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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2002

Kate Fernie, William Kilbride, Pete McKinney and Julian Richards

The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is funded by JISC and AHRB to support research, learning and teaching with high quality and dependable digital resources. Since its…

Abstract

The Archaeology Data Service (ADS) is funded by JISC and AHRB to support research, learning and teaching with high quality and dependable digital resources. Since its foundation in 1996, the ADS has made available online a whole range of digital data sets that have been used within research and teaching. The diverse and growing catalogue of data sets includes the National Monuments Record of Scotland, back‐runs of the Council for British Archaeology Research Reports and the Archway Table of Contents and Journal Locator tools. It includes discrete but extensive archives from archaeological fieldwork and research.

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VINE, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-5728

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Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Maarten Lindeboom and Reyn van Ewijk

Prenatal exposure to adverse conditions is known to affect health throughout the life span. It has also been shown that health is unevenly distributed at advanced ages…

Abstract

Prenatal exposure to adverse conditions is known to affect health throughout the life span. It has also been shown that health is unevenly distributed at advanced ages. This chapter investigates whether health inequalities at old age may be partially caused by prenatal circumstances. We use a sample of people aged 71–91 from eight European countries and assess how shocks in GDP that occurred while the respondents were still in utero affect four important dimensions of later-life health: cognition, depression, functional limitations, and grip strength. We find that early-life macro-economic circumstances do not affect health at advanced ages, nor do they affect inequalities in health. In additional analyses, we show that the least healthy people may not enter our sample as the probability of dying before reaching age 71 is high, and mortality rates among those who were prenatally exposed to adverse GDP shocks are higher. We conclude that selective mortality may mask effects of early-life circumstances on health and health inequality at old age.

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Health and Inequality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-553-1

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2020

Igor Fedotenkov and Pavel Derkachev

The purpose of this paper is to explain relations between socioeconomic factors and gender longevity gap and to test a number of contradicting theories.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain relations between socioeconomic factors and gender longevity gap and to test a number of contradicting theories.

Design/methodology/approach

Fixed effects models are used for cross-country panel data analysis.

Findings

The authors show that in developed countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and European Union) a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women’s aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men’s unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. There is also some evidence that the effect of the share of women in parliaments has a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a four-year lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.

Research limitations/implications

Findings are valid only for developed countries.

Practical implications

The findings are important for policy discussions, such as designs of pension schemes, gender-based taxation, ecological, urban, health and labor policy.

Social implications

The factors that increase male and female longevities also reduce the gender longevity gap.

Originality/value

The results contradict to a number of studies for developing countries, which show that lower economic development and greater women discrimination result in a lower gender longevity gap.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-02-2019-0082

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2018

Stijn Baert, Ann-Sofie De Meyer, Yentl Moerman and Eddy Omey

The purpose of this paper is to study the association between firm size and hiring discrimination against women, ethnic minorities and older job candidates.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the association between firm size and hiring discrimination against women, ethnic minorities and older job candidates.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors merge field experimental measures on unequal treatment with firm-level data. The resulting data enable the authors to assess whether discrimination varies by indicators of firm size, keeping other firm characteristics constant.

Findings

In contrast with the theoretical expectations, the authors find no evidence for an association between firm size and hiring discrimination. On the other hand, the authors do find suggestive evidence for hiring discrimination being lower in respect of public or non-profit firms (compared to commercial firms).

Social implications

To effectively combat hiring discrimination, one needs to understand its driving factors. In other words, to design adequate policy actions, targeted to the right employers in the right way, one has to gain insight into when individuals are discriminated in particular, i.e. into the moderators of labour market discrimination. In this study, the authors focus on firm size as a moderator of hiring discrimination.

Originality/value

Former contributions investigated this association within the context of ethnic discrimination only and included hardly any controls for other firm-level drivers of discrimination. The authors are the first to study the heterogeneity in discrimination by firm size with respect to multiple discrimination grounds and control for additional firm characteristics.

