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Article

WALTER H. GMELCH

Popular writers and academic researchers have added volumes of literature in the past decades to the study of occupational stress. Most data based studies have…

Abstract

Popular writers and academic researchers have added volumes of literature in the past decades to the study of occupational stress. Most data based studies have investigated the sources of stress while few have addressed how educators cope with their job pressures. Current research on coping provides a wide‐ranging assemblage of fragmented coping techniques or categories of coping that have been theorized but not tested. This study is advanced as a means of overcoming some of the previous shortcomings by: (1) identifying specific coping techniques helpful to educators in handling the tensions of their jobs; (2) clustering the reported techniques into interpretable coping categories; (3) assessing the number and frequencies of coping techniques used by educators; and (4) identifying similarities and differences in coping responses. The results of this study suggest a possible coping taxonomy from which educators could seek stress reduction through a balance of seven coping categories.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article

Bruce Kirkcaldy and Adrian Furnham

In a weekly managerial newspaper survey the abbreviated German version of the Occupational Stress Indicator’s Coping scale was completed anonymously by over 200 readers…

Abstract

In a weekly managerial newspaper survey the abbreviated German version of the Occupational Stress Indicator’s Coping scale was completed anonymously by over 200 readers. Of these we selected only those who were categorised as management (n = 160) in our study. The mean coping score for the full Coping scale was 36.98 (SD 8.65) with a split half reliability of 0.76 (total alpha = 0.84). Alpha coefficients for the two subscales were 0.85 and 0.58. There was no difference in coping profiles of men and women, but different levels of management and educational status did influence preference for coping styles. More specifically, as we progress to the more senior levels of management, delegation and maintaining stable relationships are considered the most useful forms of coping with stress. The more academically trained manager with a postgraduate degree is more likely to implement such coping methods as effective time‐management and planning ahead.

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Journal of Workplace Learning, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-5626

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Article

Hsiang-Lan Cheng, Tung-Ching Lin, Wee-Kheng Tan and Chao-Min Chiu

The purpose of this paper is to examine the complex relationships between permeability, work-family conflict, moral disengagement, behavioral disengagement, job strain and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the complex relationships between permeability, work-family conflict, moral disengagement, behavioral disengagement, job strain and job engagement. In addition, this study aims to determine whether moral disengagement acts as a moderator and mediator in the relationship between work-family conflict and behavioral disengagement.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors apply partial least squares structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses, using a sample of 176 valid responses.

Findings

The results indicate that permeability is likely to promote work-family conflict, which in turn may trigger moral disengagement. Moral disengagement may lead to behavioral disengagement, which in turn may increase job strain and decrease job engagement. The findings also show that work-family conflict does not have a significant effect on behavioral disengagement, suggesting that moral disengagement fully mediates the influence of work-family conflict on behavioral disengagement. In addition, the moderating effect of moral disengagement is not significant.

Originality/value

Applying the transactional model of stress and coping theory and the moral disengagement theory, this study contributes to a better understanding of employees' experience of job strain caused by work-family conflict (induced by permeability of IM usage), as well as the employee's coping response.

Details

Online Information Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1468-4527

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Article

Hyounae (Kelly) Min and Jeff Joireman

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine how customer race (Black vs White) influences the extent to which customers attribute an ambiguous service failure (i.e. subtle degradation of service) to discrimination and how perceived discrimination relates to customer anger and on-site coping behaviors (vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining and avoidance). This study further investigated how customer race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and these three coping behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

This study used a video-based simulation in which participants watched a subtle service failure from the customer’s viewpoint before completing a survey. A total of 421 participants – 210 Blacks and 211 Whites – were recruited through Qualtrics. Multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis was used to test hypotheses.

Findings

Compared with White customers, Black customers were more likely to attribute a service failure to discrimination and exhibited a stronger relationship between perceived discrimination and anger. In addition, increasing anger in White customers tended to lead to more active coping strategies (i.e. vindictive complaining, problem-solving complaining). For Black customers, increasing anger tended to lead to vindictive complaining at a similar level to White customers. However, the impact of anger on problem-solving complaining – known to be a more beneficial coping strategy – was stronger among White customers than among Black customers.

Practical implications

This study advances hospitality practitioners’ understanding of how customers respond on-site to a service failure that can be interpreted as discrimination. The varying effects of race on customer-coping behavior are also identified. In addition, this study offers practical advice to develop organizational strategies to dissuade customers from attributing service failure to discrimination and to respond effectively to customer-coping behaviors.

Originality/value

Complementing and extending past research documenting the prevalence and causes of racial discrimination in service settings, the present study advances prior work by developing and testing a comprehensive structural model linking race with coping responses via perceived discrimination and anger, and by exploring how race affects the strength of relationships among perceived discrimination, anger and coping strategies.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Book part

Thomas Köllen

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are…

Abstract

Every employee embodies manifestations of every demographic that attach to him or her different minority and majority statuses at the same time. As these statuses are often related to organizational hierarchies, employees frequently hold positions of dominance and subordination at the same time. Thus, a given individual’s coping strategies (or coping behavior) in terms of minority stress due to organizational processes of hierarchization, marginalization, and discrimination, are very often a simultaneous coping in terms of more than one demographic. Research on minority stress mostly focuses on single demographics representing only single facets of workforce diversity. By integrating the demographics of age, disability status, nationality, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, and religion into one framework, the intersectional model proposed in this chapter broadens the perspective on minorities and related minority stress in the workplace. It is shown that coping with minority stress because of one demographic must always be interpreted in relation to the other demographics. The manifestation of one demographic can limit or broaden one’s coping resources for coping with minority stress because of another dimension. Thus, the manifestation of one demographic can determine the coping opportunities and coping behavior one applies to situations because of the minority status of another demographic. This coping behavior can include disclosure decisions about invisible demographics. Therefore, organizational interventions aiming to create a supportive workplace environment and equal opportunities for every employee (e.g., diversity management approaches) should include more demographics instead of focusing only on few.

