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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 16 May 2022

Songyan Hou

In 2019, the goal of developing a world-class open university through different stages was put forward by the Open University of China (OUC), which indicated that…

Abstract

Purpose

In 2019, the goal of developing a world-class open university through different stages was put forward by the Open University of China (OUC), which indicated that internationalization for Chinese open universities came to the agenda. However, international activities of open universities are different from those in conventional universities, and how to fulfill the goal of internationalization is a main issue faced by educators in Chinese open and distance education arena. This research aimed to identify ways of internationalization for the OUC system.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was employed as a tool to get feedback from target audience. A questionnaire was released to academics, management staff and researchers to the 44 provincial open universities. A total of 501 samples were collected. Among them, 332 were from academics, which accounted for 66.27%, 152 were from school-level directors and 17 were from university-level leaders.

Findings

By analyzing the data collected in the survey, the study proposes four recommendations to fulfill the goal of internationalization for Chinese open universities and these include strengthening top-level strategies, building up professional teams, sharing learning resources and delivering upper-level programs.

Research limitations/implications

The targets of this research were all staff at different levels in the central and local institutions; no students were included in the research. Therefore, this did not reflect a picture from the student perspective, and this will be improved in future research.

Originality/value

Since the establishment of the OUC in 1979, there has been no clear and systematic pathways for the development of internationalization of Chinese open universities. This research proposes a theoretical framework of internationalization for open universities and suggests a direction for future development.

Details

Asian Association of Open Universities Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1858-3431

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 November 2022

Weihong Chen, Xi Zhong and Hailin Lan

The impact of executive characteristics on firm internationalization has already been extensively explored. However, relatively few studies have examined the critical role…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of executive characteristics on firm internationalization has already been extensively explored. However, relatively few studies have examined the critical role of chief executive officer (CEO) personality attributes, and especially CEO openness, in firm internationalization. This research aims to deepen the understanding of firm internationalization, by exploring whether and when CEO openness influences firm internationalization.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of private high-tech listed firms in China is used, with data from 2004 to 2020.

Findings

Based on upper echelons theory, this study theorizes and finds that CEO openness will positively influence firm internationalization. Further, based on the behavioral theory of the firm, this study finds that the performance aspiration gap weakens the positive effect of CEO openness on firm internationalization, but also finds that the potential slack strengthens this effect.

Originality/value

First, the study reinterprets firm internationalization strategies from the perspective of CEO openness, a personality attribute; CEO openness is an important but so far rarely discussed topic in the field of international business. Second, for the first time, problemistic search and slack search into a research framework are introduced to explore the relationship between CEO characteristics and firm internationalization. This approach can further define the boundary conditions under which CEOs can project their values, preferences and personalities into the process of formulating and implementing a firm's internationalization strategy.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 November 2022

Katerina Kampouri and Yannis Hajidimitriou

This study aims to fulfil a twofold purpose: first, to discuss the changes and unique challenges that family firms (FFs) face during the COVID-19 pandemic and/or they will…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to fulfil a twofold purpose: first, to discuss the changes and unique challenges that family firms (FFs) face during the COVID-19 pandemic and/or they will face in the post-COVID era, and second, to reflect on emerging research directions and contextual factors that should be taken into account in future explorations for the benefit of FF scholars who will study post-COVID FF internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the twofold purpose of the study, we conduct an integrative review of 31 peer-reviewed journal articles in the international business (IB) and FF literature on COVID-19, FFs and internationalisation.

Findings

COVID-19 brought changes in IB strategies, IB relationships and human resource management. In responding and/or adapting to those changes, during and post-COVID, FFs face and are expected to face challenges that mainly refer to FFs’ transition to digitalisation and the simultaneous preservation of socio-emotional wealth dimensions while maintaining their international presence. The authors suggest that future research explores the role of digitalisation in achieving FFs’ internationalisation, IB relationship building activities and training and leading international employees. Further contextual factors (e.g. succession issues, family structures) should also be accounted for when exploring such post-COVID IB phenomena.

Originality/value

This study comprises an initial attempt to encompass the interface of FF internationalisation and COVID-19. It also proposes research directions that are likely to set the stage in FFs’ post-COVID internationalisation research.

Details

Critical Perspectives on International Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2022

Hela Chebbi, Majdi Ben Selma, Kamal Bouzinab, Andrew Papadopoulos, Alexie Labouze and Robert Desmarteau

Striving for growth since their early stages, many small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly adopting an entrepreneurial behavior based on a rapid and early…

Abstract

Purpose

Striving for growth since their early stages, many small and medium enterprises (SMEs) are increasingly adopting an entrepreneurial behavior based on a rapid and early international expansion. Although some extant research have been done on the dynamic capabilities of SMEs’ accelerated internationalization–born global (BG) SMEs, no study was, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, carried on the microfoundations underlying this phenomenon. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature and contribute to the growing theory development of SME’s microfoundations.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper proposes an integrated conceptual framework to better identify the microfoundations that influence born global SMEs internationalization by integrating individual, structural and processual – the microfoundations approach within the dynamic capabilities of sensing, seizing and reconfiguring.

