Search results

1 – 10 of over 1000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Abhishek Das and Gautam Sarkhel

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of various stoichiometric ratios for synthesised epoxy phenolic novolac (EPN) resins on their physicochemical

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of various stoichiometric ratios for synthesised epoxy phenolic novolac (EPN) resins on their physicochemical, thermomechanical and morphological properties.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, EPN (EPN-1, EPN-2, EPN-3, EPN-4 and EPN-5) resins were synthesised by varying five types of different stoichiometric ratios for phenol/formaldehyde along with the corresponding molar ratios for novolac/epichlorohydrin. Their different physicochemical properties of interest, thermomechanical properties as well as morphological properties were studied by means of cured samples with the variation of its stoichiometric ratios.

Findings

The average functionality and reactivity of EPN resin can be controlled by controlling epoxy equivalence as well as cross-linking density upon its curing as all of these factors are internally correlated with each other.

Research limitations/implications

Epoxy resins are characterised by a three-membered ring known as the epoxy or oxirane group. The capability of the epoxy ring to react with a variety of substrates imparts versatility to the resin. However, these resins have a major drawback of low toughness, and they are also very brittle, which limits their application in products that require high impact and fracture strength.

Practical implications

Epoxy resins have been widely used as high-performance adhesives and matrix resins for composites because of their outstanding mechanical and thermal properties. Because of their highly cross-linked structure, the epoxy resin disables segmental movement, making them hard, and it is also notch sensitive, having very low fracture energy.

Social implications

Epoxy resin is widely used in industry as protective coatings and for structural applications, such as laminates and composites, tooling, moulding, casting, bonding and adhesives.

Originality/value

Systematic study has been done for the first time, as no exact quantitative stoichiometric data for the synthesis of EPN resin were available on the changes of its different properties. Thus, an optimised stoichiometric composition for the synthesis of the EPN resin was found.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Masukuni Mori and Norihiro Inagaki

Low-temperature plasma treatment, which offers an alternative to the existing treatment using chlorine, has been drawing worldwide attention as an eco-friendly technology…

Abstract

Low-temperature plasma treatment, which offers an alternative to the existing treatment using chlorine, has been drawing worldwide attention as an eco-friendly technology for the anti-felting of wool. However, the reason why that plasma-treated wool does not shrink even after repeated aqueous laundry has still not been elucidated, though a number of related papers have been published. The aim of this study is to explore the reason by analyzing the surface of Ar-plasma treat wool using FT-IR and also XPS and by examining the changes of physicochemical properties of plasma-treated wool. It is suggested that intermediate cystine oxides(i.e., -S(O)-S- and -S(O)2-S- groups generated on the wool fiber surface) have a strong affinity with water. Subsequently, cohesive force is exerted between fiber surfaces and this results in a decrease of the flexibility of the individual fiber in assembly. Therefore, any entanglements between fibers are suppressed, and the felting is controlled. This is an important anti-felting property plasma treatment provided. In addition, carboxyl and sulphonic acid groups produced on the fiber surface play some part in the felting behavior of wool probably due to an increase in the hydration of the fiber surface.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Anna Modrzejewska‐Sikorska, Filip Ciesielczyk and Teofil Jesionowski

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on the reaction of precipitation from water solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate.

Design/methodology/approach

Solutions of sodium silicate and copper nitrate were used as substrates. The effects of direction of substrate supply, concentration, excess of reagents and temperature of precipitation on the physicochemical properties of the products were analysed.

Findings

A new method of synthesis of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite based on a precipitation reaction is proposed.

Research limitations/implications

Only sodium silicate and copper nitrate solutions were used.

Practical implications

The CuO · SiO2 oxide composite obtained can be used as blue pigment or polymer filler.

Originality/value

The paper determines optimum conditions of CuO · SiO2 oxide composite precipitation to obtain products with desired physicochemical, dispersive and structural properties.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

S. Talukder, S.K. Mendiratta, Arvind Soni, Tarun Pal Singh, Lalchamliani Chhangte, R.R. Kumar, Meena Goswami, O. P. Malav and Irshad A

The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of formulation, quality characterization and acceptability of rice flour- and black gram flour-incorporated mutton…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of formulation, quality characterization and acceptability of rice flour- and black gram flour-incorporated mutton snack among consumers. Cereal-based snacks, which have very less nutritional value, are highly popular among Indian consumers. Malnutrition and protein deficiencies can be overcome by supplying nutrient-dense meat-incorporated cereal-based snacks to them. On this background, it was planned to incorporate easily available sheep meat to popular snack to improve the nutritional quality, acceptability and functionality of traditional snack.

Design/methodology/approach

Mutton-based snack formulation was standardized; rice flour (Treatment-I [T-I]), black gram flour (Treatment-II [T-II]) and their combination (Treatment-III [T-III]) were used along with lean meat for the preparation of mutton snack. Microwaving and frying process of cooking was applied, and various physicochemical and sensory properties of both raw and cooked snack were evaluated.

