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Beverage made from babassu nut kernels and grape fruit: physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance

Euzedith Sousa Silva (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)
Gislane Romano Mendonça (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)
Rodrigo Anacleto Pinto (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)
Tatiana de Oliveira Lemos (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)
Virgínia Kelly Gonçalves Abreu (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)
Ana Lúcia Fernandes Pereira (Federal University of Maranhao, Imperatriz, Brazil)

British Food Journal

ISSN: 0007-070X

Article publication date: 26 January 2021

Issue publication date: 28 June 2021




The purpose of this study was to develop plant-based babassu milk flavored with grape fruit (GF).


A four mixed beverages formulations containing 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% GF were produced. The pH, titratable acidity (TA), soluble solids (SS), sugar: acid ratio and color analysis were performed. Sensory evaluation was measured by the hedonic scale, just-about-right (JAR) scale and purchase intent. Moreover, a check-all-that-apply (CATA) form was applied to obtain description data on the formulations.


The pH values of mixed beverages decreased (p < 0.05) when the concentration of GF increased, while the TA and the SS increased (p < 0.05). The GF addition provided the product with greater opaque and redness. Sensory evaluation revealed good consumer acceptance. For the hedonic scale, 35% and 45% GF contributed to the higher acceptance of color, appearance, flavor and overall liking attributes. For JAR data, the flavor grape term was highest in the JAR region (51%) with 45% GF. Based on the frequency of terms cited by consumers in the CATA test, the treatment with 15% GF was described by babassu flavor, strange and low astringency terms. For purchase intent, most consumers would buy the product with 35% and 45% GF.


This study demonstrates that babassu, an almond little used industrially, is an alternate to plant-based milk. The higher sensory acceptance occurs when 45% GF is used for its flavoring. The CATA indicated that ideal sweetness, striking, acid and ideal grape flavor described the better beverage.



This research was supported by the National Institute of Tropical Fruits (INCT-FT [303791/2016-0]), the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq [486745/2013-9]), Technological Development of Maranhão (FAPEMA [1208/17]) and Coordination of Improvement of Higher Education Personnel – Brazil (CAPES, Financial Code 001) with the financial support and scholarships.Conflicts of interest: The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest in the publication of the manuscript.


Silva, E.S., Mendonça, G.R., Pinto, R.A., Lemos, T.d.O., Abreu, V.K.G. and Pereira, A.L.F. (2021), "Beverage made from babassu nut kernels and grape fruit: physicochemical properties and sensory acceptance", British Food Journal, Vol. 123 No. 6, pp. 2139-2151.



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