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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2020

Nabeena Ameen, Najumnissa Jamal and Arun Raj

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook…

Abstract

Purpose

With the rapid growth of wireless sensor networks (WSNs), they have become an integral and substantial part of people's life. As such WSN stands as an assuring outlook, but because of sensor's resource limitations and other prerequisites, optimal dual route discovery becomes an issue of concern. WSN along with central sink node is capable of handling wireless transmission, thus optimizing the network's lifetime by selecting the dual path. The major problem confronted in the application of security mechanisms in WSNs is resolving the issues amid reducing consumption of resources and increases security.

Design/methodology/approach

According to the proposed system, two metrics, namely, path length and packets delivery ratio are incorporated for identifying dual routes amid the source and destination. Thereafter by making use of the distance metric, the optimal dual route is chosen and data transmission is carried out amid the nodes. With the usage of the recommended routing protocol high packet delivery ratio is achieved with reduced routing overhead and low average end to end delay. It is clearly portrayed in the simulation output that the proposed on demand dual path routing protocol surpasses the prevailing routing protocol. Moreover, security is achieved make use of in accord the data compression reduces the size of the data. With the help of dual path, mathematical model of Finite Automata Theory is derived to transmit data from source to destination. Finite Automata Theory comprises Deterministic Finite Automata (DFA) that is being utilized for Dual Path Selection. In addition, data transition functions are defined for each input stage. In this proposed work, another mathematical model is 10; introduced to efficiently choose an alternate path between a receiver and transmitter for data transfer with qualified node as relay node using RR Algorithm. It also includes Dynamic Mathematical Model for Node Localization to improve the precision in location estimation using Node Localization Algorithm. As a result a simulator is built and various scenarios are elaborated for comparing the performance of the recommended dual path routing protocol with respect to the prevailing ones.

Findings

Reliability and fault-tolerance: The actual motive in utilizing the approach of multipath routing in sensor network was to offer path resilience in case of a node or link failures thus ascertaining reliable transmission of data. Usually in a fault tolerant domain, when the sensor node is unable to forward the data packets to the sink, alternative paths can be utilized for recovering its data packets during the failure of any link/node. Load balancing: Load balancing involves equalizing energy consumption of all the existing nodes, thereby degrading them together. Load balancing via clustering improves network scalability. The network's lifetime as well as reliability can be extended if varied energy level's nodes exist in sensor node. Quality of service (QoS): Improvement backing of quality of service with respect to the data delivery ratio, network throughput and end-to-end latency stands very significant in building multipath routing protocols for various network types. Reduced delay: There is a reduced delay in multipath routing since the backup routes are determined at the time of route discovery. Bandwidth aggregation: By dividing the data toward the same destination into multiple streams (by routing all to a separate path) can aggregate the effective bandwidth. The benefit being that, in case a node possesses many links with low bandwidth, it can acquire a bandwidth which is more compared to the individual link.

Research limitations/implications

Few more new algorithms can be used to compare the QoS parameters.

Practical implications

Proposed mechanism with feedback ascertains improvised delivery ratio compared to the single path protocol since in case of link failure, the protocol has alternative route. In case there are 50 nodes in the network, the detection mechanism yields packet delivery of 95% and in case there are 100 nodes, the packet delivery is lowered to 89%. It is observed that the packet rate in the network is more for small node range. When the node count is 200, the packet ratio is low, which is lowered to 85%. With a node count of 400, the curve depicts the value of 87%. Hence, even with a decrease in value, it is superior than the existing protocols. The average end-to-end delay represents the transmission delay of the data packets that have been successfully delivered as depicted in Figure 6 and Table 3. The recommended system presents the queue as well as the propagation delay from the source to destination. The figure depicts that when compared to the single path protocol, the end-to-end delay can be reduced via route switching. End-to-end delay signifies the time acquired for the delay in the receival of the the retransmitted packet by each node. The comparison reveals that the delay was lower compared to the existing ones in the WSN. Proposed protocol aids in reducing consumption of energy in transmitter, receiver and various sensors. Comparative analysis of energy consumptions of the sensor in regard to the recommended system must exhibit reduced energy than the prevailing systems.

Originality/value

On demand dual path routing protocol. Hence it is verified that the on demand routing protocol comprises DFA algorithms determines dual path. Here mathematical model for routing between two nodes with relay node is derived using RR algorithm to determine alternate path and thus reduce energy consumption. Another dynamic mathematical model for node localization is derived using localization algorithm. For transmitting data with a secure and promising QoS in the WSNs, the routing optimization technique has been introduced. The simulation software environment follows the DFA. The simulation yields in improvised performance with respect to packet delivery ratio, throughput, average end-to-end delay and routing overhead. So, it is proved that the DFA possesses the capability of optimizing the routing algorithms which facilitates the multimedia applications over WSNs.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Unmanned Systems, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2049-6427

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 27 June 2008

Yohan Chae and Younggoo Kwon

IEEE 802.15.4 is a new standard uniquely designed for low‐rate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets low data rate, low power consumption and low‐cost wireless…

Abstract

Purpose

IEEE 802.15.4 is a new standard uniquely designed for low‐rate wireless sensor networks (WSNs). It targets low data rate, low power consumption and low‐cost wireless networking, and offers device level wireless connectivity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a traffic adaptive power control algorithm for beacon relayed distributed WSNs.