Findings

Our propositions argue that born global SMEs are characterized by dynamic capabilities based on a combination of some individual (manager’s human and social capital, such as its personal orientation, experiences, cognition and intuition), process (market learning, technology development) and structural (agility, communication/coordination) factors that helps a lot in the acceleration of the internationalization process.

Research limitations/implications

Empirical study should be done to enrich the conceptual material.

Practical implications

To identify some international opportunities, companies should rely on the entrepreneurial orientation of its managers, its experience and network as well as the market-related learning and technological processes. The managerial cognition is important to seize opportunities while the manager’s human capital is needed to reconfigure resources while internationalizing rapidly.

Social implications

This research shows that individual attributes are important but insufficient to accelerate the internationalization process. Some individual characteristics are more useful in sensing international opportunities rapidly, such as manager’s international entrepreneurial, past experience and network, However, the managerial cognition is important to seize opportunities, whereas the manager’s human capital is needed to reconfigure resources while internationalizing rapidly.

Originality/value

Born global firms must develop several dynamic capabilities to foster their accelerated early international development. This paper gives insights about the individual, structural and processual of sensing international opportunities, seizing and reconfiguring resources and competencies for born globals.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 September 2009

Felix Maringe

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of…

3950

Abstract

Purpose

Although internationalisation has become a key strategic element of universities across the world, there is little empirical evidence suggesting the nature and extent of integration of internationalisation into the strategic mission of individual institutions. Little is also known about challenges faced by institutions in their quest to integrate internationalisation into their broad strategic choices. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

An exploratory study is conducted in six universities in the UK selected from the Russell pre‐1992 group, the post‐1994 group and former colleges of higher education (HE). The study has three distinct but interrelated aims: how internationalisation is conceptualised in the study institutions; the available evidence for its structural integration into the university services and understanding the perceived challenges institutions face in the quest to integrate the idea as a broad strategic element of those institutions.

Findings

There exist a range of distinct barriers working against the full integration of the concept into the institutional cultures. These include: conceptual and structural deficiencies in the organisation of institutional internationalisation; over emphasis on human exchange initiatives over cultural integration efforts and increasing undercurrents of feelings among staff and students of local neglect at the expense of global attention.

Originality/value

The paper creates a sound basis for a more broad‐based study across the HE sector. Specifically, the paper suggests that the increasing cultural diversity in UK HE brought about in part by internationalisation and also by general human migration occasions new thinking and practices in organisational and management terms to address the needs of the “mosaic or cultural melting pot” phenomena characterising the increasingly multicultural HE learning environments.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Graham Elkin, Faiyaz Devjee and John Farnsworth

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of…

3442

Abstract

Purpose – There are few means of measuring whether universities have effective international programmes or policies in response to increasing globalisation. The purpose of this paper is to report on the development and testing of a model for measuring the internationalisation of universities and to assist with the strategic planning of interationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – The 11‐dimension model was developed as a result of a literature search and interviews with academic and non‐academic university staff. The model was trialled with a range of New Zealand and overseas universities. Findings – The model received widespread support as a useful way of conceptualising and visualising the internationalisation of universities. Measurement of internationalisation was demonstrated. The model was useful for the facilitation of the planning of investment in the various dimensions that make up internationalisation. The “star” model displayed both the current and ideal levels of internationalisation in visual form for an institution. It can be used to make systematic decisions about future institutional activity resource investment. Research limitations/implications – The testing is limited and will need to be extended to other countries, types of universities, faculties, departments and programmes. Originality/value – The model is useful to those who manage the intenationalisation of univerities, clarifying the concept and making systematic action to increase internationalisation possible.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Graham Elkin, John Farnsworth and Andrew Templer

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the…

3805

Abstract

Purpose

The paper's aims is o explore the relationship between having a complete strategic focus and the extent of the internationalisation of university business schools and the level of desire for the future internationalisation and to further validate the model of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected for business schools and business facilities using the Elkin, Devjee model of internationalisation concerning the current and desired levels of internationalisation of the business schools. In addition schools were asked six key questions about strategic focus.

Findings

It was observed that those schools with complete strategic focus had higher levels of current internationalisation and greater aspirations for even higher levels of internationalisation than schools without a complete strategic focus. It was also found that there may be a connection between research intensity and internationalisation.

Research limitations/implications

Future samples would be better to clearly separate whole universities and business schools and the role and status of respondents.

Practical limitations

In order to be successful in internationalisation institutes need to develop a complete strategic focus.