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International Journal of Manpower, vol. 39 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2019

Masaya Yasuoka

An increase in life expectancy brings about an aging society, necessitating increasing demand for elderly care services. The purpose of this paper is to present an…

Abstract

Purpose

An increase in life expectancy brings about an aging society, necessitating increasing demand for elderly care services. The purpose of this paper is to present an examination of: how an aging society affects the demand for elderly care services and the labor market for elderly care services; how the labor share and wage inequality between the final goods sector and elderly care sector are determined; and whether the subsidy for elderly care service increases demand for elderly care services or not.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper sets the dynamics general equilibrium model with two sectors model: one for final goods sector and the other for elderly care services. This paper derives how the labor supply for elderly care services is determined in the theoretical model. In addition to analytical research works, this paper examines how the subsidy for elderly care service affects the labor share allocated for elderly care sector and wage inequality between the final goods sector and the elderly care sector with the numerical examples.

Findings

Related reports of the literature describe that an aging society raises the share of labor dedicated to elderly care services. However, considering a closed economy in which saving affects the capital stock, an aging society does not always raise the share of labor used for elderly care services because the wage rate of the final goods sector increases with an aging society. This effect prevents the increase of the labor supplied to elderly care services. On the other hand, the subsidy for the elderly care service raises the labor share of elderly care sector.

Research limitations/implications

The related literatures derive that an aging society raises the labor share allocated for elderly care sector. However, the paper shows that the subsidy for elderly care plays an important role in the increase in the labor share of elderly care sector.

Practical implications

This paper examines how the aging society affects the labor share of elderly care sector, wage inequality between final goods sector and elderly care sector and others with numerical examples. Thanks to the numerical examples, this paper derives the quantitative result and shows how the subsidy for elderly care service should be provided.

Originality/value

The author thinks that this paper has rich implications and originality. There exists no literature that examines how the labor share of elderly care sector and the relative wage rate of elderly care sector are determined by the aging and the subsidy for elderly care service. The author thinks that it is a very important analysis because many economically developed countries face the aging society problem.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 46 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

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Article
Publication date: 4 February 2019

Oliwia Komada, Pawel Strzelecki and Joanna Tyrowicz

The purpose of this paper is to isolate and evaluate the causal effect of the changes in eligibility criteria on labor force participation (LFP) and exit to retirement of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to isolate and evaluate the causal effect of the changes in eligibility criteria on labor force participation (LFP) and exit to retirement of the cohorts affected by the reform that canceled most of the early pensions in Poland in 2009. At the individual level the reform created a huge discontinuity in treatment of different generations.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors rely on Polish Labor Force Survey and employ regression discontinuity design to evaluate the change in participation subsequent to the eligibility reform among the treated cohorts.

Findings

The authors find a statistically significant, but economically small discontinuity at the timing of the reform. The placebo test shows no similar effects in earlier or later quarters. Yet, the pure treatment effects are insignificant in vast majority of the specifications.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations of the data used in the research. It does not cover total population and some panel attrition can be expected. Authors also needed to cope with the lack of required details in survey questions. The main limitation of the method lies in the measurement of the immediate (short-term) effects while in many cases people require more time that 1–2 quarters for the decision after policy change.

Practical implications

The reduction of outflows to retirement was much less pronounced than could have been expected, largely due to already relatively lower propensity to retire early.

Social implications

There are two main policy implications of the study. First, constraining the pension eligibility criteria for retirement are frequently opposed by social actors. It is often considered that early retirement is a privilege – awarded on a basis of occupation or even simply employment in an industry. In many countries – e.g. France, Italy, Germany – attempts to make the eligibility criteria more strict resulted in general strikes and Poland was no exception from this rule. If treatment effects of the large and radical eligibility reform are small in participation rates and pension take-up rates, then immediate fiscal effects are bound to be small as well, even if in the desirable direction. This may explain why – given the strong social resistance – in many countries eligibility reforms are delayed or narrowed in scope. Second, the economic rationale for strong social resistance to eligibility reforms builds on assuming either a relatively high valuation of leisure time after exiting the labor market or a relatively high subjective valuation of the unemployment risk after passing the early retirement age threshold. If leisure preference is overstated, reducing eligibility may be opposed as such, but eligibility alone is irrelevant for household decision making. Meanwhile, unemployment risk may be mitigated via alternative instruments, such as employment protection legislation, as is the case in Poland. Depending on a specific composition of the two factors in a given country, the effects of the eligibility reforms may be as high as in Switzerland or as low as in Poland.

