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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2020

Gabriel Caldas Montes and Solimar de Pinho Bernabé

Rio de Janeiro has a high tourism potential, and it is the only Brazilian city among the 100 most visited in the world. However, the National Confederation of Commerce of…

Abstract

Purpose

Rio de Janeiro has a high tourism potential, and it is the only Brazilian city among the 100 most visited in the world. However, the National Confederation of Commerce of Goods, Services and Tourism estimates that from the total loss of revenue from tourism activities of the State of Rio de Janeiro in 2017, approximately 29 percent of this loss can be attributed to increased violence in the State. Thus, this study aims to estimate the impact of violence on tourist arrivals to Rio de Janeiro.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on a sample of tourist arrivals to Rio de Janeiro from 51 countries, for the period between 2003 and 2016. Violence is represented by violent deaths in the State of Rio de Janeiro as well as in the capital. The estimates are based on panel data methodology. This study reports fixed-effect estimates as well as dynamic panel data estimates obtained through S-GMM. The study runs regressions for the full sample and also for two other samples: one with tourists coming from developed countries and another with tourists from developing countries.

Findings

The results reveal that violence negatively impacts tourism to Rio, and it shows that tourists from developed countries are more affected by violence than tourists from developing countries. The findings indicate that for each violent death in the capital of Rio de Janeiro, almost four tourists from developed countries and approximately three tourists from developing countries quit going to Rio de Janeiro.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the few to investigate the impacts of urban violence on tourism. The paper provides two contributions. First, it addresses the effect of violent deaths on tourism, bringing evidence to a destination with a high tourism potential, but which suffers from urban violence. Second, the study is the first to investigate whether this relation is different for tourists from countries with distinct levels of development (and thus with different levels of violence).

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-09-2019-0590

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Mônica Bahia Schlee

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the application of buffer zones as an urban landscape heritage management tool, using Rio de Janeiro as the main case…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze and discuss the application of buffer zones as an urban landscape heritage management tool, using Rio de Janeiro as the main case study, in order to inform urban regulation around the sites inscribed as World Heritage Cultural Landscape and disclose its relevance to link urban planning, cultural heritage management and sustainable development.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodological approach encompasses: conceptual framework – contextualization of heritage protection theory, focusing on landscape protection and buffer zones; discussion: cross-national comparative overview of buffer zones conceptual framework on the international heritage protection policy; historical background and spatial analysis, through GIS mapping, of local heritage protection policy, tracing its evolution through time; examination of prospects and challenges of this management tool, including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, based on previous international, local experiences on natural and cultural heritage protection; and gathering of strategies for the implementation of buffer zones in local landscape management.

Findings

Core heritage sites and their buffer zones are integrated elements and act together to protect landscape significance and dynamic integrity (DI). In Rio de Janeiro, beyond the function of a caution zone, other important functions of landscape heritage buffer zones are to guarantee spatial and social connections of the protected sites, as well as the visual relationship between them and other significant urban landscape features. Strategies for the implementation of buffer zones in local landscape management should address the articulation of landscape protection governance; the conservation of visual, functional and structural identity quality and legibility and the monitoring of DI.

Research limitations/implications

The methodology approach adopted in this study may also benefit from and foster further investigations, which could include the elaboration of a landscape management plan and an impact assessment inventory, refining the scale of study to the level of local watersheds, and a deeper examination of the popular cultural imprints within the World Heritage property buffer zone.

Practical implications

Strategies to the implementation of the Carioca Landscapes buffer zone include a gradation of protection and control of impacts according to the distance of the core sites (in the form of rings or layers). The buffer zone should help to preserve the character, significance, and DI of the protected sites and guarantee their spatial and social connections, as well as the visual and functional relationship between them and between other significant landscape features of the city. All those management strategies should be founded on the elaboration of a broad urban landscape management plan with the local society involvement.

Social implications

In Rio de Janeiro’s specific case, bridging the vision of culture and nature as opposite poles and, transcending the social segregation through community involvement should certainly be among the main guiding principles to the application of buffer zones for supporting landscape sustainability. Therefore, the establishment of regulation criteria and parameters within the limits of the buffer zone must acknowledge that the (urban) landscape should carefully articulate the different social agent visions and local urban contexts.

