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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Jordan Taylor Bakhsh, Luke R. Potwarka and Ryan Snelgrove

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects that exposure to a youth day event at an elite sport competition has on youth spectators’ motivations to participate in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects that exposure to a youth day event at an elite sport competition has on youth spectators’ motivations to participate in the sport on display.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper was underpinned by the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Pre- and post-event questionnaires were administered to local grade seven and eight students (n=318) as part of a youth day event at the 2016 Milton International Track Cycling Challenge in Ontario, Canada. Questionnaires assessed each TPB construct one week before the youth day and immediately following the event.

Findings

The paper provides empirical insights about the shifts from pre- to post-event behavioral antecedent measures. Results suggest youth day events can be effective at driving positive shifts in participation intention and subjective norm among youth populations.

Research limitations/implications

A control group was not possible as an ethical limitation was created from the school boards which did not allow for some students/classes within the study to not experience the event. Researchers are encouraged to develop a study which allows for a youth control group and assesses the shift in behavioral antecedents at multiple time points post-event.

Practical implications

The paper includes implications for how to leverage subjective norms as a means of motivating post-event participation.

Originality/value

The paper fulfils a methodological gap to move beyond cross-sectional data and employ pre-post event research designs to measure the effect spectating an elite sport competition can have on youth’s motivation to participate in the sport on display.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to indicate a shift in focus from legacy to the leveraging of event impacts, and previous papers have indicated a growing awareness of the brand-related legacies associated with sport mega-events for a host nation. However, none have explored this in relation to the strategic activities of nation brand stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The case of South Africa and the 2010 FIFA World Cup was selected, as this host nation clearly stated its aim of using the sport mega-event to develop its brand. A qualitative study explored the insights of selected, definitive nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) that took place two to three years post the event.

Findings

A thematic analysis clustered the leveraging imperatives into seven key strategic focus areas, namely, the media, local citizens, stakeholder partnerships, the tourism experience, design, sustainable development and urban transformation and event hosting.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is not an audit of leveraging activities nor does it assess the costs of leveraging. The focus on a specific case has allowed for an in-depth analysis, although, for greater transferability of these findings, it is recommended that further comparative studies be conducted, especially in emerging nation contexts.

Practical implications

The paper identifies key strategic focus areas as well as examples of practical activities for leveraging mega-events to gain and sustain nation brand benefits. In particular, stakeholders are urged to plan and budget for leveraging before, during and especially post an event.

Social implications

In light of the critique of mega-events linked to their social impacts and costs, this paper recommends leveraging focus areas, and especially the mobilisation of citizen support, that can assist the realisation of positive social outcomes.

Originality/value

The paper adds to the emerging discourse of nation branding, highlighting opportunities derived through sport mega-events and assisting brand stakeholders to leverage such opportunities more effectively.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2020

Luke R. Potwarka, Ryan Snelgrove, Laura Wood, Georgia Teare and Daniel Wigfield

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine whether watching a live track cycling event could increase youths' intention to participate in the sport, and to identify cognitive and affective mechanisms associated with post-event intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of youth spectators (n = 362) who experienced the 2016 Milton International Track Cycling Challenge completed pre- and post-event questionnaires to assess intention to participate and cognitive and affective components of their spectator experience.

Findings

Respondents' intentions to participate post-event were significantly higher than pre-event. Results also indicated that state inspiration mediated relationships between three cognitive dimensions of sport spectator experiences (i.e. fantasy, flow, evaluation) and intention to participate.

Practical implications

Sport managers should design youth day events to engage with youth prior to the event to increase their knowledge of the sport. This prior engagement may help youth to evaluate performances effectively. Moreover, event experience should be designed to incorporate vicarious and immersive experiences tailored to youth spectators.

