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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2020

Eugene Cheng-Xi Aw and Lauren I. Labrecque

As celebrity endorsements have extended from traditional media to social media, the role of celebrities has been amplified and celebrities have been able to establish…

Abstract

Purpose

As celebrity endorsements have extended from traditional media to social media, the role of celebrities has been amplified and celebrities have been able to establish unprecedentedly close relationships through interacting with consumers. This study, grounded in the theory of parasocial interactions and celebrity endorsement, aims to propose a framework of antecedents and outcomes of parasocial interactions with celebrities on social media.

Design/methodology/approach

Using an experimental survey-based approach, this study collected 270 usable responses, and data were analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling.

Findings

The study found that parasocial interactions fully mediate the relationship between social media interaction and celebrity attachment, celebrity attachment influences purchase intention directly and indirectly through both cognitive (brand credibility) and affective (brand attractiveness) elements, the need to belong moderates the relationship between social media interaction and parasocial interactions and the need to belong moderates the relationship between celebrity attachment and brand attractiveness. An exploratory analysis uncovers whether different types of social platforms may be more conducive to establishing parasocial interactions.

Originality/value

This study explores the mechanisms by which celebrity interactions on social media can impact the brands they endorse and the role that parasocial interactions and the need to belong play in these interactions and outcomes.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Yue Ding and Lingyun Qiu

Celebrity endorsement on microblogging platforms (such as Twitter or Weibo) has become a widely adopted marketing practice. Compared to its counterpart on traditional mass…

Abstract

Purpose

Celebrity endorsement on microblogging platforms (such as Twitter or Weibo) has become a widely adopted marketing practice. Compared to its counterpart on traditional mass media, celebrity endorsement on microblogging platforms has some unique characteristics. For example, the endorsement information is usually more implicit and the endorsers tend to use different tactics so as to maximize the impact on their followers. However, these new practices have not been thoroughly investigated and the underlying mechanism by which the endorsers influence potential information receivers is not well understood. Anchored on the theory of parasocial interaction borrowed from the mass communication literature, this paper aims to reveal the underlying mechanism of celebrity endorsement on microblogging platforms. More specifically, it examines the relationship between the intensity of microbloggers’ various celebrity-following activities and endorsement effectiveness.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors designed and conducted a Web-based survey containing scales for all focal constructs and demographic and control variables. Through online and offline campus advertisement, undergraduate and graduates students who have used microblogging for at least three months were recruited.

Findings

First of all, the survey results show that the intensity of users’ celebrity-following activities on microblogging platforms has a positive effect on the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement. Second, the positive effect of the intensity of microbloggers’ celebrity-following activities on the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement is mediated by the perceived parasocial interaction with the endorsers.

Research limitations/implications

Firstly, most respondents of the survey are university students. Second, because of the intrinsic disadvantage of the survey method, the causal relationship between constructs cannot be examined directly. Last, parasocial interaction/relationship is a complex theoretical construct whose influence is unveiled partially in this research.

Practical implications

First, this study found that the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement on microblogging platforms are largely affected by celebrity-followers’ online involvement. Second, this study revealed that celebrity-following activities that help enhance followers’ perceptions of parasocial interactions are particularly beneficial for endorsement effectiveness. Last, the exploratory analysis further revealed that followers’ perceptions of ingenuousness and companionship are two key sub-dimensions of parasocial interaction.

Originality/value

First, the authors verified the positive relationship between information receiver’s involvement and the effectiveness of celebrity endorsement in the context of microblogging platforms. Second, this study found that parasocial interaction fully mediates the relationship between celebrity-following intensity and endorsement effectiveness. Last, through an exploratory factor analysis, the authors further decomposed the construct of parasocial interaction into three sub-dimensions, namely, ingenuousness, empathy and companionship.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2021

Yunying Zhong, Valeriya Shapoval and James Busser

This study aims to apply parasocial relationship theory to understand the hospitality brand-consumer relationship on social media. Aiming to examine brand-initiated…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to apply parasocial relationship theory to understand the hospitality brand-consumer relationship on social media. Aiming to examine brand-initiated mechanisms that drive relationship development, the study identified two sets of brand actions as antecedents, namely, content-related (utilitarian and hedonic benefits) and interaction-related factors (perceived interactivity and openness). This study also investigated the subsequent impacts of parasocial relationships on customer engagement behaviors and brand loyalty. As baby boomers are an important but understudied consumer cohort in social media marketing, this study empirically tested the proposed model for this specific group.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted electronically with baby boomer consumers from the USA. The partial least squares analysis was used to test the model validity for this consumer group.

Findings

The results of this study showed that content-related factors had significant effects on the parasocial relationship, which, in turn, significantly influenced customer engagement and brand loyalty.

Research limitations/implications

This study responds to the recent calls from scholars on developing and expanding a nomological network of parasocial relationships to understand consumer-brand relationships in social media. By focusing on baby boomers, this study adds unique insights on understanding online relationships and engagement, specifically for this cohort. Future studies should expand the study by examining other generations, platform differences or using longitudinal methods.