Originality/value

The main contribution of this paper is to gather different visions of the role of buffer zones and disclose possibilities of conciliation between theory and practice concerning landscape protection, arguing for gathering natural and cultural heritage policies into the urban planning processes. Harnessed together, the suggested buffer zone implementation strategies may provide a proactive approach to Rio’s urban landscape protection and contribute to foster landscape sustainability and resilience. Although based on a specific case study, the adopted methodological approach may be transferable, with some adjustments, to other World Heritage properties, especially those located in urban areas under development pressures.

Details

Journal of Cultural Heritage Management and Sustainable Development, vol. 7 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-1266

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1990

Josef Barat

The background and an overall review of the implementation of theRio de Janeiro Rapid Transit System – Metro – with itsimplications in the structure of the transport…

Abstract

The background and an overall review of the implementation of the Rio de Janeiro Rapid Transit System – Metro – with its implications in the structure of the transport system within the metropolitan area and in its urban development is provided. Emphasis is given to the social role played by the Metro lines in terms of reducing the travel costs and travelling time of the working population. As such it is also a major political issue which will affect federal and state governments′ priorities and resources allocation.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 17 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 14 October 2019

Nidhi Ghildayal

Hepatitis A is a prevalent disease that is largely preventable by vaccine usage. The vaccine for this illness is highly underused in most regions. In an attempt to find…

Abstract

Purpose

Hepatitis A is a prevalent disease that is largely preventable by vaccine usage. The vaccine for this illness is highly underused in most regions. In an attempt to find the strategies that are most beneficial in regard to quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and cost in current environments, the purpose of this paper is to conduct cost-effectiveness analyses to investigate vaccination strategies in a more economically developed country (MEDC), generally known as a “developed” area: the USA, and a less economically developed country (LEDC), generally known as a “developing” area: the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a dynamic transmission model for comparative effectiveness analyses. The model ran two different scenarios. The two regions studied have different policies and strategies for Hepatitis A vaccination currently, and also used different strategies in 2009. In the USA, a universal vaccination policy was modeled, along with a scenario in which it was removed. In Rio de Janeiro, a no vaccination policy was modeled, along with a scenario in which a universal vaccination policy was effected.

Findings

The comparison of resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio values to accepted threshold values showed universal vaccination to be cost-effective in both the USA and Rio de Janeiro as compared to no vaccination. When episode and vaccination costs and vaccination efficacy were varied, this still remained true. Universal vaccination was found to result in lower incidence of Hepatitis A in both the USA and Rio de Janeiro. Over the twenty-year time horizon, universal vaccination is projected to prevent 506,945 cases of symptomatic Hepatitis A in the USA and 42,318 cases of Hepatitis A in Rio de Janeiro. Other benefits include a projected increase in cumulative QALYs through the use of universal vaccination.

Originality/value

This analysis showed universal vaccination to be cost-effective as compared to no vaccination, and portions of the study’s approach had not previously been applied in tandem to investigate Hepatitis A interventions. The results may help foster higher compliance rates for Hepatitis A vaccination and even greater per-person economic benefits of universal vaccination, particularly in the USA. The purpose of this study is also to encourage elevated levels of surveillance on age of infection in developing regions and consistent reevaluation utilizing dynamic transmission models in both the USA and Brazil, as well as other rapidly developing regions, in order to prevent future epidemics and costs associated with the disease.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 27 May 2020

André Filipe Guedes Almeida and Gabriel Caldas Montes

Due to the fact that crime and violence affect the economy and the business environment, and since the economic environment affects entrepreneurs' expectations and…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the fact that crime and violence affect the economy and the business environment, and since the economic environment affects entrepreneurs' expectations and therefore their decisions, this study analyzes the effect of both violence and crime on the confidence of entrepreneurs from the state of Rio de Janeiro.

Design/methodology/approach

Making use of time series methodology, the authors provide OLS and GMM estimates for the effects of violence and crime on the business confidence index of entrepreneurs in Rio de Janeiro. The analysis of the Rio de Janeiro case is relevant since Rio de Janeiro is the second state, after São Paulo, with the largest participation in the Brazilian GDP, and crime and violence have very high indicators in this state. The analysis comprises the period between January 2012 and July 2018 (monthly data).

