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Article
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Yongqi Feng and Tianshu Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the driving forces and structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea. This paper gives the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the driving forces and structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea. This paper gives the answers for the following questions: How do China’s final demands trigger the growth of its imports from Korea? And what’s the impact of China’s final demands on the import in different industries?

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the Multi-Regional Input-Output model and World Input-Output Table database, this paper constructs the non-competitive imports input-output (IO) table of China to Korea. According to this table, we can calculate the induced imports coefficient and comprehensive induced import coefficients of China’s four final demands for imports from Korea in the 56 industries in China.

Findings

Among the four driving forces, the strongest one is changes in inventories and valuables. The impact of final consumption expenditure and fixed capital formation is much lower than that of changes in inventories and valuables, but they have a broader impact for the 56 industries. This paper finds out the China’s import induction of the final demands to Korea peaked in 2005 and 2010 and decreased greatly in 2014, so the position of China as market provider for Korea will no longer rise substantially, contrarily it will be in a steady state.

Originality/value

First, this paper constructs the non-competitive IO table to analyze the market provider issues between two countries and provides practical ways and methods for studies on the issues of imports and market provider. Second, this paper investigates the different roles of four final demands on driving force of China as market provider for Korea and the structural changes of China as a market provider for Korea among 56 industries from 2000 to 2014.

Details

Journal of Korea Trade, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1229-828X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2020

Víctor Giménez, Diego Prior and Jorge R. Keith

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate the efficiency implications of belonging to a strategic hospital alliance (SHA) and measuring the effects over capacity utilization of such agreements in a Mexican healthcare context.

Design/methodology/approach

Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is the nonparametric methodology used, which supports both objectives. Technological gaps ratios are calculated by using DEA-metafrontier approach to compare efficiency between SHA members and a hospital’s control group. Also, hospital capacity utilization ratios are used as the maximum rate of output possible from fixed inputs in a frontier setting using directional distance functions. Data were collected from an alliance called Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales in México, which has 29 general private hospitals and a group of 47 hospitals with same characteristics from a database made by the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía for year 2014.

Findings

The results indicate that efficiency is better at hospitals that belong to an alliance; it also shows an improvement of installed capacity management for hospital alliances in México.

Originality/value

The results can be useful for both private health organization managers and regulators themselves to adopt management practices that may end up having a favorable impact on cost and prices containment. Additionally, there are no previous studies neither in Mexico nor in Latin America that analyze the impact of strategic hospitality alliances on the efficiency and utilization of the capacity of private hospitals.

Propósito

Este documento tiene como objetivo investigar las implicaciones de pertenecer a una alianza hospitalaria estratégica (AHE) en la eficiencia, así como cuantificar los efectos sobre la utilización de la capacidad de dichos acuerdos en el contexto mexicano de atención médica.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

El Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA) es la metodología no paramétrica utilizada para lograr ambos objetivos. Las brechas tecnológicas se estiman empleando meta-fronteras calculadas mediante modelos DEA, comparando la eficiencia entre los miembros de la AHE y un grupo de control de hospitales. El nivel de utilización de la capacidad hospitalaria se calcula, utilizando funciones direccionales de distancia, a partir del máximo output alcanzable a partir de la dotación de inputs fijos. Los datos fueron obtenidos de la alianza Consorcio Mexicano de Hospitales en México, integrada por 29 hospitales privados generales, y de un grupo de 47 hospitales con las mismas características obtenidos de una base de datos del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía para el año 2014.

Resultados

adosLos resultados indican que los niveles de eficiencia son superiores en los hospitales pertenecientes a la alianza, así como una mejor gestión de la capacidad instalada en la alianza hospitalaria en México.

Originalidad/valor

Los resultados pueden ser útiles tanto para los administradores de las organizaciones de salud privadas como para los reguladores, de forma que puedan adoptar prácticas de gestión con un impacto favorable en la contención de costos y precios. Asimismo, no existen estudios previos ni en México ni en América Latina que analicen el impacto de las alianzas estratégicas hospitalarias en la eficiencia y la utilización de la capacidad de los hospitales privados.

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1988

J. Joseph Cronin and Thomas J. Page

This article investigates the relative impact which marketing growth strategies have on profit performance as opposed to strategic debt utilisation, asset management, and…

Abstract

This article investigates the relative impact which marketing growth strategies have on profit performance as opposed to strategic debt utilisation, asset management, and margin management. A structural equation approach is used to assess which areas deserve the greatest attention in the process of making strategic decisions. Implications for management and future research are offered.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2013

Erik Schokkaert, Carine Van de Voorde, Brigitte Dormont, Marc Fleurbaey, Stéphane Luchini, Anne-Laure Samson and Clémence Thébaut

We compare two approaches to measuring inequity in the health distribution. The first is the concentration index. The second is the calculation of the inequality in an…

Abstract

We compare two approaches to measuring inequity in the health distribution. The first is the concentration index. The second is the calculation of the inequality in an overall measure of individual well-being, capturing both the income and health dimensions. We introduce the concept of equivalent income as a measure of well-being that respects preferences with respect to the trade-off between income and health, but is not subjectively welfarist since it does not rely on the direct measurement of happiness. Using data from a representative survey in France, we show that equivalent incomes can be measured using a contingent valuation method. We present counterfactual simulations to illustrate the different perspectives of the approaches with respect to distributive justice.

