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Article
Publication date: 18 December 2020

Matheus Galdino, Pamela Wicker and Brian P. Soebbing

Although leadership succession is a popular area of study across different professional sports leagues, existing research has largely ignored South America despite…

Abstract

Purpose

Although leadership succession is a popular area of study across different professional sports leagues, existing research has largely ignored South America despite Brazilian football seeming to surpass the limits of coaching turnovers in comparison to any other league worldwide.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examines the causes and consequences of 594 head coach turnovers in the Brasileirão from 2003 to 2018. A comprehensive longitudinal dataset was compiled (n = 13,012) and a series of regression analysis evaluated the determinants of coaching replacements as well as their effect on team performance.

Findings

Statistical results revealed that coaching survival is significantly determined by a negative spell of three to four games, parallel competitions and performance expectations with three games in advance. Regarding performance outcomes, it takes seven games for a slight sign of improvement to be identified after a coach turnover, but no clear positive effects are recognized as an aftermath, supporting the ritual scapegoating theory.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that decision makers should consider the importance of a rational evaluation and the crucial component of time instead of judging coaches based on subjectivity and immediate results. Meanwhile, coaches should avoid voluntary turnovers, exercising priorities ahead of continental cups and sequences with few points accumulated.

Originality/value

This investigation discloses a valuable reference for coaches, sport managers and academic scholars interested in Brazilian football, as it extends knowledge development and theoretical understanding for a region that still lacks scientific evidence to back up its practical assumptions in sports.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Pamela Wicker, Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

Sport participation is not exclusively determined by individual socio‐demographic factors (micro level) since infrastructure factors such as the availability of sport…

Abstract

Purpose

Sport participation is not exclusively determined by individual socio‐demographic factors (micro level) since infrastructure factors such as the availability of sport facilities and sport programmes (macro level) can also play a role in this regard. The purpose of this paper is to provide evidence for these determinants of sport participation using multi‐level analyses.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey among the resident population in the city of Munich was carried out in 2008 (n=11,715). Furthermore, secondary data on the available sport infrastructure in every urban district of Munich (n=25) were collected. Multi‐level analyses were conducted to find the micro and macro level determinants of sport participation.

Findings

The results show that aside from micro level factors, the availability of swimming pools and parks is especially important for residents’ sport activity. Moreover, sport activity in non‐profit sport clubs can be enhanced by both a good supply of sport programmes offered by sport clubs as well as a poor supply of programmes from commercial sport providers and the municipality.

Research limitations/implications

Multi‐level analyses can be recommended for future research on sport participation. The use of GIS data would be fruitful in this regard.

Practical implications

It can be recommended that municipalities invest in the construction of swimming pools and parks.

Originality/value

The paper shows that multi‐level analyses are a relatively new method of analysis for research on sport participation and that they represent the most suitable approach for analysing multi‐level data.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Kirstin Hallmann and Pamela Wicker

Although participation in golf has increased in several countries and is associated with an evolving golf industry, research on golf and golf players is rather limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Although participation in golf has increased in several countries and is associated with an evolving golf industry, research on golf and golf players is rather limited. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the sport-related expenditure of golfers and diferences of heavy and light spenders.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data of golf players were collected in Germany using a written survey which resulted in a convenience sample of n=197 golfers.

Findings

The regression results indicate that the social motive, time for playing and training, handicap, age, and income have a significant impact on sport-related expenditure. There are several significant difference between heavy and light spenders based on psychological, behavioural, demographic, and resources variables.

Research limitations/implications

A convenience sample was drawn and the sample size with n=197 respondents could be improved. Nonetheless, the descriptive results revealed that the sample structure was similar to previous research with regard to socio-demographic variables.

Practical implications

Since the underlying motives of golfers vary immensely indicating a range of target groups, sport managers need to address each target group differently to fully exploit the marketing potential.

Originality/value

Expenditure of golfers seems to be under researched and the results reveal that the average sport-related expenditure of golfers confirms that golf can be an expensive sport and that golf players are willing to spend on average one monthly income on their sport over a 12-month period.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2016

Joachim Prinz and Pamela Wicker

– The aim of this study is to examine the effects of team diversity on team performance in the Tour de France.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to examine the effects of team diversity on team performance in the Tour de France.

Design/methodology/approach

Longitudinal data on teams participating in the Tour de France between 2004 and 2013 are used for the empirical analysis (n = 208). Team performance is captured with a standardized measure controlling for the number of riders arriving in Paris. Diversity is measured with the variation coefficient (continuous variables) and the Blau index (categorical variables). Regression analysis is used to analyze diversity effects on team performance.

