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Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński, Michał Medowski, Jacek Pogorzelski and Marcin Ostachowski

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of…

Abstract

Companies spend millions on training their sales representatives. Thousands of textbooks have been published; thousands of training videos have been recorded. Hundreds of good pieces of advice and tips for sales representatives have been presented along with hundreds of sales methods and techniques. Probably the largest number of indicators and measures are applied in sales and distribution. On the one hand, this is a result of the fact that sales provide revenue and profit to a company; on the other hand, the concept of management by objectives turns out to be most effective in regional sales teams with reference to sales representatives and methods of performance evaluation. As a result, a whole array of indices has been created which enable the evaluation of sales representatives’ work and make it possible to manage goods distribution in a better way.

The indices presented in this chapter are rooted in the consumer market and are applied most often to this type of market (particularly in relation to fast-moving consumer goods at the level of retail trade). Nevertheless, many of them can be used on other markets (services, means of production) and at other trade levels (wholesale).

Although the values of many indices presented herein are usually calculated by market research agencies and delivered to companies in the form of synthetic results, we have placed the emphasis on the ability to determine them independently, both in descriptive and exemplifying terms. We consider it important to understand the genesis of indices and build the ability to interpret them on that basis. What is significant is that the indices can be interpreted differently; the same index may provide a different assessment of a product’s, brand or company’s position in the market depending on the parameters taken into account. Therefore, we strive to show a certain way of thinking rather than give ready-made recipes and cite ‘proven’ principles. Sales and distribution are dynamic phenomena, and limiting them within the framework of ‘one proper’ interpretation would be an intellectual abuse.

Article
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Tina Vukasovič

In recent years, the world food market has undergone an accelerated process of concentration and consolidation. These intensive processes increase the competitive…

5303

Abstract

Purpose

In recent years, the world food market has undergone an accelerated process of concentration and consolidation. These intensive processes increase the competitive advantage of operating activities on the global market and are the result of numerous changes in the period of new economy. What is the meaning of brand management and how is it dealt with in practice? What is the importance of positioning in the light of brand image and identity? Which are the ways to measure the brand strength with the aid of the brand potential index (BPI) and to identify the characteristics (key drivers) which have the greatest influence on brand strength? All these are questions for which this paper seeks to provide answers.

Design/methodology/approach

The answers to the research questions were gained using the GFK target positioning research with which a brand analysis of high‐volume products was carried out in the light of its key characteristics: brand as a product, opportunities and risks involved in the brand on the market, competition analysis, analysis of brand's personality, target group analysis (market segmentation), and marketing cluster analysis.

Findings

Based on the case study, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the research in the process of brand evaluation, determining the positioning and communication guidelines on the example of food products brands.

Originality/value

The paper is important in identifying the sources of brand value.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Niels Pelka and Oliver Musshoff

The use of weather derivatives is impaired with a basis risk which diminishes the hedging effectiveness and hinders the distribution of these risk management instruments…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of weather derivatives is impaired with a basis risk which diminishes the hedging effectiveness and hinders the distribution of these risk management instruments in the agricultural sector. A frequently suggested approach to reduce the basis risk is the use of mixed indices composed of several weather variables. The purpose of this paper is to compare the hedging effectiveness of a simple temperature‐based and a simple precipitation‐based weather derivative with that of a derivative based on a mixed index of two weather variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The basis of this comparison are empirical yield time series of the winter wheat production of 32 farms located in central Germany, as well as daily temperature and precipitation data collected by selected weather stations over several years. Insurance is structured as an option on an accumulated weather index and priced by index‐value simulation. In addition, the bootstrapping method is used to improve statistical reliability. The hedging effectiveness is measured non‐parametrically regarding the relative reduction of the standard deviation of winter wheat revenues caused by using weather derivatives.

Findings

The results reveal that mixed index‐based weather derivatives have a significantly higher potential to reduce the risk of winter wheat revenues than simple index‐based weather derivatives. However, using mixed index‐based weather derivatives does not lead to a significantly higher hedging effectiveness than the simultaneous use of several simple index‐based weather derivatives. Moreover, simple index‐based weather derivatives may more easily raise the interest of other industries which could serve as potential trading partners for the agricultural sector.

Research limitations/implications

The authors analyzed the hedging effectiveness of weather derivatives based on simple and mixed indices with regard to the production of winter wheat in Central Germany. To confirm that the present results are generalizable, further research is required for other types of production apart from winter wheat cultivation and with respect to other regions besides Germany.