Article
Publication date: 21 July 2022

Alhassan Bunyaminu, Ibrahim Mohammed, Ibrahim Nandom Yakubu, Bashiru Shani and Abdul-Lateef Abukari

This study investigates the impact of total health expenditure on life expectancy in a panel of 43 African countries from 2000 to 2018.

Abstract

Purpose

This study investigates the impact of total health expenditure on life expectancy in a panel of 43 African countries from 2000 to 2018.

Design/methodology/approach

The dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation method developed by Arellano and Bond (1991) is used in this study. This approach generates estimates that are heteroskedasticity and autocorrelation consistent, as well as controls for unobserved time-invariant country-specific effects and eliminates any endogeneity in the panel model.

Findings

The results reveal that health expenditure on its own has a positive significant influence on life expectancy. However, health expenditure via the moderating effect of government effectiveness reduces life expectancy. The authors also observe that school enrollment and the level of economic activity significantly drive life expectancy.

Research limitations/implications

The study is limited to 43 out of 54 African countries, and it covers a period of 18 years: 2000 to 2018.

Practical implications

The authors argue that larger health expenditure will aid in improving the life expectancy rate in Africa. However, in practice, this would be difficult given the needs of other priority sectors.

Social implications

Since most developing countries' health expenditures are small, a policy option is that healthcare services should be subsidized such that the poorest people can also access them.

Originality/value

The study differs from the previous attempts, and with this, the authors contribute significantly to the literature. First, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the authors are unaware of any study considering the role of government effectiveness as a moderating factor in investigating the effect of health expenditure on life expectancy in the African context. Thus, the authors fill a yawning gap in the literature. Second, the authors employ a recent dataset with larger sample size. Finally, to address the problem of endogeneity and simultaneity bias, the authors use the system GMM technique.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 January 2021

Eddie C. Cheung and Yiu C. Ma

This chapter attempts to study the long-term determinants of public and private healthcare expenditure in Hong Kong, by employing time series data over the period from…

Abstract

This chapter attempts to study the long-term determinants of public and private healthcare expenditure in Hong Kong, by employing time series data over the period from 1990 to 2017. We find that income is not a determinant of either public or private spending per capita on healthcare services. Rather, a higher proportion of elderly will raise public expenditure on health and private spending even more. The share of children within the population will conversely decrease both public and private spending. Results also show that the rising density of doctors decreases both public and private per capita healthcare spending, showing that the supplier-induced demand problem is not an issue in Hong Kong.

Details

Modeling Economic Growth in Contemporary Hong Kong
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-937-3

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2022

Bamadev Mahapatra and Mohd Irfan

This study aims to examine the asymmetric effects of energy efficiency on employment in India. Instead of relying on partial factor energy efficiency measures, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the asymmetric effects of energy efficiency on employment in India. Instead of relying on partial factor energy efficiency measures, this study uses a total factor energy efficiency (TFE) measure to estimate sector-specific energy efficiency for empirical investigation.

Design/methodology/approach

Multi-sectoral panel data for India from 2000 to 2014 are considered for empirical estimation. The sector-specific energy efficiency estimates (using the TFE measure) are estimated in the initial stage using the stochastic frontier approach (SFA). Then the asymmetric effect of energy efficiency on employment is investigated by using a non-linear panel autoregressive distributed lag model.

Findings

The estimates of energy efficiency display that there is not much significant change in the trend of average energy efficiency over the period. The negative and statistically significant value of the error-correction term confirms the existence of asymmetric cointegrating relationship between energy efficiency and employment in India. Moreover, in the empirical findings, the positive and negative shocks in energy efficiency provide a long-run asymmetric and short-run symmetric effect on employment in India.

Originality/value

Rather than depending on the absolute measure of energy efficiency (energy to output ratio), this study estimates the sector-specific energy efficiency for India using panel SFA, which provides a relative measure of energy efficiency. Moreover, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first empirical study investigating the asymmetric impact of energy efficiency on employment at an aggregate level in developing countries like India. By contrast, previous studies have either concentrated on the symmetric effect of energy efficiency on employment or primarily restricted to developed countries.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 June 2021

Mehdi Barati and Hadiseh Fariditavana

The purpose of this study is to first assess how the US healthcare financing system is influenced by income variation. Then, it examines whether or not the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to first assess how the US healthcare financing system is influenced by income variation. Then, it examines whether or not the impact of income variation is asymmetric.