Findings

The results show that diversity in terms of tenure significantly adds to team performance, while diversity in terms of skills (proxied by body mass index) decreases performance. Diversity in terms of age, nationality, language, previous Tour participations and stage wins has no significant effect on team performance. The more teammates arrive in Paris, the better the team’s performance.

Practical implications

The findings have implications for team managers and the composition of teams. Managers should employ riders who are heterogeneous regarding tenure and homogeneous regarding skills. While investing in the integration of riders of different nationalities or languages does not pay off, it can be recommended to select riders who are likely to arrive in Paris.

Originality/value

The present study adds to the literature by examining diversity in a variety of attributes including human capital, experience and success that are observable in sport.

Details

Team Performance Management, vol. 22 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2012

Kirstin Hallmann and Pamela Wicker

The purpose of this paper is to identify consumer profiles based on behaviour of runners at marathon races and to determine key drivers for their intention to revisit the marathon.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify consumer profiles based on behaviour of runners at marathon races and to determine key drivers for their intention to revisit the marathon.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants of three marathons in Germany (Cologne, Bonn, Hanover) were invited via e‐mail to take part in an online survey after the race (n=1,370). They were questioned about the trip to the city, the marathon event, and their socio‐demographics.

Findings

The cluster analysis revealed three clusters that are named holidayers, socialisers and marathoners. The results of the logistic regression analysis show that the intention to revisit is determined by the length of the trip, the daily spending in the city, and the satisfaction with the event.

Research limitations/implications

Non‐probability sampling represents a limitation of this study. Questions relating to the involvement and knowledge of running (first timer and repeat participant) could serve as valuable indicators to further differentiate between different types of runners.

Practical implications

It is suggested to offer special packages to the runners when they register for the race. One package could, for example, include the starting fee and two nights at a hotel. Moreover, the event organisers could offer more targeted side events such as athlete workshops on nutrition, training, and medical advice.

Originality/value

This paper offers an insight into different consumer profiles of marathon runners based on their behaviour and spending. Key indicators of the runner's intention to revisit the marathon are presented. This study contributes to close a research gap and allows marketers to better understand their consumers.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Joachim Prinz and Pamela Wicker

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of an athlete's body type, team characteristics, and pay on performance in the Tour de France (“the Tour”). Based on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effects of an athlete's body type, team characteristics, and pay on performance in the Tour de France (“the Tour”). Based on the concept of scaling and the concept of human capital, the paper aims to derive a set of hypotheses.

Design/methodology/approach

Secondary data were collected about all riders that finished the Tour in the years from 2002 to 2005 leading to a total number of n=600 observations. Random effects regression models are estimated with rank as the dependent variable.

Findings

The findings indicate that lighter riders perform better in the Tour than heavier cyclists. Better teammates were found to increase average riders' performances, whereas top riders did not benefit from top teammates. Experience (rider, teammates, coach) was a significant driver of performance.

Research limitations/implications

Team managers should pay attention to the composition of the team. Having only one strong team captain and several good coworkers was more effective than having several star riders (i.e. potential captains) in a team.

Practical implications

The findings with regard to team composition can be transferred to other sports and professions where teamwork plays an important role. Successful teams should consist of only one captain and several good coworkers.

Originality/value

The paper extends previous work on the determinants of performance in the Tour by using a longitudinal dataset that covers more variables than previous research.

Details

Team Performance Management: An International Journal, vol. 18 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7592

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Book part
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Clodagh G. Butler, Deirdre O’Shea and Donald M. Truxillo

Interest in psychological resilience has grown rapidly in the last couple of decades (Britt, Sinclair, & McFadden, 2016; King & Rothstein, 2010; Youssef & Luthans, 2007)…

Abstract

Interest in psychological resilience has grown rapidly in the last couple of decades (Britt, Sinclair, & McFadden, 2016; King & Rothstein, 2010; Youssef & Luthans, 2007). Psychological resilience occurs when a person can “recover, re-bound, bounce-back, adjust or even thrive” in the face of adversity (Garcia-Dia, DiNapoli, Garcia-Ona, Jakubowski, & O’flaherty, 2013, p. 264). As such, resilience can be conceptualized as a state-like and malleable construct that can be enhanced in response to stressful events (Kossek & Perrigino, 2016). It incorporates a dynamic process by which individuals use protective factors (internal and external) to positively adapt to stress over time (Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000; Rutter, 1987). Building on the dual-pathway model of resilience, we integrate adaptive and proactive coping to the resilience development process and add a heretofore unexamined perspective to the ways in which resilience changes over time. We propose that resilience development trajectories differ depending on the type of adversity or stress experienced in combination with the use of adaptive and proactive coping. We outline the need for future longitudinal studies to examine these relationships and the implications for developing resilience interventions in the workplace.