Practical implications

The focus and results of the present study are very relevant for farmers as well as for potential providers of weather derivatives. The results reconfirm that weather derivative providers should better offer different weather derivatives based on a simple index than complex derivatives that are based on a mixed index.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this paper is the first that provides a comparative impact analysis of simple and mixed index‐based weather derivatives conducted for real individual farms with regard to their hedging effectiveness.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 March 2022

Sana Tauseef and Philippe Dupuy

This paper aims to expand foreign investors' understanding of potential return enhancement and risk diversification advantages offered by equity market of Pakistan…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to expand foreign investors' understanding of potential return enhancement and risk diversification advantages offered by equity market of Pakistan through comparing its performance to performances in other markets and investigating what matters for investing in Pakistan's market.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparative analysis of Pakistan Stock Exchange is performed using data for 22 developed and 22 emerging markets over the period 1993–2019. Cross-sectional analysis is performed using data for 130 non-financial firms from Pakistan and Carhart (1997) and Fama and French (2015) models are applied. The role of liquidity with five-factor model is analyzed using turnover rate and Amihud (2002) illiquidity cost as liquidity measures.

Findings

Pakistan's equity offers substantial diversification benefits if added to developed market portfolios. However, observed large returns come together with inverted premia for most traditional factors indicating that investors may want to invest preferably in big stocks with low book-to-market and momentum. Finally, global investors can invest in high yielding stocks with low liquidity risk owing to positive connection between liquidity and returns.

Practical implications

This study will provide investment model for foreign investors to enhance their portfolio returns. Policy makers in Pakistan must identify regulatory steps to facilitate foreign investments.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study which identifies efficiency gains offered by Pakistan's equity for global investors.

Details

Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2077-1886

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

Book part
Publication date: 13 November 2017

Robert Kozielski, Michał Dziekoński and Jacek Pogorzelski

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a…

Abstract

It is generally recognised that companies spend approximately 50% of their marketing budget on promotional activities. Advertising belongs to the most visible areas of a company’s activity. Therefore, it should not be surprising that the average recipient associates marketing with advertising, competitions and leaflets about new promotions delivered to houses or offices. Advertising, especially Internet advertising, is one of the most effective forms of marketing and one of the fastest developing areas of business. New channels of communication are emerging all the time – the Internet, digital television, mobile telephony; accompanied by new forms, such as the so-called ambient media. Advertising benefits from the achievements of many fields of science, that is, psychology, sociology, statistics, medicine and economics. At the same time, it combines science and the arts – it requires both knowledge and intuition. Contemporary advertising has different forms and areas of activity; yet it is always closely linked with the operations of a company – it is a form of marketing communication.

The indices of marketing communication presented in this chapter are generally known and used not only by advertising agencies but also by the marketing departments of many organisations. Brand awareness, advertising scope and frequency, the penetration index or the response rate belong to the most widely used indices; others, like the conversion rate or the affinity index, will get increasingly more significant along with the process of professionalisation of the environment of marketing specialists in Poland and with increased pressure on measuring marketing activities. Marketing indices are used for not only planning activities, but also their evaluation; some of them, such as telemarketing, mailing and coupons, provide an extensive array of possibilities of performance evaluation.

Article
Publication date: 10 August 2022

Kofi Dadzie, Charlene Dadzie, Wesley J. Johnston, Evelyn Winston and Haizhong Wang

This study aims to draw on the strategy–structure–performance framework to investigate baseline supply chain (BSC) practices as a function of how firms structure logistics…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to draw on the strategy–structure–performance framework to investigate baseline supply chain (BSC) practices as a function of how firms structure logistics and marketing mix activities to achieve market share in the emerging market (EM) supply chain ecosystems.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors validate the study’s conceptual framework with survey data collected in two contrasting EM supply chain ecosystems. They include supply chains in EM economies with an advanced logistics/distribution infrastructure such as China and those in economies with poor logistics/distribution infrastructure such as Ghana. The authors use ordinary least squares regression and structural equation modeling analysis to examine the relative market share outcomes of different configurations of logistics-marketing practices (logistics-affordability marketing, logistics-accessibility marketing, logistics-acceptability marketing, logistics-and awareness and full integration into BSC).

Findings

Key findings confirm that the integration of logistics with marketing activities into BSC practice is more pervasive in EMs with high logistics performance index, such as China than in firms in EMs with low logistics performance index, such as Ghana. Moreover, the authors confirm that integrating logistics and marketing into BSC generates higher market share performance than logistics- or marketing-only practices in China and Ghana. These differences are driven more by the firm’s strategic orientation than the demands of competitive market conditions.

Research limitations/implications

The study focuses on BSC integration activities in the logistics and marketing functions because researchers have not updated this issue for the past two decades.

Practical implications

The study results provide managers with much-needed empirical evidence of the strategic benefit of BSC integration under different supply chain ecosystems in the EMs.

Originality/value

Linking BSC activities in logistics management and marketing management mix activities within the 4As marketing mix framework provides evidence to support the argument that the 4As marketing mix is an appropriate planning framework for EMs’ unique ecosystems.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property…

26503

Abstract

Index by subjects, compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Facilities, vol. 18 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

16728

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐18; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐18; Property Management Volumes 8‐18; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐18.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

K.G.B. Bakewell

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes…

23177

Abstract

Compiled by K.G.B. Bakewell covering the following journals published by MCB University Press: Facilities Volumes 8‐17; Journal of Property Investment & Finance Volumes 8‐17; Property Management Volumes 8‐17; Structural Survey Volumes 8‐17.

Details

Property Management, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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