Originality/value

The use of the model of internationalisation was further validated and the model was used for the first time in conjunction with strategic focus to illustrate strategy in practice.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2022

Lydia Nyankom Takyi, Vannie Naidoo, Courage Simon Kofi Dogbe and Edward Akoto

This study aims to assess the potential mediating effects of formal and informal networks in the relationship between government support and Ghanaian indigenous firms…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the potential mediating effects of formal and informal networks in the relationship between government support and Ghanaian indigenous firms’ degree of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was a cross-sectional design, where the structured questionnaire was used in gathering data from 301 indigenous Ghanaian firms. The path estimation was conducted by running structural equation modelling in AMOS v.23.

Findings

It was concluded that government support had a significant positive effect on Ghanaian indigenous firms’ degree of internationalisation. Formal network was found to partially mediate the relationship between government support and indigenous firms’ degree of internationalisation. Finally, it was concluded that informal networks had no mediating effect.

Research limitations/implications

One limitation is that the effect of the government support and network strategy was only explored on indigenous exporters, meaning that exporters which did not fall within the definition of indigenous firms were excluded from the study. Future studies could conduct a comparative study on the same variables, using indigenous and non-indigenous firms.

Practical implications

It is recommended that Ghanaian exporters should participate in government training and workshop programmes focussing on building export business strategies and networking to improve export activities.

Originality/value

This study’s unique contribution is its investigation of how networking portfolio, including formal and informal ties, helps explain the nexus between government support and the internationalisation of local firms in the developing market, such as Ghanaians.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 3 November 2022

Moza Rashed AlShehhi, Jacob Poopada Cherian, Sherine Farouk and Moza Al Nahyan

This study aims to analyze how international entrepreneurial orientation mediates the relationship between influential dynamic capabilities and the internationalization

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze how international entrepreneurial orientation mediates the relationship between influential dynamic capabilities and the internationalization success of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the context of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

Design/methodology/approach

Adopting a quantitative approach, the researchers designed a questionnaire based on an extensive literature review and used structural equation modeling to ascertain the mediating role of international entrepreneurial orientation in the relationship between influential dynamic capabilities and SMEs' internationalization success.

Findings

The findings of this study indicate that international entrepreneurship orientation mediates the relationship between dynamic capabilities and internationalization success, as the indirect impact value is greater than the direct effect value for the relationship. Because the existence of the mediator in the model has no significant impact on the model's direct effects, full mediation is the most appropriate mediation type.

Research limitations/implications

This study has some limitations. One of the major limitations of this study relates to the limited finances of the incumbent, as the questionnaires were delivered to the respondents via email, but the incumbent had to follow up with phone calls and reminders. Second, this study mainly relied upon primary data and analysis based on the use of qualitative techniques; in future, researchers can incorporate qualitative aspects using interviews and other qualitative analysis tools and techniques. Third, limitation relates to sample size, as the sample size of research was above 500 but was limited to just UAE. Future researchers can conduct a cross-sectional analysis to determine the mediating role of different factors for the promotion of internationalization.

Practical implications

This study highlights the fundamental factors affecting the internationalization of SMEs in the UAE context, which has rarely been discussed. This study broadens the scope of internationalization by discussing its impact on SMEs' financial and non-financial performance.

Social implications

This study will contribute to the advancement of current information about the elements that impact the internationalization of SMEs and develop a new framework for analyzing SMEs' internationalization in the UAE.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature by developing and testing a framework based on a comprehensive literature review to include different factors and their constructs that impact the potential internationalization of SMEs in developing economies. This study identifies and addresses a research gap regarding the relationship between internationalization and company performance among UAE SMEs.

Details

Review of International Business and Strategy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-6014

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 October 2022

Christiane Bellucci, Rosalia Aldraci Barbosa Lavarda and Dinorá Eliete Floriani

Due to the changes in organizational, social, cultural and technological factors, companies from different contexts are shifting towards open forms of strategy-making with…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the changes in organizational, social, cultural and technological factors, companies from different contexts are shifting towards open forms of strategy-making with more widened inclusion of internal and external actors and greater transparency regarding their strategic issues, including their internationalization processes. The purpose of this paper is to understand how Open Strategizing occurs in the accelerated process of internationalization considering different contexts.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors conducted a qualitative comparative case study in Brazilian and English technology-based small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which rapidly internationalized. Furthermore, data was collected through semi-structured interviews, observations and documental analysis.

Findings

The authors suggest that openness contributes to the accelerated process of internationalization. Additionally, the authors show that the home-country and the national cultural contexts affect openness. The authors also disclose openness as crucial and inherent to the accelerated process of internationalization, while context is relevant but not determinant in the Open Strategizing.

Originality/value

The authors contribute to Open Strategy (OS) literature by presenting how Open Strategizing unfolds daily during the internationalization process and by evidencing the role of home-country and national cultural contexts in the configuration and dynamics of Open Strategizing. The authors also contribute to the international entrepreneurship (IE) literature by advancing the understanding of the strategies and drivers adopted by technology-based SMEs internationalizing in an accelerated way.

Details

Journal of Strategy and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-425X

Keywords

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