Details

The Role of Demographics in Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-646-0

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Book part

Marilyn V. Whitman and Kristen K. Shanine

The recent economic recession has led many organizations to downsize, or eliminate positions, in an effort to cut labor costs and improve profitability. Survivors may…

Abstract

The recent economic recession has led many organizations to downsize, or eliminate positions, in an effort to cut labor costs and improve profitability. Survivors may suddenly find themselves over-rewarded, or prematurely promoted, into one or more vacant positions. One negative consequence of over-reward in particular, impostor phenomenon, may present significant challenges at both the individual and organizational level. Thus, the purpose of this chapter is to examine the consequences and coping strategies of survivors who perceive themselves as over-rewarded and under-qualified for a job. Hobfoll's Conservation of Resources Theory (COR) serves as this study's framework to explicate the outcomes associated with impostor feelings and how impostors cope with their perceived inadequacy. Specifically, we propose that impostor feelings will be positively related to emotional exhaustion. To deal with the exhaustion, impostors may rely on coping strategies in order to master the additional internal and external demands created by feelings of impostorism. The type of strategy used by impostors to cope with the exhaustion is influenced by the level of perceived social support. That is, impostors who perceive higher levels of support will resort to active coping while those who perceive lower levels of support will resort to avoidant coping. Managerial implications and directions for future research are offered.

Details

The Role of the Economic Crisis on Occupational Stress and Well Being
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-005-5

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Book part

Henri Weijo and Jukka Rintamäki

The purpose of this study is to investigate how brand communities collectively react towards brand transgressions, an area where previous research has been scant.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate how brand communities collectively react towards brand transgressions, an area where previous research has been scant.

Methodology/approach

This study adopts a netnographic approach in studying the reactions of one particular brand community and its reactions to a marketer-initiated brand transgression.

Findings

Building on coping theory, we find evidence of brand community coping, a temporally bounded process in which the community seeks to come to terms with and even overturn the transgression. Overall, we define the brand community coping process as unfolding through three overlapping and temporally bounded stages of (1) making the problem communal, (2) exploring the problem’s meaning, and (3) co-creating responses.

Originality/value

Studies of consumer coping particularly in cases of brand transgressions have predominantly adopted an individualistic approach to coping, or have treated communities as coping resources for individual consumers. This study is the first study to truly look at brand communities’ collective coping endeavors. We also offer managerial implications by questioning the overtly positive tone of brand co-creation literature and underline potential threats to marketers when consumers decide to use their co-creative practices to punish the marketer.

Details

Consumer Culture Theory
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-158-9

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Book part

Cynthia A. Thompson, Steven A.Y. Poelmans, Tammy D. Allen and Jeanine K. Andreassi

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence regarding coping and work–family conflict. Limitations and gaps associated with the existing literature are…

Abstract

In this chapter, we review empirical research evidence regarding coping and work–family conflict. Limitations and gaps associated with the existing literature are discussed. Of special note is the finding that there is little systematic research that examines the process of coping with work–family conflict. Building on the general stress and coping literature, we present a theoretical model that is specifically focused on the process of coping with work–family conflict, and highlight presumed personal and situational antecedents. Finally, the chapter concludes with an agenda for future research.

Details

Exploring the Work and Non-Work Interface
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-7623-1444-7

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Book part

Pamela Braboy Jackson and Tiffani Saunders

This study explores the relationship between work stress, coping resources, and mental health. Utilizing data collected from a unique sample of professional African…

Abstract

This study explores the relationship between work stress, coping resources, and mental health. Utilizing data collected from a unique sample of professional African Americans (N=167), the study distinguishes between five forms of work stress (perceived discrimination, token stress, role overload, role conflict, and scrutiny) and several indicators of mental health (depression, anxiety, somaticism). The results show that token stress and role overload are more consistent predictors of mental health than any other form of work stress among Black elites. In terms of coping effectiveness, confrontation (e.g., seeking out someone who will listen) appears to be a beneficial strategy for handling work pressures. Forbearance (e.g., hiding one's feelings) and avoidance (e.g., leaving a situation) strategies are related to poor mental health. There is additional evidence however, that confrontational styles of coping are not always conducive during times of elevated work stress, especially when Black elites are faced with token stress. Optimistic comparisons, on the other hand, are useful coping resources among those elites who are dealing with high token stress and role overload.

Details

Employee Health, Coping and Methodologies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-289-4

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Book part

Neal M Ashkanasy, Claire E Ashton-James and Peter J Jordan

We review the literature on stress in organizational settings and, based on a model of job insecurity and emotional intelligence by Jordan, Ashkanasy and Härtel (2002)…

Abstract

We review the literature on stress in organizational settings and, based on a model of job insecurity and emotional intelligence by Jordan, Ashkanasy and Härtel (2002), present a new model where affective responses associated with stress mediate the impact of workplace stressors on individual and organizational performance outcomes. Consistent with Jordan et al., emotional intelligence is a key moderating variable. In our model, however, the components of emotional intelligence are incorporated into the process of stress appraisal and coping. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the implications of these theoretical developments for understanding emotional and behavioral responses to workplace.

Details

Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-238-2

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