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Book part
Publication date: 23 February 2010

James Hanrahan

Sustainable development may best be achieved by enhancing the commitment of local communities. Stewart and Hams (1991) argue that the requirements of sustainable…

Abstract

Sustainable development may best be achieved by enhancing the commitment of local communities. Stewart and Hams (1991) argue that the requirements of sustainable development cannot merely be imposed but that active participation by local communities is needed. However, the terms ‘community’, ‘host community’ and ‘participation’ can be interpreted in a myriad of ways. Before entering a full discussion of host community participation in tourism planning, it is first necessary to explore the various potential interpretations of these terms and to define their meaning and function. This chapter therefore clarifies some of the issues surrounding the terms community, host, host community and participation. The major typologies and available models in relation to host communities’ participation in sustainable planning for tourism are also reviewed.

Details

Global Ecological Politics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-748-6

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2020

Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou

The purpose of this paper was to provide a discussion on using sport events for community development through the lenses of community development theories and perceived…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to provide a discussion on using sport events for community development through the lenses of community development theories and perceived event impacts.

Design/methodology/approach

The nature of the paper was not based on a specific methodology or design, rather on a review of relevant studies that aim to support strategies of how to develop a community through the hosting of sport events utilizing community development theories.

Findings

The review revealed that the profile of the community could influence the use of asset or needs-based community theory to achieve community development goals associated with hosting certain size of sport events.

Originality/value

The combination of community development theories with the literature in sport event impacts and legacies provides a novel approach to the discussion of community development through sport events.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 March 2018

Carla Martins and Lia Patrício

The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the antecedents and consequences of loyalty to consumer networks hosted by companies in the scope…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the antecedents and consequences of loyalty to consumer networks hosted by companies in the scope of social networking sites (SNS). These company social networks (CSNs) have traditionally been studied as online brand communities but more research is needed to understand their role for host companies.

Design/methodology/approach

This study identifies CSN performance dimensions (host reputation, informativeness, communication self-expressiveness, rewarding activity and consumption support) and analyzes how they influence attitudes and behavioral intentions toward CSNs (identification with the community, satisfaction and loyalty) and toward the host company (satisfaction and loyalty). A conceptual model is tested through a survey administered to members of a large grocery retailer CSN on Facebook.

Findings

Results show that all six identified performance dimensions significantly impact CSN loyalty. However, while self-expressiveness, communication and rewarding activity (which are closely related to social and hedonic value) are predictors of loyalty to the CSN, through the mediation of identification with the community, they neither indirectly (through the mediation of identification) nor directly impact satisfaction with the host. Conversely, informativeness, communication and host reputation are good predictors of loyalty to the CSN, through mediation of satisfaction with the CSN, and also exert an indirect positive influence on satisfaction with the host. Finally, consumption support positively influences loyalty to the CSN through the mediation of identification with the community and directly positively influences satisfaction with the host company.

Originality/value

These results reveal the dichotomous nature of CSNs, as communities of people with shared interests and supplementary services created by companies to add value to their core offering. While perceptions regarding the community facet are independent from attitude toward the host, perceptions regarding supplementary service are significant predictors of satisfaction with the host. These results offer implications for future research and management of companies’ social media presence.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 July 2018

Gideon Jojo Amos

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and what drives corporate social responsibility (CSR) in host communities of mining companies in developing countries.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and what drives corporate social responsibility (CSR) in host communities of mining companies in developing countries.

Design/methodology/approach

To address this knowledge gap, this paper used Ghana as a test case and conducted 24 in-depth interviews with participants drawn from mining host communities.

Findings

The paper discovered that while CSR is broadly understood and encompasses six thematic categories in the mining host communities, there are emphases on philanthropic and environmental responsibilities. Contrary to the evidence found in other studies, this paper discovered that CSR rhetoric plays a more positive/significant role than so far explored in CSR research, as it incentivizes the host communities to push for the fulfilment of their CSR expectations and/or CSR initiatives proposed by mining companies.

Research limitations/implications

Quantitative studies are needed to strengthen the findings from the present paper.

Practical implications

Because developing countries share similar socio-economic and geo-political realities, the findings of this paper may be applicable not only for CSR advocates, but also for policy-makers in developing countries.

Originality/value

The paper provides new inputs from a developing country perspective to the current debate about the CSR performance of the extractive industry.

Details

Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, vol. 18 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1472-0701

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 July 2019

Doron Pely and Golan Luzon

The purpose of this paper is to locate, describe and analyze the differences between the way migrants from communal cultures and local communities in Western Europe…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to locate, describe and analyze the differences between the way migrants from communal cultures and local communities in Western Europe resolve intra-communal and inter-communal conflicts, and to use the findings to propose a hybrid alternative model that may be able to bridge across identified differences. Such a hybrid model will facilitate enhanced integration and adaptation between host and migrant communities, contributing to improved conflict resolution outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper starts with an exploration, review and analysis of existing relevant literature describing refugee/migrant–host community interactions and their consequences. The second stage includes review and analysis of relevant alternative dispute resolution (ADR) literature. The third stage undertakes an examination and analysis of the practices identified in stage two, and the fourth stage proposes a method that uses potentially “bridging” practices by incorporating useful and relevant elements from host and refugee communities’ ADR mechanisms, in a way that may help resolve inter-communal disputes.

