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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2022

Geetilaxmi Mohapatra, Rahul Arora and Arun Kumar Giri

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the role of population aging in determining the health care expenditure (HCE) in India over the period 1981 to 2018.

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the role of population aging in determining the health care expenditure (HCE) in India over the period 1981 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

While establishing the linkage between population aging and HCE, the study has used economic growth, urbanization and CO2 emissions as control variables and used the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach to cointegration and VECM based Granger causality approach to estimate both the long-run and short-run relationships among the variables.

Findings

The results of the ARDL bounds test showed that there is a stable and long-run relationship among the variables. The long-run and short-run coefficients reveal that population aging and income per capita exert a statistically significant and positive effect on per capita HCE in India. The VECM causality evidence shows that there is a presence of short-run causality from economic growth and population aging to per capita HCE, urbanization to environmental degradation and further from aging to urbanization. However, the long-run causality evidence confirms unidirectional causality from population aging to the per capita HCE.

Research limitations/implications

The research findings could be improved by considering the changes in mortality rate over time because of other environmental factors such as air pollution, among others as control variables. Various other variables affecting the health of an aged person could be considered for better research outcome which is not included in the present study because of the paucity of data. However, the present research findings would certainly serve effective policy instrument aiming at maximizing health gains that are highly associated with the elderly population and economic growth towards achieving sustainable development in India.

Originality/value

The uniqueness of the present study lies in its estimation where the relationship between population aging and HCE is looked at while considering the impact of other environmental factors separately. The causal relationship is shown among the variables using updated econometrics time-series techniques. The study tried to resolve the ambiguity associated with the relationship between aging and HCE at a macro level.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2018

Masud Chand

The countries that make up South Asia have young but rapidly aging populations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the challenges that this rapid aging

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Abstract

Purpose

The countries that make up South Asia have young but rapidly aging populations. The purpose of this paper is to investigate some of the challenges that this rapid aging creates for societies and organizations in South Asia. It also points out how, properly managed, aging populations can create multiple opportunities for societies and organizations alike.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses secondary data about the aging situation globally. It pays special attention to the demographic situation in South Asian countries and uses as examples policies dealing with aging populations in other countries that have gone through demographic transitions in the recent past.

Findings

Aging populations are bringing about numerous challenges in the region, including rising costs for pensions and healthcare, higher dependency ratios, and changing family dynamics. South Asia will enjoy a one-time demographic dividend. Policy makers and managers need to put the right policies in place to ensure that they take maximum advantage of this opportunity.

Research limitations/implications

The study is based on secondary data. It is a perspectives piece and does not provide an in-depth study of the specific issues raised.

Practical implications

The study details how organizations can best manage this transition. This includes planning for a multigenerational workforce, providing accommodations for older workers, and fostering mentoring, knowledge transfer, cross-training and mixed-age work teams.

Social implications

This study analyzes some of the social issues that arise because of aging populations, such as the challenge of creating pension and healthcare systems, dealing with a rising old age dependency ratio, and dealing with a gradual transition to single-family households.

Originality/value

This is one of the first studies that look at the coming demographic transition in South Asia, and details some of the challenges and opportunities that arise both in terms of policies and managerial implications.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 1 August 2017

Catherine Earl, Philip Taylor, Chris Roberts, Patrick Huynh and Simon Davis

Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the…

Abstract

Population ageing, coupled with economic uncertainty and a shifting workforce structure, has directed the attention of public and organizational policy makers toward the potential contribution of older workers and skilled migrants in meeting labor supply shortages in ageing populations. This chapter presents labor supply and demand scenarios for 10 OECD countries and examines trends in the labor force participation of older workers against the backdrop of changes to the nature of work in an era of globalization, casualization, and, increasingly, automation. Brief analysis of each country’s situation and policy responses indicates that China, Japan, and Korea stand out as being at particular risk of being unable to maintain growth without undertaking drastic action, although their areas of focus need to differ. A limitation of the study is that GDP projections used in labor demand analysis were based on historical rates and represented past potential and a long-run average of historic economic output. Future research might also undertake comparative analysis of case studies addressing different potential solutions to workforce ageing. A key implication of the study is that there is a need to take a blended approach to public policy regarding older workers in a changing labor market. Where migration has historically been a source of labor supplementation, this may become a less viable avenue over the near future. Future shortfalls in labor imply that economies will increasingly need to diversify their sources of workers in order to maintain economic growth. For public policy makers the challenge will be to overcome public antipathy to migration and longer working lives.

