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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Vassilios Ziakas and Nikolaos Boukas

Although research on the impacts of the Olympic Games on Athens addressed the impact of the Games on economy, generic tourism, and urban restructuring, there has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

Although research on the impacts of the Olympic Games on Athens addressed the impact of the Games on economy, generic tourism, and urban restructuring, there has not been given to date attention on the prospects for sport tourism development in Athens as a result of hosting the Olympics, especially if it is considered that the construction of Olympic facilities was legitimized by the government's intention to use them for sport. To address this omission, the purpose of this study is to draw attention to examining the challenges and potential of post‐Olympic Athens to exploit its Olympic legacy for the development of sport tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was employed by conducting nine semi‐structured interviews with Athens’ tourism/administrative officials and analyzing them in line with pertinent literature.

Findings

Results show that the city's tourism officials respond with ad‐hoc policies in their effort to capitalize on Athens’ Olympic legacy. Consequently, Athens’ potential is constrained by the absence of a comprehensive tourism policy aimed at enriching and diversifying the city's post‐Olympic tourism product. In this context, the study shows that there is limited awareness by the city's tourism administration for sport tourism development and for establishing appropriate coordination mechanisms, which could foster mutually beneficial links between sport and tourism stakeholders. This leaves unexploited the potential for utilizing effectively Athens’ Olympic facilities and destination capitals in developing a competitive sport tourism product mix.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that it examines Athens’ sport tourism prospects through the lens of tourism policy. Future studies are needed to examine also sport policy. On a broader level, it is suggested that future research should extend the focus on the study of post‐event leverage to find the best means for fostering post‐Games Olympic tourism from a sustainability perspective.

Practical implications

To redress post‐Olympic Athens’ inertia and associated structural problems that affect its tourism policy, the study presents a framework for the strategic planning and sustainable development of sport tourism in Athens.

Originality/value

The study by examining Athens’ neglected legacy for sport tourism, attempts to synthesize a common ground for sport and tourism development in Olympic cities. This inquiry suggests the need for a broader planning and leveraging framework to extend the study of Olympic tourism in the post‐Games period as it relates to the use of Olympic legacy and post‐Olympic assets, which can, in turn, reveal the conditions for synergistic development of sport and tourism. Also, such an examination may shed light on what and how can be corrected in order to mitigate the sources and consequences of problems, while providing lessons for future Olympic cities. Finally, by focusing on sport tourism as it is induced by the Olympics knowledge can be advanced on how to effectively leverage the Olympic legacy and develop sustainable post‐Olympic tourism products.

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Peter W. Williams and Aliaa Elkhashab

The purpose of this paper is to explore social capital emerging from the collective set of activities pursued by a network of stakeholders leveraging tourism benefits from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore social capital emerging from the collective set of activities pursued by a network of stakeholders leveraging tourism benefits from the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games).

Design/methodology/approach

A case study of an Olympic tourism consortium (the Consortium) established to garner tourism benefits from the Games illustrates the forms of social capital development emerging from this initiative. A three‐phased research process involving a literature review, key informant interviews with Consortium stakeholders, and a follow‐up on‐line survey with these representatives informs the study's data collection and analysis process. Aspects of bonding, bridging and linking social capital creation are examined.

Findings

Varying levels of confidence, trust, mutual respect, personal ties, shared values, and human capacity were generated through the Consortium's activities. This social capital was perceived as a valuable but fragile legacy capable of nurturing increased leadership and organizational capacity particularly when tackling issues confronting the industry's overall sustained prosperity. They also felt that the value and momentum of the social capital legacy might be imperiled by a limited appreciation of how to effectively activate it in a post‐Games environment.

Practical implications

Insights are provided into the social capital that networks of stakeholders can generate when working collectively to leverage benefits from sport mega‐events such as the Games.

Originality/value

The research contributes to emerging discussions concerning social capital leveraging in tourism related sport mega‐event management settings.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2018

Michael B. Duignan

London’s Candidature bid projected an irresistible legacy of lasting benefits for host communities and small businesses. Yet, local post-Games perspectives paint a…

Abstract

Purpose

London’s Candidature bid projected an irresistible legacy of lasting benefits for host communities and small businesses. Yet, local post-Games perspectives paint a contrasted picture – one of becoming displaced. This paper aims to draw on event legacy, specifically in relation to rising rents, threats to small business sustainability and impact on place development by empirically examining London’s local embryonic legacies forming across one ex-hosting Olympic community: Central Greenwich.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 43 interviews with local businesses (specifically, small retailers and hospitality businesses), local authorities, London-centric and national project actors and policymakers underpin analysis, supported by official London 2012 archival, documentary and media reports, were conducted to add texture and triangulate primary and secondary data sources.