Findings

Emulsion stability and expansion percentage increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all treatment products in both cooking process except in T-III. Significant (p < 0.05) decrease in protein percentage and increase in fat percentage has been recorded in all treatments and cooking process in comparison to control. The overall acceptability scores increased significantly in all the treatments except T-III in comparison to control. On the basis of physicochemical and sensory attributes the microwaved black gram flour-added mutton snack (T-II) was adjudged as most acceptable and was stored for a period of 45 days at ambient temperature. It was concluded that optimized product could be stored at room temperature in LDPE pouches for 45 days without marked deterioration in quality on the basis of evaluations of physicochemical (pH and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances value) and microbiological parameters (total plate count, coliform count and yeast and mould count).

Research limitations/implications

Future research may benefit from attempting to modify shelf life of the snack in room temperature by modifying storage and packaging condition.

Originality/value

Although incorporation of meat in cereal-based traditional snack and the effect on its quality characteristics have been extensively examined, limited research has focused on this aspect. Additionally, limited qualitative research has examined the storage characteristics of meat-incorporated snack at room temperature in eating quality context.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 5 January 2015

Silvia Marina González-Herrera, Raul Rodriguez Herrera, Mercedes Guadalupe López, Olga Miriam Rutiaga, Cristobal Noe Aguilar, Juan Carlos Contreras Esquivel and Luz Araceli Ochoa Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to explore the variety of food in which it has been applied as a prebiotic and functional ingredient, the concentrations used there in, the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the variety of food in which it has been applied as a prebiotic and functional ingredient, the concentrations used there in, the tests that have been conducted on these fortified foods and briefly reviews the history and characteristics of inulin.

Design/methodology/approach

The review included articles from 1999-2013. The papers which reported inulin concentrations used, the purpose of the application and tests on final product, were mainly selected. Articles were collected in electronic databases such as Elsevier-Science Direct, Emerald, Springer Link, Wiley and Redalyc.

Findings

The interaction inulin-food with different food matrices is complex, and is not always technologically favorable for the product. Moreover, additional to evaluations of sensory, physicochemical and rheological characteristics, it is essential to carry out measurements in the food, of such characteristics as prebiotic content, and prebiotic activity in vivo and in vitro, and assess potential adverse reactions in order to define suitable doses of consumption.

Originality/value

The paper highlights the importance of conducting in vitro and in vivo testing of potential prebiotic inulin-supplemented food in order to define dose that benefit health and do not cause unacceptable gastrointestinal distress.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 117 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Daiane Costa dos Santos, Josemar Gonçalves de Oliveira Filho, Jhessika de Santana Silva, Milena Figueiredo de Sousa, Marcio da Silva Vilela, Marco Antonio Pereira da Silva, Ailton Cesar Lemes and Mariana Buranelo Egea

Okara, which is the residue of hydrosoluble extract from soybean obtained after soymilk and tofu production, has high nutritional value and can be used for ingredient in…

Abstract

Purpose

Okara, which is the residue of hydrosoluble extract from soybean obtained after soymilk and tofu production, has high nutritional value and can be used for ingredient in specific food products. This study aims to evaluate the production and properties (physicochemical, microscopical and functional ones) of okara flour (OF) obtained from okara as a by-product of soymilk and tofu production.

Design/methodology/approach

Wet okara resulted from the soymilk process underwent convective drying up to reach mass stability (60°C for 12 h). OF properties were analyzed by official methods by AOAC, i.e. mineral composition was evaluated by atomic absorption equipment; color; water absorption index (WAI); milk absorption index (MAI); oil absorption capacity (OAC); and foam capacity (FC) required mixtures with water, milk and oil, separation and gravimetry, respectively; and microstructure was determined by a scanning electron microscope.

Findings

Results showed the potential OF has as a source of protein (24.74 g/100 g) and dietary fiber (58.27 g/100 g). Regarding its color after the drying process, OF was markedly yellow (b* parameter 20.16). Its WAI was 3.62 g/g, MAI was 4.33 g/g, OAC was 3.68 g/g and FC was 1.32 per cent. The microscopic analysis of OF showed that both loose and agglomerated particles had irregular structures and indefinite forms.

Originality/value

Production of flour from wet okara can be an alternative use of this by-product. This study showed important characteristics of OF and its possible application to the food industry. Thus, OF was shown as a potential ingredient with high nutritional value.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2004

A. Andrzejewska, A. Krysztafkiewicz and T. Jesionowski

Studies were carried out on the modification of silica with 3‐aminopropyltriethoxysilane in various solvents. The modified silica obtained was subjected to comprehensive…

Abstract

Studies were carried out on the modification of silica with 3‐aminopropyltriethoxysilane in various solvents. The modified silica obtained was subjected to comprehensive evaluations of physicochemical properties, including the bulk density and the capacities to absorb water, dibutyl phthalate and paraffin oil. Particle size, particle size distribution, uniformity of the particles, tendency to form agglomerates, as well as particle surface morphology, were also examined using SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The properties of the modified silica obtained were compared to evaluate the effects of the solvents used during the surface modification of the silica.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to develop plant-based babassu milk flavored with grape fruit (GF).