Findings

The results suggest that violence and crime negatively impact business confidence in Rio de Janeiro. The estimates reveal that, among all economic and noneconomic variables, the third variable with the greatest impact on business confidence is “cargo thefts.” An increase of one standard deviation in this variable reduces business confidence by approximately 2.48 basis points, while increases of one standard deviation in “violent deaths,” “commerce thefts” and “extortion” reduce business confidence by approximately 1.24, 1.46 and 1.47 bp, respectively. The impacts caused by these violence and crime variables are greater than the effect caused by an increase of one standard deviation in the real interest rate.

Practical implications

The findings reveal that a stable economic environment with economic growth is as important to business confidence as the adoption of policies aimed at increasing public security through the fight against crime and violence.

Originality/value

If on the one hand the literature provides evidence that crime is harmful to the economy, on the other hand no study has so far analyzed the impact of crime and violence on business confidence. This type of analysis is relevant since confidence is an important aspect in the expectation formation process and thus to production and investment decisions and economic activity. Thus, this study is the first to analyze the effects of crime and violence on business confidence and consequently, the first to explore the consequences of crime on the economy through the expectations channel.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Book part
Publication date: 31 December 2010

Suzana Pasternak and Lucia Maria Machado Bógus

The international literature on the impacts of globalization on large cities has insistently pointed to the increase in residential segregation. Three mechanisms have been…

Abstract

The international literature on the impacts of globalization on large cities has insistently pointed to the increase in residential segregation. Three mechanisms have been identified as the causes of this phenomenon: globalization, which by disseminating neoliberal ideas throughout the world, generated changes in the regulatory models and paradigms that guide urban policy; institutional reforms toward market liberalization and the property and housing market were undertaken in various countries; real estate prices became the central mechanism for distributing the population throughout the city, reinforcing income inequality as the determinant of urban spatial organization. At the same time, privatization exacerbated the growing inequality of access to the services and infrastructure that ensure urban well-being, especially with regard to quality. The wealthier areas, where those with greater purchasing power concentrate, have at their disposal an abundant supply of goods and services, whereas the areas populated by the poor are supplied with inferior goods and services. Further, globalization caused structural changes originating in the transformation of the productive base of the cities, creating trends toward social polarization. The social structure of the great metropolises is no longer represented by a pyramid, and is expressed instead by an hourglass where the middle positions narrow while the extremities widen. Simultaneously, there has been an increase in the distance between the average incomes of the higher and lower strata.

Details

Suburbanization in Global Society
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-348-5

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Book part
Publication date: 3 September 2021

Fábia Trentin, Claudia Corrêa de Almeida Moraes, Isabela de Fátima Fogaça and Carlos Alberto Lidizia Soares

Objectives: To analyze the tourism policies introduced in response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism at the national, state and local levels, considering…

Abstract

Objectives: To analyze the tourism policies introduced in response to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on tourism at the national, state and local levels, considering governmental functions and intergovernmental coordination.

Methodology: The methodology consisted of a review of the scientific literature on public policies, intergovernmental coordination and government functions, in addition to an empirical observation and analysis of norms and legal acts related to the combat against COVID-19 pandemic in four municipalities in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The municipalities of Armação dos Búzios, Paraty, Petrópolis and Rio de Janeiro were selected because of their economic dependence on tourism.

Main Results and Contributions: The most important contributions were the theoretical and methodological model of the analysis of government functions combined with the review of intergovernmental coordination.

Originality/Value: To study tourism policies in a time of pandemic, since government functions, when analyzed in a tourism-related context, were conducted in non-pandemic contexts.

Conclusions: Municipal horizontal coordination is highlighted since it has positively impacted the actions of control and flexibility of pandemic measures. It was further noted that the role of the guarantor government was different throughout the whole process.

Limitations: As the study is ongoing and is part of an international project on tourism and pandemic, other data collection techniques will be included.