Practical implications

This study informs hospitality marketers in the development and implementation of a successful Facebook relationship building campaign targeting baby boomers.

Originality/value

According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study known to have developed a coherent parasocial relationship model that combined content-related benefits, interaction-related factors, online engagement and brand loyalty. It also represents one of the few to examine how hospitality brands can build a parasocial relationship with baby boomers, an important but cohort, on social media and provide actionable insights to hospitality marketers for this generation.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2020

Abaid Ullah Zafar, Jiangnan Qiu and Mohsin Shahzad

Growing evidence asserts that individuals are inclined to buy impulsively in the social commerce environment due to interactive elements. However, extant literature does…

Abstract

Purpose

Growing evidence asserts that individuals are inclined to buy impulsively in the social commerce environment due to interactive elements. However, extant literature does not reveal the influence of emerging digital celebrities and their communities on impulse buying, although users may encounter them synchronously. Hence, this study explores the impact of parasocial relationships and social climate on impulse buying following the stimulus–organism–response framework with the incorporation of the urge to buy. Besides, this research investigates the role of hedonic and utility gratification-seeking behavior in parasocial relationships following uses and gratifications theory (UGT).

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical research study was conducted on Facebook, and data were collected from Pakistani users who followed digital celebrities. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) approach was employed to analyze the valid data of 231 respondents.

Findings

The results indicate that integrated constructs significantly influence impulse buying with complementary partial mediation of urge to buy. Besides, social climate significantly interacts the relationship of parasocial relationships and impulse buying. Further, passing time, enjoyment and information seeking has a significant impact on parasocial relationships, except for self-presentation.

Originality/value

This research provides key knowledge to comprehend the overall phenomenon of emerging digital celebrities through the integration of their parasocial relationships and the social climate of their communities, with potential intervening and interaction effects. This study also unveils the role of gratifications in building digital celebrities' parasocial relationships.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Jihye Park and Sharron J. Lennon

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of psychological traits and shopping environmental factors on impulse buying tendency via television shopping programs…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of psychological traits and shopping environmental factors on impulse buying tendency via television shopping programs and to reflect the inherent nature of the impulsive television shopping environment in the USA as well as the traditional retail channel.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 154 questionnaires were returned from multichannel customers who purchased apparel from television shopping programs and traditional retail stores.

Findings

Five causal relationships among impulse buying and interaction tendencies in both television and retail settings and TV shopping program browsing duration proposed in this study were confirmed through structural equation modeling.

Research limitations/implications

This study adds valuable empirical findings to the literature on the distribution channel relationship by examining buying behavior of multichannel customers as well as some theoretical implications for impulse buying‐related theories.

Originality/value

This study provides insights for customer impulse buying behavior in the multiple shopping environments.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 10 September 2018

David C. Giles

Abstract

Details

Twenty-First Century Celebrity: Fame In Digital Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-212-9

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Mujde Yuksel and Lauren I. Labrecque

This paper aims to focus its inquiries on the parasocial interactions (PSI) and relationships (PSR) consumers form with personae in online social media communities. The…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to focus its inquiries on the parasocial interactions (PSI) and relationships (PSR) consumers form with personae in online social media communities. The authors extend the marketing literature on parasocial interaction/relationship beyond brands by focusing on personal social media accounts (public student-athletes).

Design/methodology/approach

The authors adopt a grounded theory methodology (Glaser and Strauss, 2009) triangulating observational netnographic data (Kozinets, 2010) of 49 public student-athlete accounts on Twitter (34,500 tweets) with in-depth interviews. The findings emphasize that PSI/PSR occur not only from interactions with brands but also through personal accounts on social media platforms.

Findings

The investigation reveals that through such social media platforms, PSI/PSR influence consumers cognitively, affectively and behaviorally. In terms of cognition, the data suggest that PSI/PSR can influence opinion, interests, attention allocation and construction of relations, specifically through the availability of in-depth knowledge about the social media persona. Additionally, the research findings indicate that affect-laden messages from persona can alter emotion and mood, induce empathetic reactions and trigger inspiration, especially in relation to the shared interest of the online community of the social media account. Behaviorally, the findings suggest that personas’ messages can direct and inspire both online and offline actions through endorsed behavioral parasocial interactions.

Research limitations/implications

This research focused on one specific social media platform, Twitter. Twitter was specifically chosen, because it is a popular social media platform and allows non-reciprocal relationships. Although the authors feel that the findings would hold for other social media platforms, future research may be conducted to see if there are differences in PSI/PSR development on different types of networks. Additionally, the authors focused on a specific type of personal account, student-athletes. Future research may wish to extend beyond this population to other personal social media accounts, such as fashion bloggers, diy bloggers and others.