Findings

The paper demonstrates significant differences between host and migrant communities’ dispute resolution practices and the integrability of relevant ADR approaches toward creating a usable, hybrid, bridging approach to handle inter-communal conflicts.

Research limitations/implications

The paper proposes a hybrid “bridging” host–refugee inter-communal conflict management model. The proposed model should be tested to prove feasibility and viability.

Practical implications

Should the proposed model prove useful, the practical implications may lead to the construction and use of different (hybrid) conflict management mechanisms in appropriate communities. Such mechanisms may lead to a reduction in the number and severity of inter-communal conflicts.

Social implications

A reduction in inter-communal conflicts within the framework of a host–migrant interface may have strong positive outcome to inter (and intra) communal relations and may reduce friction, crime, marginalization, hostility and radicalization.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the challenges to both migrant and host communities when it comes to finding a common ground for resolving inter-communal disputes and offers a pragmatic hybrid model to bridge cultural and functional gaps and help promote mutually satisfactory outcomes.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 30 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2020

Xinran Lehto, Dori Davari and Soona Park

This study aims to provide a fresh perspective toward understanding the forces that exist in the guest-host dynamic and thereby contribute to the guest–host relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to provide a fresh perspective toward understanding the forces that exist in the guest-host dynamic and thereby contribute to the guest–host relationship literature.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines guest–host relationship via the philosophical lens of convivialism.

Findings

This study conceptualizes conviviality in the guest–host relationship. A convivial guest–host relationship is characterized by well-being mutuality and hospitality mutuality. Such a relation can be built when the guest and the host form a tri-party of coalitions, namely, economic, experience and hospitality. While an economic coalition represents the pragmatic value in a guest–host relationship, an experience coalition represents an experiential value in a guest–host relationship. A hospitality coalition then represents the spiritual alliance in such a relationship.

Practical implications

This paper suggests that tourism development should be guided by a conviviality vision. Health and well-being of both the visitors and the destination community should be a goal priority. This paper suggests that the starting point of experience planning is the residents, not the visitors. The critical role of hospitality in formulating market communication strategies is emphasized.

Social implications

This study contributes to the larger conversation of diversity and sustainability.

Originality/value

This study proposes a convivial tourism model – a form of tourism that is oriented toward mutuality of hospitality and well-being of both visitors and destination communities.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 October 2017

P. Monica Chien, Sarah J. Kelly and Chelsea Gill

The purpose of this paper is to identify strategic objectives that can be utilized by non-host communities to leverage the opportunities provided by mega sport events. The…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify strategic objectives that can be utilized by non-host communities to leverage the opportunities provided by mega sport events. The unique context and timing of this study facilitates discussion surrounding a particular non-host community and how it can plan relevant objectives to best identify appropriate leveraging mechanisms.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted a qualitative approach, drawing upon a case study of Kobe City, Japan, a non-host city of the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games. Data were collected using diverse sources such as site visits, field notes, newspaper articles, destination marketing materials, archival data from sport and tourism facilities, and workshop with key stakeholders.

Findings

The within-case analysis identified four key objectives a non-host city could utilize to leverage mega sport events, namely, enhancing destination brand equity, integrating leveraging strategies with the existing event portfolio, fostering social capital, and strengthening corporate networks.

Originality/value

Research on event leveraging has typically focused on host cities, while there has been limited research attention on non-host cities. This paper highlights the importance of formulating shared objectives so as to provide a strong focus for relevant stakeholders, guide the deployment of resources, and create effective leveraging strategies. Few studies have focused on the planning of leveraging initiatives.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2019

Min Qin and Su Liang

This paper aims to conceptualize two patterns of user recognition mechanisms and two kinds of user contribution behavior in enterprise-hosted online product innovation…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to conceptualize two patterns of user recognition mechanisms and two kinds of user contribution behavior in enterprise-hosted online product innovation community and explain their relationships between user recognition mechanisms and user contribution behavior of online product innovation community.

Design/methodology/approach

A Chinese enterprise-hosted online innovation community and an American enterprise-hosted online innovation community are selected as research objects. Four Logit models are developed and some hypotheses are supposed from the perspective of prosocial behavior theory. Objective user data with three months from two online product innovation communities are collected to test with Logit regression analysis.

