criteria: 379 SMEs with gradual or traditional internationalization (TI) and 161 SMEs with early internationalization (EI).

Findings

The results indicate that Brazilian EI SMEs operate in more countries and continents than TI SMEs. In emerging countries such as Brazil, the domestic market continues to play an important role both for SMEs that internationalize early and those whose process is slower. Even though logistic regression could not classify the sample of TI and EI SMEs according to their knowledge about EPPs, the results led to the idea that EI SMEs currently use more specific EPPs than do TI SMEs.

Practical implications

Managers of successful SMEs from emerging markets need to incorporate EPPs into their internationalization strategy. In emerging markets with large domestic markets, SME managers can meet their growth needs by exploiting opportunities in both domestic and international markets.

Originality/value

Research on the early internationalization of SMEs has long focused on SMEs from developed markets and on internal factors. Moreover, the effects of EPPs on the firm' performance of large and SME firms has also been the subject of study. The value of this paper relies on the intersection of EPPs and the early internationalization of SMEs, even for firms in developed markets.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 15 September 2021

Diego Finchelstein, Maria Alejandra Gonzalez-Perez and Erica Helena Salvaj

In this exploratory multiple case study, we aim to compare the internationalization of two state-owned enterprises (SOEs) owned by subnational governments with three owned…

Abstract

Purpose

In this exploratory multiple case study, we aim to compare the internationalization of two state-owned enterprises (SOEs) owned by subnational governments with three owned by central governments in Latin America. This study provides a contextualized answer to the question: What are the differences in the internationalization of subnationally owned SOEs compared to central SOEs? This study finds that the speed and diversification of these two types of SOEs’ internationalization differ because they have a different expansion logic. Subnationally owned SOEs have a gradual and diversified expansion following market rules. Central government’s SOEs are specialized and take more drastic steps in their internationalization, which relates to non-market factors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study builds an exploratory qualitative comparative case analysis that uses multiple sources of data and information to develop a comprehensive understanding of SOEs through process tracing.

Findings

The study posits some assumptions that are confirmed in the case analysis. This study finds relevant differences between sub-national (SSOEs) and central authority (CSOEs’) strategies. SSOEs’ fewer resources and needs to increase income push them to follow a gradual market-driven internationalization and to diversify abroad. CSOEs non-gradual growth is justified by non-market factors (i.e. national politics). CSOEs do not diversify abroad due to the broader set of constituencies they have to face.

Research limitations/implications

Given the exploratory comparative case study of this research, the findings are bounded by the particularities of the cases and their region (Latin America). This paper and its findings can be useful for theory building but it does not claim any generalization capacity.

Originality/value

This study adds complexity into the SOEs phenomenon by distinguishing between different types of SOEs. This paper contributes to the study of subnational phenomena and its effect in SOEs’ internationalization process, which is an understudied topic. To the authors’ best knowledge, this is among the first studies that explore subnational SOEs in Latin America.

Details

Multinational Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1525-383X

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2021

Saurabh Bhattacharya, Arpita Agnihotri, Natalia Yannopoulou and Georgia Sakka

The authors combine institutional theory with resource-based theory to explain how emerging market firms (EMFs) manage their technological knowledge capital by venturing…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors combine institutional theory with resource-based theory to explain how emerging market firms (EMFs) manage their technological knowledge capital by venturing into international markets. The authors further explore the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in the home country in influencing technological knowledge capital and internationalization relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

The study employs multiple linear regression analysis using a dataset consisting of 326 Bombay Stock Exchange-listed A and B category stocks for a six-year period (2010–2016).

Findings

The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship.

Research limitations/implications

The study finds that with an increase in technological knowledge capital, the internationalization of Indian firms increases. Furthermore, international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity positively moderate this relationship.

Practical implications

The authors’ findings increase international marketing managers' awareness of how internationalization acts as a knowledge management tool for EMFs under the contingency effect of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity.

Originality/value

The study provides novel insights into the technological knowledge capital management strategy by EMFs through internationalization and the role of international marketing knowledge and competitive intensity in increasing firms' ability to even better manage technological knowledge capital.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

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Article
Publication date: 14 July 2021

Jung Hyun Ryu and Anh Thuy Nguyen

The research aims to provide the basis for a better understanding of the internationalization of higher education in Vietnam. First, it examines Vietnam's higher education…

Abstract

Purpose

The research aims to provide the basis for a better understanding of the internationalization of higher education in Vietnam. First, it examines Vietnam's higher education reforms and policy/ legal frameworks for the promotion of internationalization since the implementation of Doi Moi in 1986. Secondly, it analyzes the internationalization activities at the national and institutional levels. At both levels, the internationalization activities are categorized into internationalization at home and cross borders (Knight, 2012). Finally, the paper discusses the challenges Vietnamese HE is facing and presents policy directions.

Design/methodology/approach

This study employs a case study research strategy to examine and gain understanding of internationalization of higher education in Vietnam as a phenomenon. The study collected detailed information using a variety of data collection procedures over a period of time. First, it analyzes Vietnam's higher education reforms as well as policy and legal framework for the promotion of internationalization. Then, using Knight's framework, the study analyzed the internationalization at home and crossborder educational activities at the national and institutional levels. At the national level, strategic policy goals and programs were explored. Then, it chose Vietnam National University- Hanoi as a institutional case to learn its institutional strategies on cross border programs and mobility, reputation building, research cooperation.

Findings

Vietnam has continuously reformed its legal and policy framework of higher education to better integrate into the global higher education market and also to meet the national demand for economic development. Predominant rationale for Vietnam to engage in crossborder programs is for brain development, specifically in the academics and public sector. Meanwhile internationalization at home is driven by (1) international programs and universities and (2) initiative to enhance competitiveness of its higher education institutes. Vietnam hosts different models of international universities, including classical, satellite and co-founded. However, issues and challenges remain, such as poor lack of systematic cooperation and coordination at the governmental level, retaining talents, and finally finances.

Originality/value

Written for the special edition on Internationalization of Higher Education in the Era of SDGs: Asia–Pacific Perspective, the study aims to provide a basis for understanding the current situation of internationalization higher education in Vietnam and how it compares to its partners in the region. This study is unique as it provides a two-layer analysis, at the national and institutional levels capturing macro and micro perspectives in one scene. In addition, this study includes rich empirical data, which was rare in previous literature due to limited access.

Details

International Journal of Comparative Education and Development, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2396-7404

Keywords

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