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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Markus Buser, Herbert Woratschek and B. David Ridpath

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is…

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, Fantasy Sports (Hereafter FS) is conceptually classified as a concept of gamification for professional sport leagues. From a sporting perspective, FS is often criticized because such online activities may be at the expense of physical activities. Otherwise, gamification can ultimately lead to economic advantages for sport leagues. To further empirically analyse this supposed juxtaposition, an empirical study is presented.

Design/methodology/approach

In the empirical study, participation and non-participation in a sport league-related FS league are analysed and the study uses a divided sample (N = 319) for a one-factor Welch-ANOVA. FS effects on sport practice (engaging in doing sport) and usage (engaging with sport) of FS players as well as on gaining and retaining fans are investigated.

Findings

Results demonstrate that participating in gamified FS experiences increases sport usage while not harming general sport practice. Furthermore, FS participation increases consumption capital as well as sport fans' loyalty and word of mouth (WOM) towards the league brand. Building on the results, league brands should foster gamified FS applications to retain their fan base and acquire new fans.

Originality/value

The authors’ theoretical contribution indicates the importance of FS as a gamified application and essential marketing tool for professional sport leagues. By introducing the terms sport practice and usage, the authors bridge the traditional logic of sport consumption with innovative approaches around engagement in and with sports. The results refute the prejudice that FS leads to less physical activity due to time substitution or displacement.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2010

Kirstin Hallmann and Christoph Breuer

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the…

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4248

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of image congruence between sport events and their hosts as perceived by sport tourists on future visits to the destination, respectively the sport event.

Design/methodology/approach

In order to measure image congruence an indirect, multi‐attributive measure was chosen – using a self‐administered questionnaire distributed to sport tourists at six different sport events in Germany – so as to be able to investigate the two images first separately and second to construct an independent fit measure using the absolute differences of corresponding items. Logistic regression analyses evaluated dependencies between image congruence, location components and socio‐demographic aspects on behavioural intentions.

Findings

The results show that the overall models are significant and that certain elements such as the affinity of atmosphere do play a central role in predicting future visits.

Research limitations/implications

A research limitation could arise due to the sample because almost all sport tourists were German. A more international sample might have shown different results. Future research should analyse samples of different sports concluding whether the sport performed influences behaviour, too.

Practical implications

Some practical implications with respect to the kind of appeal towards sport tourists are given.

Originality/value

This paper shows that not only separated images affect future behaviour but that the perceived fit between two actually distinct images influences behaviour as well.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 65 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Kirstin Hallmann and Pamela Wicker

Although participation in golf has increased in several countries and is associated with an evolving golf industry, research on golf and golf players is rather limited…

Abstract

Purpose

Although participation in golf has increased in several countries and is associated with an evolving golf industry, research on golf and golf players is rather limited. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyse the sport-related expenditure of golfers and diferences of heavy and light spenders.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data of golf players were collected in Germany using a written survey which resulted in a convenience sample of n=197 golfers.

Findings

The regression results indicate that the social motive, time for playing and training, handicap, age, and income have a significant impact on sport-related expenditure. There are several significant difference between heavy and light spenders based on psychological, behavioural, demographic, and resources variables.

Research limitations/implications

A convenience sample was drawn and the sample size with n=197 respondents could be improved. Nonetheless, the descriptive results revealed that the sample structure was similar to previous research with regard to socio-demographic variables.

Practical implications

Since the underlying motives of golfers vary immensely indicating a range of target groups, sport managers need to address each target group differently to fully exploit the marketing potential.

Originality/value

Expenditure of golfers seems to be under researched and the results reveal that the average sport-related expenditure of golfers confirms that golf can be an expensive sport and that golf players are willing to spend on average one monthly income on their sport over a 12-month period.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2018

Nicola Jayne Williams-Burnett and Paula Kearns

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic and is the fourth biggest cause of death worldwide. Numerous campaigns and initiatives have been implemented globally but yet…

Abstract

Purpose

Physical inactivity is a global pandemic and is the fourth biggest cause of death worldwide. Numerous campaigns and initiatives have been implemented globally but yet participation levels remain static. The purpose of this paper is to offer sports providers, educators, policy makers and facilitators a new perspective on consumer values and the consumption of physical activity.