Findings

Findings show that there are obvious correlations between user recognition mechanisms and user contribution behavior, and there is also an obvious difference in community user activity level between the quantity-based user recognition mechanism community and the quality-based user recognition mechanism community. More specifically, in the online product innovation community with quantity-based recognition mechanism, both variables of peer recognition and community image motivation significantly affect user proactive contribution behavior. In the online product innovation community with quality-based recognition mechanism, the variable of peer recognition significantly affects both user proactive contribution behavior and user responsive contribution behavior; the variable of community image motivation significantly affects both user proactive contribution behavior and user responsive contribution behavior.

Practical implications

Although it is voluntary, online user voluntary contribution behavior still need to be presented, recognized and affirmed by community. For enterprise-hosted online community managers, they should pay more attention to design the reasonable online community user recognition mechanism with the coexistence of quantity and quality.

Originality/value

The theoretical contribution in this study is to enrich the existing research theme about enterprise-hosted online product innovation community. First, it conceptualizes two patterns of user recognition mechanisms. Second, it regards the variable of user contribution behavior as the co-existence of proactive contribution and responsive contribution. Third, from the perspective of prosocial behavior theory, it is an important supplement to explain the mechanism of user contribution behavior in enterprise-hosted online product innovation community. Fourth, it deepens the overall understanding of the relationship between user recognition mechanism and user contribution behavior. This study provides theoretical guidance for enterprises how to design reasonable and efficient online product innovation community platform. The theoretical contribution in this study is to enrich the existing research theme about enterprise-hosted online product innovation community. First, it conceptualizes two patterns of user recognition mechanisms. Second, it regards the variable of user contribution behavior as the co-existence of proactive contribution and responsive contribution. Third, from the perspective of prosocial behavior theory, it is an important supplement to explain the mechanism of user contribution behavior in enterprise-hosted online product innovation community. Fourth, it deepens the overall understanding of the relationship between user recognition mechanism and user contribution behavior. This study provides theoretical guidance for enterprises how to design reasonable and efficient online product innovation community platform.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 September 2017

Sheranne Fairley and Donna M. Kelly

The purpose of this paper is to explore how non-host cities strategically plan to leverage pre-Games training for the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games to maximize…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how non-host cities strategically plan to leverage pre-Games training for the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games to maximize benefits to the city.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with key tourism and government stakeholders involved in developing leveraging strategies for pre-Games training in a non-host city. Interviews were conducted a little over 18 months before the 2018 Gold Coast Commonwealth Games.

Findings

A model of the strategic planning of leveraging pre-Games training is presented. Pre-Games training was positioned as a leverageable resource. The non-host city was well positioned to host pre-Games training given its existing sport focus and facilities and its proximity to the host city and its similar climate. Opportunities, objectives, means, and considerations were constantly developed. The city strategically targeted teams to maximize the use of the training facilities and make the most of the value of well-known athletes, while being cautious of overcrowding. The teams had to be secured before strategies were devised to achieve other opportunities and objectives. Short-term benefits included generating tourism through visiting teams and entourages and integrating visiting teams into the local community through education and sport programming. Long-term benefits included building the destination’s capacity and reputation as a place for elite training camps and tourism.

Practical implications

Understanding how to develop strategies to leverage pre-Games training can inform those responsible for developing and implementing pre-Games training strategies and lead to maximizing the benefits to a city or region.

Originality/value

Limited research has examined the strategic planning process used to develop tactics to leverage mega-events. This study provides insight into the strategic planning process of non-host cities to increase short- and long-term benefits by leveraging pre-Games training.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 November 2020

Libo Yan and Man Tat Cheng

The aim of this study is to explore the host–guest relationship at a macro level, investigating the sociopsychological relationship between a destination and its markets.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to explore the host–guest relationship at a macro level, investigating the sociopsychological relationship between a destination and its markets.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted netnography to fulfill the research purpose. Data were collected from Sina Microblog, the predominant social media platform in China, focused on bloggers responses to a fatal conflict between a tour participant and the guide during a shopping tour.

Findings

Bloggers' attributional discussions help to understand the nature of the host–guest relations. Responses from Chinese and Hong Kong bloggers showcased criticism toward the other community and criticism of one's own community. These were reflected in three themes: concerns with the place of conflict or the identities of the perpetrators, hospitableness or discrimination and the Chinese and Hong Kong cultures.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation is that the subject of this study (young bloggers) does not represent a complete cross section of the residents of China and Hong Kong. This study suggests a need for a broader theoretical perspective of the host–guest encounter. The study results have practical implications for destinations receiving Chinese group package tours.

Practical implications

The study results have practical implications for destinations receiving Chinese group package tours.

Originality/value

On-site interaction has been the focus of previous studies of the host–guest relationship, and off-site interactions were seldom explored. This study bridges the gap and extends the discourse on the host–guest relationship to a wider temporal (by taking a post event view) and spatial (by assessing the issue off-site) scale.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

Keywords

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