Originality/value

The present study is one of the first to assess intentions to participate among youth spectators at multiple time points (i.e. before and after an event) and identifies specific mechanism within the spectator experience that may lead to a demonstration effect.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Vassilios Ziakas and Nikolaos Boukas

Although research on the impacts of the Olympic Games on Athens addressed the impact of the Games on economy, generic tourism, and urban restructuring, there has not been…

Abstract

Purpose

Although research on the impacts of the Olympic Games on Athens addressed the impact of the Games on economy, generic tourism, and urban restructuring, there has not been given to date attention on the prospects for sport tourism development in Athens as a result of hosting the Olympics, especially if it is considered that the construction of Olympic facilities was legitimized by the government's intention to use them for sport. To address this omission, the purpose of this study is to draw attention to examining the challenges and potential of post‐Olympic Athens to exploit its Olympic legacy for the development of sport tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative approach was employed by conducting nine semi‐structured interviews with Athens’ tourism/administrative officials and analyzing them in line with pertinent literature.

Findings

Results show that the city's tourism officials respond with ad‐hoc policies in their effort to capitalize on Athens’ Olympic legacy. Consequently, Athens’ potential is constrained by the absence of a comprehensive tourism policy aimed at enriching and diversifying the city's post‐Olympic tourism product. In this context, the study shows that there is limited awareness by the city's tourism administration for sport tourism development and for establishing appropriate coordination mechanisms, which could foster mutually beneficial links between sport and tourism stakeholders. This leaves unexploited the potential for utilizing effectively Athens’ Olympic facilities and destination capitals in developing a competitive sport tourism product mix.

Research limitations/implications

A limitation of the study is that it examines Athens’ sport tourism prospects through the lens of tourism policy. Future studies are needed to examine also sport policy. On a broader level, it is suggested that future research should extend the focus on the study of post‐event leverage to find the best means for fostering post‐Games Olympic tourism from a sustainability perspective.

Practical implications

To redress post‐Olympic Athens’ inertia and associated structural problems that affect its tourism policy, the study presents a framework for the strategic planning and sustainable development of sport tourism in Athens.

Originality/value

The study by examining Athens’ neglected legacy for sport tourism, attempts to synthesize a common ground for sport and tourism development in Olympic cities. This inquiry suggests the need for a broader planning and leveraging framework to extend the study of Olympic tourism in the post‐Games period as it relates to the use of Olympic legacy and post‐Olympic assets, which can, in turn, reveal the conditions for synergistic development of sport and tourism. Also, such an examination may shed light on what and how can be corrected in order to mitigate the sources and consequences of problems, while providing lessons for future Olympic cities. Finally, by focusing on sport tourism as it is induced by the Olympics knowledge can be advanced on how to effectively leverage the Olympic legacy and develop sustainable post‐Olympic tourism products.

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Marijke Taks, B. Chris Green, Laura Misener and Laurence Chalip

The purpose of this paper is to present and use an event leveraging framework (ELF) to examine processes and challenges when seeking to leverage a sport event to build…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present and use an event leveraging framework (ELF) to examine processes and challenges when seeking to leverage a sport event to build sport participation.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used an action research approach for which the researchers served as consultants and facilitators for local sports in the context of the International Children’s Games. Initially three sports were selected, and two sports were guided through the full leveraging process. Prior to the event, actions were planned and refined, while researchers kept field notes. Challenges and barriers to implementation were examined through observation immediately prior to and during the event, and through a workshop with stakeholders six weeks after the event, and interviews a year later.

Findings

With the exception of a flyer posted on a few cars during the track and field competition, none of the planned action steps was implemented. Barriers included competition and distrust among local sport clubs, exigencies associated with organizing event competitions, the event organizers’ focus on promoting the city rather than its sports, and each club’s insufficient human and physical resources for the task. These barriers were not addressed by local clubs because they expected the event to inspire participation despite their lack of marketing leverage. The lack of action resulted in no discernible impact of the event on sport participation.

Research limitations/implications

Results demonstrate that there are multiple barriers to undertaking the necessary steps to capitalize on an event to build sport participation, even when a well-developed framework is used. Specific steps to overcome the barriers need to be implemented, particularly through partnerships and building capacity for leverage among local sport organizations.