Originality/value

First, the authors provide an analysis of discontinuities in transitions from activity to retirement, rather than focusing on the labor market status. The panel dimension of the data permits to observe directly the flows into retirement/inactivity, controlling for age and birth cohort. Second, the authors complement a pure discontinuity in cohort analysis with a fuzzy design, because in addition to age eligibility the authors also analyze the effects of changes in occupational eligibility. Third, the authors provide a benchmark for the estimates in the actual quarter of the reform by a series of placebo and conditional specifications. This allows to evaluate the (immediate) size and heterogeneity of the treatment effects. The authors find small effects of age eligibility reduction and effectively no effects of occupational eligibility. Hence, increased LFP of the elderly, observed even prior to the reform, seems to be driven by factors unrelated to early pension eligibility.

Details

International Journal of Manpower, vol. 40 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7720

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1993

Krishan Rana and Udayan Nandkeolyar

Describes a spreadsheet approach for implementing Wagner‐Whitin(WW) and Silver‐Meal (SM) methods for lotsizing time‐varying demands.Suggests that this approach manages the…

Abstract

Describes a spreadsheet approach for implementing Wagner‐Whitin (WW) and Silver‐Meal (SM) methods for lotsizing time‐varying demands. Suggests that this approach manages the computation and makes tedious and repetitive tasks more interesting; consequently, the student/user can concentrate on the concepts. Outlines the methods, which involve the computation of incremental costs (inventory carrying and replenishment costs) for several alternatives in each period. Presents a spreadsheet template to compute the incremental costs for possible alternatives which is created by using only a small number of spreadsheet formulae and a series of copy commands. The costs are displayed as a matrix. Describes a step‐by‐step procedure to determine the period and the quantity of replenishment.

Details

International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, vol. 23 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-0035

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Marcelo Leporati, Alfonso Jesús Torres Marin and Sergio Roses

The purpose of this paper is to study the case of Chile and identify the internal factors that lead to senior (+55 years old) entrepreneurship, either by necessity or…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the case of Chile and identify the internal factors that lead to senior (+55 years old) entrepreneurship, either by necessity or opportunity, compared to that in other age groups.

Design/methodology/approach

The analysis is based on the adult population survey of the global entrepreneurship monitor between 2012 and 2016 and uses a logistic regression model that applies different variables to total early-stage entrepreneurial activity by necessity and opportunity.

Findings

Education, human and social capital development, gender and prior experience as an entrepreneur are internal factors that affect entrepreneurial activity with different weights and directions for people over 55 years old in Chile, either by necessity or opportunity. Further, certain factors exhibited by other age groups in the country explain entrepreneurship.

Research limitations/implications

This study does not consider external perspectives on how context influences entrepreneurial intentions.

Practical implications

This paper represents a first step to understanding the factors that governments should consider when designing policies to support entrepreneurial activity in the senior demographic sector, considering differences in motivation by necessity or opportunity. In addition, this study contributes to the development of knowledge regarding senior entrepreneurship in Chile and to the identification of best practices that could be used in other regions.

Originality/value

This report is the first to focus on the motivations of senior entrepreneurs in Chile by quantifying the effects of different factors.

Details

European Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-534X

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Abstract

Details

Quantitative and Empirical Analysis of Nonlinear Dynamic Macromodels
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44452-122-4

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Book part
Publication date: 10 November 2014

Alan L. Gustman and Thomas L. Steinmeier

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction…

Abstract

This paper advances the specification and estimation of econometric models of retirement and saving in two earner families. The complications introduced by the interaction of retirement decisions by husbands and wives have led researchers to adopt a number of simplifications. Our analysis relaxes these restrictions. The model includes three labor market states, full-time work, partial retirement, and full retirement; reverse flows from states of lesser to greater work; an extended choice set created when spouses make independent retirement decisions; heterogeneity in time preference; varying taste parameters for full-time and part-time work; and the possibility of changes in preferences after retirement.

Details

Factors Affecting Worker Well-being: The Impact of Change in the Labor Market
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-150-3

Keywords

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