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Purpose – This chapter traces the development of cycling in several European countries over the period from the 1880s to the present, with special focus on the two cycling…
Purpose – This chapter traces the development of cycling in several European countries over the period from the 1880s to the present, with special focus on the two cycling nations, Denmark and The Netherlands.
Methodology – Drawing on a wide array of research on bicycle use in Europe in the twentieth century as well as primary sources, the chapter pays particular attention to the users of the bicycle, their organisations and the mixture of male and female, young and old, and rich and poor, because these users were the people who actually shaped cycling cultures.
Findings – While acknowledging that geographical conditions cannot be fully ruled out as contributing factors, the authors point out that political, social and cultural aspects were all woven together into what would become increasingly distinctive national cycling cultures.
Value – This study provides historical context for recent efforts to increase cycling participation by identifying relevant cultural, social and political factors, and providing insights into the trajectories of Dutch and Danish cycling cultures.
The research and practices associated to expand the use of active travel have shown extensive benefits on the overall assessment of well-being. However, cycling is still…
The research and practices associated to expand the use of active travel have shown extensive benefits on the overall assessment of well-being. However, cycling is still unequal considering age and gender. Therefore, further research is needed for contributing to the wider and more inclusive use of the bicycle for women.
The chapter aims to explore and differentiate the emotive and instrumental subjective well-being (SWB) factors that make cycling especially favourable for women, contributing to their general well-being. The chapter also inquiries about the factors that expand women’s opportunities as consequence of cycling.
The research is focussed in the context of Latin American cities, building on the experience of experts in Santiago, Bogotá, Buenos Aires and Mexico City. These cities have had a substantial increase in urban cycling, and yet low rates of cycling women when compared to men.
The nature of the research is qualitative as it considers semi-structured interviews with 21 women experts from non-governmental organisations, academia, government and cycling organisations. The questions have been framed under the concepts of the SWB, considering emotive and instrumental factors.
The findings show that self-esteem, freedom, empowerment and happiness are some of the emotive factors that have emerged from the analysis of interviews. On the side of instrumental factors, cycling emerges as relevant for women’s care role, entrance to the labour market and for strengthening social relationships leading to the promotion of social capital. Social factors have also emerged, mostly related to the advantages of socialisation, democracy and cycling as a political symbol.
Purpose – This chapter examines how activism and advocacy have shaped the policy and politics of cycling.
Methodology – Evidence drawn upon includes policy documents and interviews with advocates and activists, some carried out as part of the Economic and Social Research Council Cycling Cultures project. The chapter focuses on the United Kingdom but within a comparative context drawing upon material from The Netherlands and the Republic of Ireland.
Findings – The chapter argues that cycling has always been constructed in relation to social movements and social identities, and so the politics of cycling varies depending on the relationship of cycling to politics more broadly. Understanding this context can contribute to the analysis of policy and infrastructural debates within and between cycling movements.
Research limitations – The research could be strengthened by a comparative focus upon middle- and lower-income countries, where the demographic profile of cyclists is likely to be different leading to distinctively different politics of cycling.
Research implications – The politics of cycling should be considered as crucial in shaping the content and outcomes of cycling policies, particularly in terms of understanding – and redressing – perceived policy failures.
Social implications – The chapter argues that the current political and economic situation is generating distinctive political problems for cycling movements, and this is already beginning to produce new debates and changes in forms of advocacy and activism.
Purpose – This chapter reflects on the role of cycling in India, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, discusses and compares explanatory factors of cycling behaviour and…
Purpose – This chapter reflects on the role of cycling in India, Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America, discusses and compares explanatory factors of cycling behaviour and provides three methods of spatial analysis that can feed into local transport policy and planning.
Approach – The chapter compares important relevant contextual issues and challenges and presents examples of ongoing research on three continents.
Findings – The findings are in the first instance methodological in nature. Methods have been developed to assess the effect of barriers on access by bicycle, to quantify the avoided carbon emission associated with cycling and to help plan a demand-based cycling network.
Practical implications – Three different spatial analysis methods are presented: the planning of new bicycle infrastructure, the evaluation of existing cycling in terms of avoided carbon emission and the role of the physical environment in levels of cycling accessibility. The methods can be easily replicated and integrated into transport policy and planning at the local level.
Social implications – Effective cycling-inclusive planning in developing countries is expected to lead to higher levels of cycling that positively affect people's welfare, health and the environment.
Value of chapter – The chapter affirms that a thorough understanding of physical, social, economic and cultural factors of the developing city context are important in effective cycling-inclusive planning. It provides three relatively simple and replicable methods that are considered particularly appropriate for data scarce developing cities.
Purpose – This chapter reviews planning and design approaches for cycle traffic in order to direct future thinking towards the critical aspects of network design that will…
Purpose – This chapter reviews planning and design approaches for cycle traffic in order to direct future thinking towards the critical aspects of network design that will have a beneficial impact on the utility and nature of the environment for cycling.
Approach – This chapter provides a critique of the approach of adopting a so-called hierarchy of solutions frequently adopted in western countries with low levels of cycling use.
Findings – The guiding principle for designing routes for cycle traffic is that the bicycle is a vehicle capable of speed and, as a consequence, links and junctions need to be designed according to appropriate geometric design standards. In addition, owing to the nature of the cycle and rider combination, the oft repeated Dutch characteristics for good design for cycle traffic of coherence, directness, attractiveness, safety and comfort remain firm.