Originality/value

This study presents the ELF, and identifies reasons why sport events fail to live up to their promise to build sport participation. Necessary steps are suggested to redress that failing.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Brendon Knott, Alan Fyall and Ian Jones

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport mega-events have received much criticism of late. However, there has been increasing awareness of the brand-related benefits from hosting a sport mega-event, with their hosting being a deliberate policy for many nations, most notably among emerging nations. One such nation is South Africa, which explicitly stated its nation branding ambitions through the staging of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Through this single case, this paper aims to identify the unique characteristics of the sport mega-event that were leveraged for benefits of nation branding.

Design/methodology/approach

An interpretivist, qualitative study explored the insights of nation brand stakeholders and experts, elicited using in-depth, semi-structured interviews (n = 27) undertaken two to three years after the staging of the event.

Findings

Three characteristics of the 2010 sport mega-event were deemed by stakeholders to be unique in creating nation branding opportunities: the scale of the event that created opportunities for transformational development; the global appeal, connection and attachment of the event; and the symbolic status of the event that was leveraged for internal brand building and public diplomacy. The paper proposes that while sport mega-events provide nation branding opportunities, the extent of these benefits may vary according to the context of the nation brand with lesser-known, troubled or emerging brands seemingly having the most to gain.

Originality/value

While acknowledging the critique of mega-events, this paper highlights a pertinent example of an emerging nation that leveraged the potential of a sport mega-event for nation branding gains. It extends the understanding of sport mega-events and their potential for nation branding.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 18 January 2011

Susana Yu and Dean Leistikow

The purpose of this paper is to examine intra‐industry contagion and the following apparent violations of the efficient market hypothesis around large one‐day price…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine intra‐industry contagion and the following apparent violations of the efficient market hypothesis around large one‐day price decline events in individual stocks.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper examines daily stock returns around one‐day price declines of 10 percent or more for event stocks and their rivals. Using techniques similar to those used in Bremer and Sweeney and Cox and Peterson, the paper includes event stocks whose prices are at least $10 per share prior to the event to reduce the possible price reversal induced by bid‐ask price bounce. As is typical for the literature, the stock daily abnormal return (AR) is calculated as the difference between the actual daily stock return and the estimated stock return based on the market model estimated over a 200‐trading‐day pre‐event period [−220, −21]. Cumulative abnormal returns (CARs) for each stock are formed by aggregating the individual daily stock ARs. Denoting the large price decline event day as day 0, we examine the ARs of 41 trading days [−20,+20], the CARs for the [+1,+3] period, and the CARs for the [+4,+20] period. Cross‐sectional average ARs and CARs are calculated and tested for statistical significance. Furthermore, the paper examines whether the post‐event abnormal stock returns for the event firm and its rivals can be explained by prior event firm and industry variables.

Findings

On average, after an event, the event stock experiences a positive three‐day AR (S&P 600 stocks) followed by a 17‐day negative AR (both S&P 500 and 600 stocks). Moreover, for that 17‐day period: the rivals' stocks outperform the event firms' stocks and the event firms' returns are statistically significantly related to prior variables. The paper also finds statistically significant relationships between the prior variables and the rivals' post‐event stock returns. It provides an intra‐industry effects explanation for these results.

Originality/value

The paper offers insights into abnormal stock returns, for the event firm and its rivals, following the event firm's large one‐day stock price drop.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 37 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Sujin Yang and Sejin Ha

The main aim of this study is to develop a framework of brand knowledge transfer through sponsorship for sponsors within an insurance industry in South Korea. To this end…

Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this study is to develop a framework of brand knowledge transfer through sponsorship for sponsors within an insurance industry in South Korea. To this end, this study explores: how pre-event brand knowledge and perceived sponsor–event fit contribute to post-event brand knowledge and if and how consumers’ attitudes toward insurance agents play a role as a moderator in the model. Brand knowledge is examined in terms of brand awareness and corporate image.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a paper-and-pencil survey method, data were gathered from consumers (n = 330) who participated in a parenting education program in which an insurance company partnered with a baby food manufacturer in South Korea. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling.