Design/methodology/approach

Researchers conducted a quantitative questionnaire and collected 342 responses through Facebook (social media) from the geographical region, South Wales. Data were analysed using independent t-tests to compare the means between two unrelated groups (active/non-active) against the Sport and Physical Activity Value Model value dimensions.

Findings

The findings are divided into three sections of consumption (pre, consumption, post), results identify differences of consumer values between the active and non-active respondents. For example, service values, the non-active individual have higher expectations of the servicescape and provider than active individuals, suggesting that servicescape concept is one of the key dimensions of consumer value.

Research limitations/implications

The study was confined to one geographic region (South Wales) and only quantitative data were collected when further studies will require exploratory qualitative methods to have a greater understanding.

Practical implications

Findings from this study have been used to assist with the design and creation of an exercise class within a deprived area focussing on the values of consumption for the active and non-active. This study offers the sports provider, educator, policy maker another viewpoint of the consumption of physical activity.

Originality/value

Extant literature on physical activity predominately focusses on levels and there is little benefits in the way of understanding the dimensions of consumer values and the consumption of physical activity. This study contributes to this literature.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 60 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2018

Sunil Hazari

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor…

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1515

Abstract

Purpose

Using the context of Rio Olympic games, the purpose of this paper is to investigate attitude toward sponsorship outcome as it relates to purchase behavior, gender, sponsor patronage, sports enthusiasm, and social media consumption.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected using an online survey of 265 participants. Questions regarding demographics, viewing habits, sports participation, enthusiasm, attitude toward Olympic events were included in the survey. The four sub-scales were sponsorship attitude, sponsor patronage, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm.

Findings

The findings of the study showed that social media consumption is positively related to attitude toward event and sports patronage. There was a significant gender difference on attitude toward event, social media consumption, and sports enthusiasm. Predictors for making a purchase as a result of seeing a social media advertisement were gender, playing competitive sport, and social media consumption.

Practical implications

This study will add to the body of academic and practitioner research on sponsorship outcomes, and provides an opportunity for marketers to leverage social media networks for sponsorship communication.

Originality/value

As the use of social media networks has increased over the past few years, no previous study has investigated association of sports enthusiasm, gender, or social media consumption toward sponsor patronage which relates to consumers seeking out sponsors and being influenced to make a purchase as a result of marketing communication of sponsors.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2020

Emanuele Lettieri and Carlotta Orsenigo

This paper aims to shed novel light to further the ongoing debate about the relationship between traditional sports and eSports by gathering empirical evidence on the role…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to shed novel light to further the ongoing debate about the relationship between traditional sports and eSports by gathering empirical evidence on the role that eSports play on the consumption of traditional sports (i.e. live matches at the Stadium, TV matches spectating, merchandise or sponsor purchase), in the peculiar context of soccer.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review on both sports and eSports consumption has informed the creation of a novel dataset through the design and administration of a structured questionnaire to Italian citizens 18+. Questions were about eSports and soccer consumption, information-seeking behaviour and psychometric factors. All constructs have been measured against validated scales. A total of 279 high-quality responses have been analysed through a prediction model based on regression trees in the Machine Learning domain.

Findings

Results show that soccer consumption is predicted by the degree of vicarious achievement (positive effect), the degree of playing sport-related eSports (positive effect) and the degree of playing non-sport-related eSports (negative effect). Vertical analyses have been on sub-dimensions of soccer consumption (attending live matches at the Stadium, spectating TV matches, buying merchandise or sponsors’ products).

Originality/value

To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to offer empirical evidence to bridge two main limitations: the lack of studies about the eSports-soccer consumptions relationship and the reduction of soccer consumption as just Stadium attendance. Our results have both theoretical and practical implications.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 10 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2021

Michael Goldman, Brandon Brown and Eric C. Schwarz

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of the benefits and constraints of collaborative consumption experiences by investigating the perceptions of hosts and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to find evidence of the benefits and constraints of collaborative consumption experiences by investigating the perceptions of hosts and visitors that attended professional regular season basketball and baseball games in the USA.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through four focus groups with 37 total participants and were analyzed through qualitative content analysis.