Details

Age Diversity in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-073-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2019

Hossein Vahidi Monfared and Alireza Moini

The last reformation in Iran’s population policy was announced inside “General Population Policy” (GPP) in 2013. One of the main objectives of the GPP is controlling…

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Abstract

Purpose

The last reformation in Iran’s population policy was announced inside “General Population Policy” (GPP) in 2013. One of the main objectives of the GPP is controlling population aging. The aim was to designing and evaluating different scenarios for achieving this objective.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, a system dynamics model was built from cohort age groups. The model simulated Iran’s population structure from 2000 to 2050. The system dynamics model was validated in 2000 till 2011 period (R2 = 94%). Data were extracted from the United Nations population division repository and represent a reducing trend in the fertility rate of Iran. This situation was named the “base” scenario. The simulation results for this scenario showed that Iran will face aging such that between 2000 and 2050 the median age will increase from 25 to 43 years. Based on these results, the base scenario could not achieve the GPP objective. So three alternative scenarios were designated: stabilization, increasing and hyper increasing.

Findings

The median age and the aging index are descending only in the hyper increasing scenario which means controlling aging. Therefore, the hyper increasing scenario is the only way to realize the GPP’s objective. To realize the hyper increasing scenario, it is essential to consider the total dependency ratio which shows the level of pressure on the workforce. Reducing this pressure increases the propensity to have more children (fertility index) and this is essential for maintaining high fertility rate.

Originality/value

The value of the research rests on a precise simulation model to forecast the population structure and aging. The research will serve as a guide for Iranian policymaker and support strong recommendations to bring the GPP along with supporting policies such as childbearing and child care assistance.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 48 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Jason L. Powell and Ian G. Cook

The aims of this paper are to summarise the rapid expansion in the proportion of the elderly across the globe and to highlight the main factors causing this. Specific…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this paper are to summarise the rapid expansion in the proportion of the elderly across the globe and to highlight the main factors causing this. Specific areas of the globe will be focused on in more detail before the authors discuss some of the key challenges and consequences of global ageing for global society.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a literature review of major trends and implications of population ageing across the globe.

Findings

As a consequence of the global demographics of ageing, societies are being confronted with profound issues relating to illness and health care, access to housing and economic resources including pension provision. We have witnessed an unprecedented stretching of the human life span. This ageing of the global population is without parallel in human history. If these demographic trends continue to escalate, by 2050 the number of older people globally will exceed the number of young for the first time since formal records began, raising questions of the power of the nation state in the context of global ageing and of the changing nature of the global society that is emerging.

Originality/value

This is an original paper that aims at reviewing the major population trends across the Americas, Asia, Europe and Africa. The implications of demographic change are grounded in context of global changes that highlight social, economic and political implications of global ageing.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 29 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 April 2013

Paul Alhassan Issahaku and Sheila Neysmith

The purpose of this paper is to discuss trends in demographic ageing in West Africa and asks the question of what policy challenges are posed by the increasing presence of…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to discuss trends in demographic ageing in West Africa and asks the question of what policy challenges are posed by the increasing presence of older persons in the subregion. We explore the unique dimensions of population ageing in the subregion, including its rural‐urban and gendered distributions, the occupational history of older persons, among others with the view to identifying the health, housing, and income security implications of ageing. The paper discovers and reviews what policy initiatives are being pursued in respect of older persons and suggests ways for their improvement.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the existing literature on ageing and policy in both published and grey sources, including national and international policy documents. The discussion looks at policy responses in Ghana as a case example for the West African context. Policy information pertaining to Ghana is interpreted in light of the first author's personal familiarity with the context as a national of that country. The age of adults in this context is hard to determine due to low birth registration. In this paper older persons are defined as those 60 plus in chronological years, the age of retirement in Ghana.