Findings

The results confirm the occurrence of brand knowledge transfer for sponsors via sponsorship. Pre-event brand awareness and corporate image affect post-event brand awareness and corporate image, respectively, while perceived event–sponsor fit affects both attributes of post-event brand knowledge. Further, consumer attitude toward sales agents partially moderates brand knowledge transfer.

Research limitations/implications

Because the data focused on a single segment of sponsorship events in the financial service industry in South Korea, the results must be carefully applied to other forms of sponsorship, industries and cultures.

Practical implications

This study highlights the effectiveness of sponsorship in the financial services industry. By aligning sponsorship events with sponsors’ characteristics and managing their brand knowledge, companies can maximize brand knowledge transfer contributing to brand equity.

Originality/value

This study identifies consumers’ pre-extant attitudes toward sales agents as a moderator that controls brand knowledge transfer, the pre-event and post-event corporate image relationship, specifically.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 28 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

António Almeida, Sergio Jesus Teixeira and Mara Franco

The purpose of this paper is to get insights on a real-life portfolio of events from a demand-centred prospective, based on the identification of factors influencing the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to get insights on a real-life portfolio of events from a demand-centred prospective, based on the identification of factors influencing the degree of attendee’s satisfaction, with the ultimate aim of identifying commonalities and prospective cross-leverage strategies among events.

Design/methodology/approach

Data from attendees to three major events taking place in Funchal, the capital city of Madeira, were analysed based on multivariate statistics and categorical regression owing to the overwhelming presence of categorical data in the database. The econometric analysis pursued in this paper is based on a sample of 1,830 tourists.

Findings

The research demonstrates that the impact of the socio-economic variables and travel arrangements on attendees’ satisfaction is rather irrelevant, irrespective of the event under analysis, with cross-cutting factors defining the overall quality of any event (mainly technical aspects such as aesthetical elements, organization and opening hours) determinant in predicting the overall degree of satisfaction. Another key finding relates to the existence of a number of commonalities among events, in terms of tourists’ profiles, market orientation, themes and resources laying ground to define ready-to-apply cross-leverage strategies.

Research limitations/implications

The analysis concentrated on three major events taking place in the capital city of a peripheral region. The content of the questionnaire co-developed with the destination management organization with order to get access to a large sample of respondents.

Practical implications

Lessons to be learnt in terms of managing a disparate collection of events developed over time in an ad hoc manner. A few examples of cross-leverage strategies are put forward.

Originality/value

The analysis and empirical content portrayed in this study contribute to the literature on event portfolio via description of real-life case examples of how to develop competencies based on post-event analysis in a proactive manner.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Millicent Kennelly, Halley Corbett and Kristine Toohey

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why and how universities in the Glasgow region sought to leverage the 2014 Commonwealth Games to achieve their own benefits.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate why and how universities in the Glasgow region sought to leverage the 2014 Commonwealth Games to achieve their own benefits.

Design/methodology/approach

An in-depth qualitative case study, utilising documentary evidence and in-depth interviews, was employed to examine how Glasgow universities leveraged the Games, and the outcomes they sought.

Findings

Universities sought to leverage the 2014 Commonwealth Games to garner a range of benefits, including increased brand awareness, student and staff development opportunities, new or improved infrastructure, and strengthened stakeholder relationships. Leveraging strategies included developing relationships with other Games’ stakeholders to establish and participate in collaborations, committees, and research consortia, hosting ancillary events, and hosting teams on training camps. However, data revealed substantial barriers to effective leveraging, such as insufficient resourcing and lack of leadership, and consequently several interviewees conveyed a sense of missed opportunities.

Practical implications

The results can inform universities located in host regions about the opportunities and challenges to strategically leveraging an event. Also, if event organisations understand the leveraging ambitions of event stakeholders, such as universities, they can better facilitate and manage their relationships with such stakeholders to maximise event benefits in the host region.

Originality/value

This research considers the leveraging activities of a previously un-researched event stakeholder group (universities) that have the potential to deliver benefits that reach students, staff, and industry interest groups in event host communities. The knowledge contributed could aid universities in future event host regions to strategically leverage to maximise the benefits of major sport events.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

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