Findings

Juxtaposing ex ante projections vs emerging ex post realities, this paper reveals a local legacy of small business failure fuelled by rising commercial rents and a wider indifference for protecting diverse urban high streets. Embroiled in a struggle to survive, and barely recognised as a key stakeholder and contributor to legacy, small businesses have and continue to become succeeded by a new business demographic in town: monochromatic global and national chains. Typifying the pervasive shift toward clone town spaces, this article argues that corporate colonisation displaces independent businesses, serves to homogenise town centres, dilute place-based cultural offer and simultaneously stunts access to a positive local development legacy. This paper argues that such processes lead to the production of urban blandscapes that may hamper destination competitiveness.

Originality/value

Examining event legacy, specifically local legacies forming across ex-host Olympic communities, is a latent, under-researched but vital and critical aspect of scholarship. Most event legacy analysis focuses on longer-term issues for residents, yet little research focuses on both local placed-based development challenges and small business sustainability and survival post-Games. More specifically, little research examines the potential relationship between event-led gentrification, associated rising rents and aforementioned clone town problematic. Revealing and amplifying the idiosyncratic local challenges generated through an in-depth empirically driven triangulation of key local business, policy, governmental and non-governmental perspectives, is a central contribution of this article missing from extant literatures. This paper considers different ways those responsible for event legacy, place managers and developers can combat such aforementioned post-Games challenges.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Tiago Ribeiro and Victor Almeida

The Rio 2016 Olympic Games required a significant investment in the public transport systems, connecting four city's areas and providing different types of impacts and…

Abstract

Purpose

The Rio 2016 Olympic Games required a significant investment in the public transport systems, connecting four city's areas and providing different types of impacts and legacies for their hosts. The purpose of this paper is to examine resident perceptions of the public transportation issues in the Rio host city before and after the Games. Key factors underpinning transportation issue outcomes are identified.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected among Rio local residents by using a pre-Games (n = 504) and post-Games design (n = 421). The cross-sectional and longitudinal data were assessed at both time periods. An exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors, and a confirmatory factor analysis analysed the psychometric properties of the constructs proposed. Subsequently, MANOVA and a series of ANOVA tests (one-way and paired samples) were performed to analyse the differences in perceptions before and after the Games.

Findings

Results revealed a five-factor model of public transportation issues perceived: planning, infrastructure, insecurity, information and urban mobility. Resident perceptions for four factors (planning, infrastructure, insecurity, urban mobility) increased from pre- to post-Games, meaning that they have a more negative perspective about those issues. In contrast, the findings suggested an improvement in public transport information perceived between the period before and after the Games.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the academic literature related to discussing the Olympic legacy by providing evidence of how hosting the Olympics may lead to social exchange with negative outcomes on transport legacy. The findings of this study can be used as valuable information for future event organizers, local authorities and governments.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 August 2017

Laura Alexandra Brown and Manuel Cresciani

The Olympic Games is the largest sporting mega event of its type, with deep cultural and historical roots. The event is short lived compared to the lifespan of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The Olympic Games is the largest sporting mega event of its type, with deep cultural and historical roots. The event is short lived compared to the lifespan of the infrastructure required in host cities. The purpose of this paper is to examine models of adaptability in Olympic construction, using case studies in previous Olympic host cities of the Summer Olympic Games (Rome 1960, London 2012), to assess the impact of adaptability on future legacy.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods approach (archival research, direct observation), was used in two case studies: Rome (Palazzetto dello Sport, Palazzo dello Sport), and London (London Olympic Velodrome, London Aquatics Centre). The case studies examined how adaptability was used in design to secure legacy.

Findings

In the selected case studies (Rome 1960, London 2012), adaptability has had a positive impact on the post-Games use of venues, all four of which remain in use today. However, there are multiple factors that contribute to post-Games legacy, and further research is necessary.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst some positive results were observed in this study, more research is necessary across a broader spectrum of sites and venues to make conclusive recommendations for architects designing for Mega Sporting events.