Practical implications – The practical implications of the outcomes from the chapter are a method of approach for planning infrastructure for cycle traffic which starts with an analysis of demand and works through to the creation of suitable networks for cycle traffic which are grounded in, and extended from, suitably regulated existing highway networks.
Social implications – An extensive transport system suitable in nature for cycle traffic will attract a wide base of users and consequently allow for the benefits of cycling to be captured.
Value of chapter – The value of the chapter rests in its emphasis on the need to treat cycling as a distinct transport mode and, consequentially, planning and engineering needs to be undertaken in a way conducive to providing the basic necessary infrastructure for such a distinct mode.
Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the…
Purpose – This chapter provides a think piece on economic evaluation and policy for cycling. Bicycle investments are often motivated by a desire to improve health, the environment and congestion conditions. However, we argue that since the bicycle is a part of the transport system, it should be evaluated as such. Focusing on implications for cycling appraisal in general, we also discuss two conflicting trends in Stockholm: a sharp decrease in cycling in the outer areas, and a sharp increase in the inner parts.
Methodology – We use (i) travel survey data to analyse the potential to reduce congestion through improvements for cyclists, (ii) travel survey data from 1986 to 1987 and 2004 and bicycle counts over 25 years and (iii) a value of time survey of Stockholm cyclists including questions of exercise habits.
Findings – Additional benefits in appraisal from reduced car traffic and improved health seem to be small. Given bicyclists’ high values of time and low investment costs, bicycling investments are still likely to be socially beneficial. The conflicting bicycling trends can be explained by (i) increased road congestion and improved bicycle infrastructure, (ii) increased visibility of bicyclists generating a ‘positive spiral’, (iii) increased interest in physical fitness and changes in the relative prices of cars versus central residences turn cycling into a high-status mode and (iv) in peripheral areas, increasing distances and less dense land use patterns decrease cycling levels.
Practical implications – The results underscore the need for dense, mixed-use spatial planning and ‘smart’ marketing using the effects of cyclist visibility to reinforce the ‘status’ of cycling.
Purpose – This chapter analyses the various themes connected with cycling's current situation and future prospects which have emerged through the previous 10 chapters, and…
Purpose – This chapter analyses the various themes connected with cycling's current situation and future prospects which have emerged through the previous 10 chapters, and elaborates the need for a ‘bicycle system’ which is capable of achieving a ‘revolution’ in cycling.
Approach – The chapter draws on previous chapters, as well as the results of recently completed research into the state of cycling across urban England.
Findings – Cycling remains marginalised, but its current rise in status across some of the world's cities offers grounds for optimism about its future contribution to sustainability objectives. The bicycle's rise in status is currently both elitist and, potentially, a passing fashion; the challenge is to make it both more democratic and durable.
Practical implications – In the mould of ‘common endeavours’ outlined in the World Commission Report on Environment and Development ‘Our Common Future’, the authors propose building a ‘bicycle system’ to ensure the bicycle can play a full role in the transition to (especially urban) sustainability and outline possible principles for, pathways towards, and components and characteristics of, a bicycle system.
Social implications – The chapter aims to influence broader debates, and importantly it needs to influence political discourse, about the changes required to assist in the transition to greater urban transport sustainability, and specifically to discourage car use whilst encouraging use of the bicycle for short urban journeys.
Value of paper – The authors provide an analysis of the current constraints on cycling, and a case for simultaneously assembling a ‘bicycle system’ as the means of transitioning urban transport towards sustainability, whilst at the same time disassembling the current system that allows cars to predominate.
Purpose – To examine the potential for switching short trips in urban areas from cars to walking and cycling, and the possible contribution, this could make to a reduction…
Purpose – To examine the potential for switching short trips in urban areas from cars to walking and cycling, and the possible contribution, this could make to a reduction in transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.
Methods – Case studies in four urban areas combining a questionnaire survey, interviews with households and during journeys and in-depth ethnographies of everyday travel.
Findings – The barriers to an increase in walking and cycling in British urban areas are emphasised. It demonstrates that motivations for walking and cycling are mostly personal (health and local environment) and that the complexities and contingencies of everyday travel for many households, combined with inadequate infrastructure, safety concerns and the fact that walking and cycling are seen by many as abnormal modes of travel, mean that increasing rates of walking and cycling will be hard. Given that the contribution of trips less than 2 miles to transport-related greenhouse gas emissions is relatively small, it is argued that any gains from increased walking and cycling would mostly accrue to personal health and the local environment rather than to the UK's carbon reduction target.
Social implications – Positive attitudes towards walking and cycling are motivated mainly by personal concerns rather than global environmental issues.
Originality – Use of detailed ethnographic material in policy-related transport research.
Decision makers and authorities largely ignore cycling when conceptualising and developing programmes to support older mobility and therefore, unsurprisingly, levels of…
Decision makers and authorities largely ignore cycling when conceptualising and developing programmes to support older mobility and therefore, unsurprisingly, levels of cycling in the United Kingdom are low compared to other northern European nations. Cycling has the potential to play an important role in the active ageing agenda and provide older citizens with a form of independent mobility that enhances personal health and wellbeing. The chapter provides evidence of the important role cycling does and could play in older people’s mobility and outlines ways in which older cycling could be supported and promoted.