Details

Examining and Exploring the Shifting Nature of Occupational Stress and Well-Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80117-422-0

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Book part
Publication date: 14 December 2018

Michael Oshiro and Pamela Valera

This article examines how contact with the police led to the death of Michael Brown (an unarmed 18-year-old Black teenager from Ferguson, Missouri, who was shot and killed…

Abstract

This article examines how contact with the police led to the death of Michael Brown (an unarmed 18-year-old Black teenager from Ferguson, Missouri, who was shot and killed during an altercation with a police officer). And, how Darren Wilson (the White police officer from the Ferguson Police Department who shot and killed Michael Brown) was portrayed in mainstream newspaper articles covering the story of Brown’s death.

Using both frame analysis and Hall’s framework of discursive domains for organizing and making sense of events in social life, we analyzed news coverage of Brown in three of the top circulating daily newspapers in the US: The New York Times, Los Angeles Times, and The Washington Post. The Lexis Nexis database was used to retrieve a set of newspapers using the search term “Michael Brown.” Articles from the three leading newspapers were collected from the day the event occurred, August 9, 2014, through the end of the year, December 31, 2014.

The news articles used in this study were mostly written with an episodic frame. The articles presenting the socioeconomic background of Brown and Wilson were described as profiles on each individual and the neighborhood they came from, rather than a discussion about where they fell on the economic structure of this country and the larger, upstream forces that might influence those positions. The feelings and attitudes of the reader are also likely to be influenced by details included in the articles and how they were presented.

The findings contribute to the broader literature looking at the relationships between police and Black communities. Public health can play a role in advocating and facilitating programs that build better linkages between police and community. The public health field can take a leadership role in holding the news media accountable when they are engaging in frenetic inaction. Only by having difficult and challenging conversations that examines the upstream causes of violence and deaths like Brown’s, can we make progress in preventing them.

Details

Inequality, Crime, and Health Among African American Males
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-051-0

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1973

For most people, especially those with fixed incomes, household budgets have to be balanced and sometimes the balance is precarious. With price rises of foods, there is a…

Abstract

For most people, especially those with fixed incomes, household budgets have to be balanced and sometimes the balance is precarious. With price rises of foods, there is a switch to a cheaper substitute within the group, or if it is a food for which there is no real substitute, reduced purchases follow. The annual and quarterly reviews of the National Food Survey over the years have shown this to be so; with carcase meat, where one meat is highly priced, housewives switch to a cheaper joint, and this is mainly the reason for the great increase in consumption of poultry; when recently the price of butter rose sharply, there was a switch to margarine. NFS statistics did not show any lessening of consumer preference for butter, but in most households, with budgets on a tight string, margarine had to be used for many purposes for which butter had previously been used. With those foods which have no substitute, and bread (also milk) is a classic example, to keep the sum spent on the food each week about the same, the amount purchased is correspondingly reduced. Again, NFS statistics show this to be the case, a practice which has been responsible for the small annual reductions in the amount of bread consumed per person per week over the last fifteen years or so; very small, a matter of an ounce or two, but adequate to maintain the balance of price/quantity since price rises have been relatively small, if fairly frequent. This artifice to absorb small price rises will not work, however, when price rises follow on one another rapidly and together are large. Bread is a case in point.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 75 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 October 2018

Bettina C.K. Binder

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the success of the 50 EURO STOXX companies as measured by the earnings before taxes (EBT) and the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the success of the 50 EURO STOXX companies as measured by the earnings before taxes (EBT) and the percentage of female members on their supervisory boards.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper relies on data extracted from the annual reports of the 50 EURO STOXX companies in 2015 and from financial websites.

Findings

The paper provides the existence of a weak correlation between companies’ performance as measured by EBT and the percentage of women on supervisory boards.

Research limitations/implications

This study has two main limitations: first, a single key performance indicator was used to measure firms’ success; and second, the study offers insights related only to the year 2015. The analysis could be extended over a larger time span while some other variables could be considered in a more holistic approach.

Practical implications

The paper raises awareness that there is much to be done with regard to the presence of women on boards, and readers, investors and business owners gain an insight on the business environment and women active on European corporate boards.

Originality/value

By concentrating on the companies of the EURO STOXX 50 Index, the study offers a good image of the European business environment.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

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