Design/methodology/approach

For the analyses of this paper, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model is implemented to a data set covering the period from 1960 to 2018.

Findings

The results provide evidence that major funding sources of aggregate healthcare expenditure (HCE) respond differently to changes in income. The results also imply that the effect of income is not always symmetric.

Originality/value

Many studies have attempted to identify the relationship between income and HCE. A common feature of past studies is that they have only focused on aggregate HCE, while one might be interested in knowing how major funders of aggregate HCE would be affected by changes in income. Another common feature of past studies is that they have assumed that the relationship between income and HCE is symmetric.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 49 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 October 2020

Mahieddine Adnan Ghecham

This study aims at increasing the authors’ understanding how and why the oil curse takes place.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims at increasing the authors’ understanding how and why the oil curse takes place.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses a structural equation model (SEM) and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) in order to underline the mechanism under which the oil curse operates.

Findings

The study shows that oil abundance could lead to inefficient resource allocation. This inefficiency is strongly correlated with a weak institutional setting which would lead to accumulated external debt and ultimately to poor economic performance.

Research limitations/implications

The quality of institutions and governance plays a major role in defining government success in allocating public resources efficiently. In a weak institutional setting, characterized with lack of accountability oil rents can promote rent-seeking behavior of public agents; a type of behavior that promotes misallocation and waste of resources. This in turn undermines public finances and leads to external debt accumulation. Debt per se is not necessarily a bad thing, but it has a turning point beyond which it can be a source of economy for countries (particularly countries with limited diversified source of revenue and inefficient public sector). It is to note that the authors work does not refute the positive impact that the increase in oil value has on economic growth (e.g. Nusair, 2016). However, it reminds policy makers that in order to sustain this impact over long term, it is necessary to build a strong institutional framework that prevents inefficient use of resource allocation as it could result in rapid accumulation of debt over short period of time. The adoption of sovereign wealth funds (SWFs) by a number of oil rich countries has helped them to manage adverse oil shocks. Nonetheless, the effectiveness of these funds could be limited in a country whose institutions are not very strong. Characterized by a mediocre institutional setting, Algeria's sovereign fund, for example, has lost 67% of its reserves over just two years (2014–2015) before reaching the level zero by February 2017 following the drop of oil prices in 2015 (see Central Bank of Algeria, 2017). Also, the foreign exchange reserves of the country experienced a drop of more than 72% over a short period of time (2014–2020), leading to the resurgence of the idea of contracting external debt. Similarly, following the sharp drop in oil prices in 2015, the Saudi Arabia's external debt (% of GDP) has jumped by more than 150% over three years only, reaching a level of 28.85% in 2020 compared to a 10.62% in 2015 (https://Fred.stlouisfed.org/series/SAUDGDPGDPPT). The positive correlation of weak institutions with inefficiency can lead to fiscal policy procyclicality. Inefficient public spending tends to be procyclical compared to productive public spending (Makin, 2014). This procyclicality is apparent in developing countries, particularly those characterized by corrupted and weak institutional environment (Alesina et al., 2008; Frankel et al., 2013). This is conducive to output fluctuations where booms and busts are exacerbated (Frankel et al., 2013).

Originality/value

Originality of the study resides in the idea that external debt is an important element that could help to explain why oil curse could take place. The transmission mechanism that underpins the oil curse hypothesis is yet to be fully understood. In doing so, the paper, with the use of two sophisticated statistical techniques, reconciles between the concept of debt overhang and oil curse hypothesis. Similar research efforts are scant.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 48 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 August 2020

Robert Elliott, Daniel Kopasker and Diane Skåtun

Distinguishing what employers in different areas of Great Britain need to pay to attract and retain labour has been a central component of public-sector resource…

Abstract

Purpose

Distinguishing what employers in different areas of Great Britain need to pay to attract and retain labour has been a central component of public-sector resource allocation decisions. This paper examines how changes in the pattern of spatial wage differentials following the global financial crisis have impacted on the formulae which allocate government funding to local government and health providers in the NHS.

Design/methodology/approach

Using employer-reported data on earnings, we examine spatial patterns of private-sector wages in Great Britain between 2007 and 2017. The method permits the analysis of finely defined geographical areas and controls for differences in industry and workforce composition to distinguish those differences that are attributable from unmeasured characteristics, such as differences between areas in the cost of living and amenities. These standardised spatial wage differentials (SSWDs) underpin the funding allocation formulae.

Findings

The analysis shows that since 2007 private-sector wage dispersion, both within and between regions, has reduced: lower paid areas have experienced a relative increase in wages and higher paid a relative decline. Over the period, there was a significant reduction in the London wage premium.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the importance of ensuring established policies are applied using contemporary data. The SSWDs used to distribute government funds have not been re-estimated for some time. As a result, the current resource allocation model has overcompensated the London region and undercompensated others during this period.

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