Social implications

The significance of this study to architectural practice, academia, and society is its potential to benefit future Olympic Games, International Olympic Committee policy, and be extended to other Mega Sporting events.

Originality/value

The originality of this research lies within its analysis of Olympic infrastructures and sustainability, of which there is a current lack of comparative studies in academic research.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 35 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 October 2010

Kostas Karadakis, Kiki Kaplanidou and George Karlis

The purpose of this paper is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) that a host city can experience to utilize these for future strategy…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) that a host city can experience to utilize these for future strategy planning and event leveraging.

Design/methodology/approach

Five phone interviews were conducted with administrators of the Athens Olympic Games. Respondents were asked four questions relating to the SWOT of hosting the Olympic Games. Responses collected were transcribed and analyzed using a content analysis.

Findings

Findings suggest that the strengths lie in having certain infrastructures in place, volunteers, a strong economy and good political standing. Weaknesses stem from a lack of infrastructure, the size of the country, uncertain political and economic stability. Opportunities included the growth of the tourism industry, business developments, increase in the quality of life, the use of legacies post‐event, and the improvement and development of infrastructures. Threats included the cost of the event, pollution, relying on the event to rejuvenate the economy and the displacement of residents.

Originality/value

The SWOT analysis conducted in this paper laid the foundation for strategic planning for future host cities' organizers while taking into consideration the weaknesses and problems that have been experienced by the organization of former Olympic Games host cities. Moreover, the SWOT analysis conducted in this paper goes one step further by incorporating Chalip's leveraging model in order to identify what strengths and weaknesses need to be addressed in order for a host city to leverage the opportunities and threats of hosting a sport event.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Patrick De Groote

In this article the development of the Olympic Games (the biggest mega sport event ever) will be described as an interesting case in the sport‐tourism relationship. The…

Abstract

In this article the development of the Olympic Games (the biggest mega sport event ever) will be described as an interesting case in the sport‐tourism relationship. The Olympics are indeed the biggest show on earth … the most participants in history, … spectators on site and the greatest television audience ever. This marriage of convenience between sport and tourism will be explored and examplified, first in general and second by means of on historical overview (of the Summer and Winter Games) and the economic impact of the Olympic Games.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 60 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 17 July 2014

Robert VanWynsberghe and Caitlin Pentifallo

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter coins the term Development through Mega-Events (DME) in order to propose a next step for developing social legacies in accordance with the principle of social development.

Design/methodology/approach

This chapter’s argument for DME is developed using quantitative, indicator-based data from the Olympic Games Impact (OGI) study as well as relevant literature from the sub-fields of Sport for Development and Peace and Sport Mega-Events.

Findings

We discuss the absence of a baseline understanding of the properties of sport mega-events. Also absent are progressive efforts to achieve sustainability by means other than competition among prospective bidders. We recommend that hosts tie social legacies to public policy objectives that are concomitant with the properties of the sport mega-events. Retrospectively applied, OGI data from 2010 reveals social inclusion as one potential social legacy that reflects the nature of the Olympics and the policy realm in the host region.

Originality/value

This chapter is original work. It would be of interest to potential host communities, policymakers, and researchers.

Details

Sport, Social Development and Peace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-885-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2000

Laurence Chalip

One of the most significant innovations to emerge from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games has been the way that Australian tourism organisations have built the…

Abstract

One of the most significant innovations to emerge from Sydney's hosting of the 2000 Olympic Games has been the way that Australian tourism organisations have built the Games into their marketing strategies. As the Business Manager Olympic Games for the Australian Tourist Commission, Maggie White is responsible for the ambitious international Olympic tourism marketing program. Here she talks to Dr Laurence Chalip of Griffith University, about her role and the challenges she faced.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2000

Jon Teigland

Regional development was the main goal when Norway applied for the Winter Olympics in the 1980'ies. The intention was to use the Games as a strong impulse to a stagnating…

Abstract

Regional development was the main goal when Norway applied for the Winter Olympics in the 1980'ies. The intention was to use the Games as a strong impulse to a stagnating region, starting a dynamic development process and creating an international tourism destination in the southeast parts of the country. When the International Olympic Committee chose Lillehammer to be the host of the 1994 Games, expectations became high and several scientists predicted strong growth of tourist not only in the host town, but on regional and national level, too. Later on Parliament decided to strengthen this regional development process even further by locate the new national airport in the interior part of Eastern Norway.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 55 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

Keywords

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