Design/methodology/approach

A four mixed beverages formulations containing 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% GF were produced. The pH, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS), sugar: acid ratio and color analysis were performed. Sensory evaluation was measured by the hedonic scale, just-about-right (JAR) scale and purchase intent. Moreover, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) form was applied to obtain description data on the formulations.

Findings

The pH values of mixed beverages decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of GF increased, while the TA and the SS increased (p < 0.05). The GF addition provided the product with greater opaque and redness. Sensory evaluation revealed good consumer acceptance. For the hedonic scale, 35% and 45% GF contributed to the higher acceptance of color, appearance, flavor and overall liking attributes. For JAR data, the flavor grape term was highest in the JAR region (51%) with 45% GF. Based on the frequency of terms cited by consumers in the CATA test, the treatment with 15% GF was described by babassu flavor, strange and low astringency terms. For purchase intent, most consumers would buy the product with 35% and 45% GF.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that babassu, an almond little used industrially, is an alternate to plant-based milk. The higher sensory acceptance occurs when 45% GF is used for its flavoring. The CATA indicated that ideal sweetness, striking, acid and ideal grape flavor described the better beverage.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Satish Chandra Kushwaha and Pradyuman Kumar

The purpose of this study is to look at the application of ellagitannin (ET) powder in sharbet (sugar syrup-based drink) as an additive to produce a polyphenol-enriched…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to look at the application of ellagitannin (ET) powder in sharbet (sugar syrup-based drink) as an additive to produce a polyphenol-enriched drink. ETs are important polyphenols extracted from pomegranate peel (an underutilized juice industry waste). ETs are known for many functional properties such as antioxidative, antibacterial and coloring agent. Naturally, sharbet lacks in polyphenol content; hence, there is a large scope to enhance the functional property of sharbet by addition of ellagitannin powder (ETP) as an additive.

Design/methodology/approach

ETP at different concentrations (2, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/100 ml sharbet) was applied in plain sharbet (EPS) and lemon-flavored sharbet (ELS). Each concentration of both types of sharbet was analyzed for physicochemical parameters and sensory attributes by sensory panel. Data were analyzed by using statistical tools (t-test, ANOVA, PCA and graphs) and finding the acceptability of ETP application in sharbet.

Findings

Each concentration of both sharbets was analyzed for chemical attributes, i.e. color (L, a, b) ranges (65.81-51.33, −0.24-0.24, −1.57-2.06, respectively), pH (6.30-3.95), titrable acidity as citric acid (0.01-0.1 per cent), total soluble solids (14.7-14.9 per cent), antioxidant activity as DPPH (12.6-71.6 per cent in EPS and 15.5-75.3 per cent in ELS) and sensory analysis (on Hedonic Scale) for sensory attributes, i.e. color, odor, taste and overall acceptability by a sensory panel (n = 24) of food technologists. Principal component analysis and sensory evaluation score have revealed that sharbet-flavored with lemon extract was liked more in comparison to plain sharbet. ELS containing 30 and 40 mg ETP per 100 ml sharbet was showed to have the highest acceptability index (92.13 and 91.67 per cent) in terms of overall acceptability by sensory panel. It is evident that the addition of ET in polyphenol-deficient beverages could be a market potential toward production of neutraceutical beverages which have antioxidative effects, good taste and are widely accepted.

Originality/value

In view of the neutraceutical food development, ETs could be a major polyphenolic component to fulfill the human health requirement. This research can be helpful for commercialization of ETs by the beverage industry.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Michał Halagarda

Due to fast changes in consumer demands and expectations, developing and introducing new products have become a necessity for the food companies in order to survive on the…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to fast changes in consumer demands and expectations, developing and introducing new products have become a necessity for the food companies in order to survive on the competitive market. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of decomposition analysis in combination with consumer research in the new food product development process.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey concerning nutritional habits of consumers based on 339 respondents and an analysis of the sensory and nutritional properties of products available on the market have been performed.

Findings

It has been indicated that owing to the proposed research methods, a niche in the market can be found. It was found that products currently available on the market do not fully fulfil the essential nutritional and/or sensory criteria.

Practical implications

The set of methods used in the study provides a valuable input into the new food product development process. The results of the research show that a company that will deliver a low-caloric bakery savoury snack of high nutritional quality and successfully present its properties to customers may gain a competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The topic is relatively new. Other studies focus on complex methods, whereas this research investigates the usefulness of a set of simple but effective tools that can be used in the new food product development process.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 119 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 1000