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Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Gabriel Caldas Montes and Gabriel Oliveira Lins

Due to the high levels of crime in Rio de Janeiro, the purpose of this paper is twofold. The first one is to analyze the effects of deterrence variables (such as the…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the high levels of crime in Rio de Janeiro, the purpose of this paper is twofold. The first one is to analyze the effects of deterrence variables (such as the adoption of Pacifying Police Units (UPPs) and incarcerations) on violence in the municipalities of the State of Rio de Janeiro, as well as to verify the existence of “revenge effect.” The second is to analyze the effects of socio-economic development on violence, using development indicators.

Design/methodology/approach

Besides usual OLS method for panel data analysis, the study makes use of dynamic panel data framework through D-GMM and S-GMM. The estimates are based on a sample of 82 municipalities of Rio de Janeiro, and the period runs from 2003 to 2013. As dependent variables, the estimates use violent deaths (i.e. aggregation of intentional homicides and armed robberies followed by death) and homicides resulting from opposition to police intervention (i.e. civilians killed as a result of police actions against criminals – “opposition deaths”).

Findings

The estimates indicate that incarceration presents marginal capacity to reduce violence. Regarding the findings for the adoption of UPPs, the evidence suggests that this project increased violence and, therefore, the possibility of displacement of violence to other regions of the State. With respect to the effect of police deaths over violence, the results are unprecedented and suggest the existence of a “revenge effect.” Besides, the study points to the importance of socio-economic development to reduce violence.

Originality/value

Once the study analyzes the effects of incarceration and UPPs, it contributes to the literature by providing new evidence on the ability of anti-crime policies of reducing (or not) violence. In addition, when considering the death of policemen in the estimates, the study shows an unprecedented way, the effect that these deaths cause over violence (the so-called “revenge effect”). Moreover, the study considers the impacts of the development of employment and income, health and education on violence. When analyzing these development indicators, the study contributes with the literature that looks for non-police alternatives to control crime.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 45 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 December 2019

Manoela Carrillo Valduga, Zélia Breda and Carlos Martins Costa

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended tourism destination (TD) image, by examining the categories of the image…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended tourism destination (TD) image, by examining the categories of the image, and whether it is positive or negative and cognitive or affective.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was employed to verify the relations between the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro by visit, location, categories and subcategories and dimensions. Data were collected online from a “snowball” sample and were analyzed applying non-parametric hypothesis testing. Statistical analysis was performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 25.0 for Windows.

Findings

Results reveal that respondents share the same image of the city of Rio de Janeiro and Brazil, a conclusion that is partially confirmed by statistical findings. The quantitative results also showed that the image is positive and “natural attractions” and “unique city attractions” are, respectively, the most mentioned subcategory and category. Cognitive attributes of the image have been more mentioned than affective ones.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the image of Brazil and Rio de Janeiro as a blended TD image has never been explored before, however, it has been assumed as being the same.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2019

Vitor Lima, Alessandra Baiocchi Antunes Corrêa, Marco Tulio Zanini, Luís Alexandre Grubits de Paula Pessôa and Hélio Arthur Reis Irigaray

The purpose of this paper is to identify how a city as a brand discursively conceives and articulates relevant meanings in order to build its identity.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify how a city as a brand discursively conceives and articulates relevant meanings in order to build its identity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study follows a discursive semiotic approach using content from the Visit.Rio website and posts from its Facebook page.

Findings

It was possible to organize the values and meanings that structure the Rio de Janeiro brand in the semiotic square. Narrative schemes that concretize the value proposition guided mainly by contemplation and experimentation situations were identified. The discursive construction of the Rio de Janeiro brand is primarily marked by the relation between nature and culture, where contrasting meanings are explored by the City Hall managers.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to the analysis of the enunciator (Rio de Janeiro brand managers) in their process of creating and articulating the city’s meanings. Future research could investigate the enunciate (public) perspective.

Practical implications

Managers should consider the discursive approach since it provides a more holistic perspective on the brand-building process. The findings may contribute to the understanding, selection and articulation of the correct meanings that should be communicated to the public in order to make the city a relevant and desirable place to visit.

Originality/value

This paper is based on the concept of a brand as a set of discourses grounded by meanings that are culturally conceived, which, thus, presents itself as a different approach from the traditional one, especially in research on place branding.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 37 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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