Findings

It is established that older persons are concentrated in the rural areas of West Africa and a higher proportion of this demographic group is female. Further, the majority of older persons in West Africa has low formal literacy, is in the informal economy, and has no income security in old age. Yet, older persons continue to play the significant role of grandparenting. This examination of Ghana's policy on ageing revealed inadequacies which need to be addressed. A key recommendation is a policy of universal non‐means‐tested old age security to provide basic income for persons aged 60 years and above.

Originality/value

A recommended policy of universal non‐means‐tested old age security to provide basic income for persons aged 60 years and above in Ghana is the original contribution of this paper.

Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown and Cyrus Ahalt

The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations.

Design/methodology/approach

An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform.

Findings

Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons.

Originality/value

Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age – and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person’s likelihood of repeat offense – is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 December 2015

Orla Collins and Joe Bogue

The purpose of this paper is to gather stakeholder tacit knowledge to design new product concepts with optimal product attributes for new health promoting food products…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to gather stakeholder tacit knowledge to design new product concepts with optimal product attributes for new health promoting food products for the ageing population.

Design/methodology/approach

This research employed a qualitative research method. A total of 16 in-depth interviews were carried out to identify key product design attributes. These attributes were used to design health promoting foods for the ageing population.

Findings

Age-related conditions affect and alter the design of health promoting foods targeted at the ageing population. Providing the ageing consumer segment with access to health promoting foods facilitates positive ageing intervention. The integration of affordability and convenience elements into ageing food design attributes is important for product acceptance. The multi-level demands and heterogeneity of ageing consumers result in the need for a variety of nutritionally tailored food formats. A dairy-based beverage was considered to be the optimal product concept for the ageing population.

Research limitations/implications

The inclusion of stakeholders from the food industry could result in levels of food industry bias. The sample size of stakeholders was limited to 16 participants. One interview guide was used throughout all interviews to ensure consistency levels. A more flexible instrument may have captured more specific stakeholder information.

Practical implications

During the early stages of the new product development process, a market-oriented research methodology can help to optimise product design in terms of product attributes that drive consumer acceptance.

Originality/value

This paper provides important insights into the significance of stakeholder tacit knowledge generation throughout the need identification stage of the NPD process. Specifically this paper provides stakeholder tacit knowledge on the optimal design of health promoting foods for the ageing population. This knowledge has the ability to provide market-oriented information on health promoting food concepts which can be valuable for food manufacturers to maximise NPD performance, create value and develop competitive advantage within their marketplace. Finally, design templates of health promoting foods for the ageing population are of high strategic importance to food manufacturers, governments, health professionals and medical professionals.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 April 2022

Simona Azzali, André Siew Yeong Yew, Caroline Wong and Taha Chaiechi

This paper explores ways in which Singapore adapts its planning policy and practices to meet the needs of its growing silver population, particularly the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores ways in which Singapore adapts its planning policy and practices to meet the needs of its growing silver population, particularly the relationship between ageing related policies and its urban development strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The research assesses Singapore's urban planning policies for the ageing population against the WHO framework for age-friendly cities using Kampung Admiralty (KA) (a pioneering project of integrated housing cum community for the ageing population) as a case study for the analysis. The methodology adopted includes a post-occupancy evaluation and a walking tour of the selected case study (Kampung Admiralty), and an analysis of Singapore's ageing policies in relation to urban planning governance.

Findings

The study examines the role and significance of a multi-agency collaborative governance structure in ageing planning policies with diverse stakeholders in the project. The evaluation carried out on KA reveals the challenges and opportunities in urbanisation planning for the ageing population. This paper concludes by emphasising the potential of multi-collaborative governance and policymaking in creating an inclusive, liveable built environment for the ageing population in Singapore, particularly but also potential implications for other ASEAN tropical cities.

Practical implications

The case study identified key issues in Singapore's urban planning for betterment in ageing and highlighted the requirement for enhancing urban planning strategies.

Originality/value

This article fulfils an identified need for the Singapore government to address the issue of ageing by providing affordable and silver-friendly housing to its ageing population.

Details

Archnet-IJAR: International Journal of Architectural Research, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-6862

Keywords

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