Originality/value

This research reveals that PSI/PSR can occur not only from interactions with brands but also through personal accounts on social media platforms. The findings give support for the value of brand spokespersons and brand ambassadors and suggest that brands should take careful consideration into who is chosen to represent the brand.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Timmy H. Tseng, Crystal T. Lee, Hsiao-Ting Huang and Wei Hao Yang

Due to fierce competition in the mobile retailing market, it is desirable to identify the success factors driving consumers to reuse a mobile shopping application. This…

Abstract

Purpose

Due to fierce competition in the mobile retailing market, it is desirable to identify the success factors driving consumers to reuse a mobile shopping application. This research intends to develop a model for mobile shopping app success by integrating an e-commerce systems success (ESS) model and sales promotion benefits and parasocial interaction literatures.

Design/methodology/approach

302 useable online questionnaires were obtained. The data analysis was conducted using the structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results indicate the validity of the ESS model in predicting consumers' reuse intention of mobile shopping apps where three quality dimensions of system, information and service facilitate both perceived value and user satisfaction, which in turn generates reuse intention. Furthermore, savings and entertainment denoting the utilitarian and hedonic sales promotion benefits have positive impact on perceived value but have no influence on satisfaction. Parasocial intention between consumers and sellers facilitates both value perception and satisfaction.

Originality/value

This research contributes to the mobile retailing literature by identifying the success factors driving consumers' continuance intention of mobile shopping apps. Theoretically, it validates and extends the ESS model in mobile shopping app context by identifying savings, entertainment and parasocial interaction as additional success factors. Based on the findings, two approaches are proposed to suggest mobile retailers design a successful mobile shopping app.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 5 April 2021

Kuan-Ju Chen and Jhih-Syuan Lin

Given the thriving attention paid to brand personification in marketing, this paper aims to delve into consumers’ psychological traits that may moderate the positive…

Abstract

Purpose

Given the thriving attention paid to brand personification in marketing, this paper aims to delve into consumers’ psychological traits that may moderate the positive anthropomorphic effects on brand outcomes specific to relationship marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

A theoretical model was proposed based on a review of the extant literature. Study 1 conducted an online survey and used confirmatory factor analysis to validate the constructs significantly correlated with anthropomorphic processing. Two follow-up studies (Study 2a and 2b) using experimental designs were performed to provide evidence substantiating the moderated mediation in the process.

Findings

Based on the results across the three studies, motivational, rather than cognitive, disposition significantly correlates with perceived anthropomorphism and brand relationship outcomes. Need for belonging serves as a sociality moderator in strengthening the mediating effects of perceived anthropomorphism on brand attachment and brand experience, respectively. Parasocial interaction serves as an effectance moderator in augmenting the mediating effects of perceived anthropomorphism on brand attachment.

Research limitations/implications

This research extends and contrasts the theoretical grounding for anthropomorphism as a set of situational consumer perceptions by integrating its boosting factors in social psychology with emerging brand constructs in marketing and consumer behavior research. More studies are encouraged to probe into the complex anthropomorphic phenomenon.

Practical implications

This research sheds light on marketers’ strategic management efforts in implementing brand personification to target a wide range of market segments with diverse psychological disposition.

Originality/value

Conceiving anthropomorphism as an in-process situational output in information processing, this research provides further understanding of the psychological traits that facilitate the construction of consumer-brand relationships through anthropomorphic perceptions in the context of brand personification.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 55 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 October 2018

Fedric Kujur and Saumya Singh

The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model of how content-related factors, social factors and perceptual factors influence consumer engagement in brand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to propose a theoretical model of how content-related factors, social factors and perceptual factors influence consumer engagement in brand social networking sites (SNSs) pages and further how consumer engagement behavior influences the customer–organization relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used an online and offline questionnaire to conduct empirical research and collected and analyzed data of 430 samples by using the structural equation modeling approach.

Findings

The result showed that all three factors, i.e. content-related factors, social factors and perceptual factors, had positive influence on consumer engagement. Further, the result also showed a positive influence of consumer engagement on the customer–organization relationship. Another important thing the study found was that social media users mostly engage in consuming the content and contributing.

Research limitations/implications

This study has considered one popular SNS: Facebook. As the usage purpose and features of different SNSs vary, the future research should be directed by taking other popular SNSs, such as Twitter and LinkedIn, to gain a broader insight of consumer engagement on other brand SNS pages. Further, the present study has stressed on the exploring the quality of customer–organization relationship as the major outcome of consumer engagement on brand SNS pages. Therefore, the future study should be directed toward measuring the relationship between consumer engagement and other important outcomes, such as brand advocacy behaviors, positive word-of-mouth behaviors and brand loyalty.

Practical implications

This paper suggests strategies for consumer engagement through SNSs, especially Facebook advertisements. First, the study has identified content-related factors, social factors and perceptual factors which will help the managers to set strategies for engaging new and prospective consumers on brand SNS pages. Second, it also describes how the online activities of consumers on brand SNS pages strengthen the relationship between customer and organizations. This conception will definitely help marketing managers to develop quality relationship with their existing and new customers.

Originality/value

The novelty of this study is that it attempts to explore the combined effect of content-related factors, social factors and perceptual factors on consumer engagement and also explores the nature and specific types of engagement behavior on brand SNS pages.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 42 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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