Findings

The results show that participants in a collaborative consumption experience perceive four types of value: social interaction and belonging, new fandom, travel bucket list experiences and local and sport knowledge. In addition, the results provide evidence of five consumption constraints related to collaborative consumption: expenses, average experiences, seat location, interpersonal disconnects and personal risk.

Research limitations/implications

The selection of only two sites for the study limited the data triangulation that was possible. This study should be replicated across a wider range of teams and countries to confirm the main findings of the study.

Practical implications

Practitioners can use this initial study to better understand the benefits hosts and visitors perceive in the experience, and therefore the kind of experience design that would encourage increased purchases and loyalty.

Originality/value

This paper provides qualitative insights into the benefits and detriments of a collaborative consumption sport experience, based on participants' involvement in an innovative peer-to-peer platform.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2004

Garry Crawford

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1865

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Holly M. Thompson, Josephine Previte, Sarah Kelly and Adrian.B. Kelly

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of macro-level regulatory systems on alcohol management for community sport organisations (CSOs). It examines how…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of macro-level regulatory systems on alcohol management for community sport organisations (CSOs). It examines how alcohol regulations translate into meso-level management actions and interactions that impact alcohol consumption in community sport clubs.

Design/methodology/approach

Management of alcohol was explored through the holistic lens of macro, meso, and micro-levels of influence. Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with Australian club administrators from community sports clubs.

Findings

Thematic analysis revealed macro-level influences on alcohol management in CSOs, with government regulations and the state sport associations being the most influential. Challenges arise in alcohol policy implementation when sport administrators do not prioritise alcohol consumption as a problem to be addressed, or where a conflict of interest arises between alcohol revenue generation and clubs positioning as health promoting environments.

Practical implications

Targeting club administrators’ attitudes towards alcohol as a benign influence and revising alcohol management practices are recommended as priority strategies to enhance the implementation and promotion of responsible alcohol management in sport clubs. Affiliate state sport associations were also identified as influential settings to provide administrative or strategic direction to CSOs, which would reduce the resources required by volunteers and standardise alcohol management practices across sports clubs.

Originality/value

The prevailing alcohol research focuses on the consumption behaviour of individual members and sports players. The study findings are novel and important as they explore the macro-level influences that administrators experience when enacting and policing alcohol management strategies in sports clubs. To-date, administrators of CSOs have not been included in many studies about alcohol consumption regulation; therefore, the findings provide an original perspective on alcohol regulation and demonstrate how CSOs operationalise alcohol management in club settings. The original insights from this study informed the conceptualisation of a multilevel sport system framework, which can be applied to guide future governance of alcohol consumption in sport settings.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Grant Anthony O’Sullivan, Clare Hanlon, Ramon Spaaij and Hans Westerbeek

The activewear industry would benefit from an evidence-based understanding of how activewear is incorporated into women’s lives and their changing participation in…

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4182

Abstract

Purpose

The activewear industry would benefit from an evidence-based understanding of how activewear is incorporated into women’s lives and their changing participation in physical activity. Activewear brands may be missing the trend of women moving from organised sport to non-organised and individualised sport and recreation. The purpose of this paper is to explore the degree to which academic and industry research understood patterns and influences on female’s activewear consumption and identified what significant gaps are evident in understanding the drivers and industry trends that pertain to female consumers of activewear.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic literature review sought academic and industry research papers. Articles were selected if they included female participants; and/or addressed consumer related information; and focussed on active wear. Article findings were thematically analysed.

Findings

Most literature exploring activewear consumption fails to take gender into consideration or explore unique female consumer profiles. Females are bringing activewear into other parts of their wardrobe and place more value on fashion, even for sports attire. Research identified the need for activewear brands to consider lifestyle, emotional and personality elements of consumer behaviour. However a specific focus on women’s branding was absent. Women’s age and generation influenced their activewear consumption. Although some industry reports discussed the shift in use of activewear, no studies explored the impact of the critical shift in women’s physical activity patterns on the activewear industry.

Originality/value

This review identifies the gap in knowledge regarding women’s activewear consumption patterns and needs, and the importance of reflecting the changes in female physical activity participation. It also links marketing and design of women’s activewear to the needs of female consumers based on their actual patterns and trends in physical activity. The findings are relevant to activewear researchers, brands, marketers and producers.

Details

Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management: An International Journal, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-2026

Keywords

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