Design/methodology/approach

A general coordinated sleeping algorithm and the traffic adaptive algorithm are combined in an IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol to achieve high‐energy efficiency and high performance at the same time.

Findings

By observing the sporadic traffic and beacon relaying characteristics of WSNs, the paper proposes a traffic‐adaptive IEEE 802.15.4 MAC with a coordinated sleeping algorithm. Based on various performance studies, it was found that the proposed algorithm can significantly improve power consumptions in wireless sensor networks.

Originality/value

The paper is of value in proposing a traffic adaptive power control algorithm showing highly efficient power consumptions in low‐traffic conditions as well as with an acceptable degree of adaptation to high‐traffic conditions. In delay performance, it shows longer delay performance compared with other schemes because of the beacon relay procedure while the proposed algorithm reduces the power consumptions dramatically.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 30 August 2011

Yusuke Gotoh, Tomoki Yoshihisa, Hideo Taniguchi and Masanori Kanazawa

The purpose of this paper is to reduce the waiting time on webcast for selective contents, by proposing a scheduling method called the “contents prefetched broadcasting…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to reduce the waiting time on webcast for selective contents, by proposing a scheduling method called the “contents prefetched broadcasting considering user participation” (CPB‐CP) method.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors analyze and evaluate the performance of the proposed CPB‐CP method.

Findings

It is confirmed that the proposed method gives shorter average waiting time than the conventional methods.

Research limitations/implications

A future direction of this study will involve making a scheduling method in the case where the playing time of each content item is different.

Practical implications

In selective contents delivery, users may wait for the next bit of content to start playing after watching the previous one. In quiz programs, users may wait to receive the content data for their selected answer after they select their answer.

Originality/value

In the CPB‐CP method, when a provider node pulls out of the network while delivering contents, waiting time is reduced effectively by reconstructing a delivery schedule that considers the available bandwidth of each provider node.

Details

International Journal of Web Information Systems, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-0084

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 June 2009

Abraham George, Anup Kumar and S. Srinivasan

Mobility management for single‐hop cellular networks has received much research attention in the last few years. One of the research challenges for 4G wireless systems is…

Abstract

Purpose

Mobility management for single‐hop cellular networks has received much research attention in the last few years. One of the research challenges for 4G wireless systems is the design of mobility management techniques that integrate cellular and ad‐hoc networks. Currently, there are no structured mobility management schemes for these heterogeneous multi‐hop networks. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes techniques for tracking a mobile node (MN) in an integrated architecture with minimum overhead. This paper proposes group rerouting concept.

Findings

The paper implements and evaluates the proposed protocol by using the network simulator (NS‐2). The proposed protocol increases performance compared to broadcasting schemes.

Research limitations/implications

This scheme considers devices with two interfaces only.

Practical implications

The paper proposes a scheme to extend the coverage of cellular base stations by using ad‐hoc devices.

Originality/value

This paper describes techniques for tracking an MN in an integrated architecture with minimum overhead. This scheme is independent of the routing protocol used in a multi‐hop network.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Radha S., G. Josemin Bala and Nagabushanam P.

Energy is the major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for most of the applications. There exist many factors for higher energy consumption in WSNs. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

Energy is the major concern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for most of the applications. There exist many factors for higher energy consumption in WSNs. The purpose of this work is to increase the coverage area maintaining the minimum possible nodes or sensors.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper has proposed multilayer (ML) nodes deployment with distributed MAC (DS-MAC) in which nodes listen time is controlled based on communication of neighbors. Game theory optimization helps in addressing path loss constraints while selecting path toward base stations (BS).

Findings

The simulation is carried out using NS-2.35, and it shows better performance in ML DS-MAC compared to random topology in DS-MAC with same number of BS. The proposed method improves performance of network in terms of energy consumption, network lifetime and better throughput.

Research limitations/implications

Energy consumption is the major problem in WSNs and for which there exist many reasons, and many approaches are being proposed by researchers based on application in which WSN is used. Node mobility, topology, multitier and ML deployment and path loss constraints are some of the concerns in WSNs.

Practical implications

Game theory is used in different situations like countries whose army race, business firms that are competing, animals generally fighting for prey, political parties competing for vote, penalty kicks for the players in football and so on.

Social implications

WSNs find applications in surveillance, monitoring, inspections for wild life, sea life, underground pipes and so on.

Originality/value

Game theory optimization helps in addressing path loss constraints while selecting path toward BS.

Details

Circuit World, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2009

Xiaowei Zhang and N.F. Maxemchuk

In multihop wireless networks, the number of neighbors has an important role in the network performance since links are dynamically formed between a node and its…

Abstract

Purpose

In multihop wireless networks, the number of neighbors has an important role in the network performance since links are dynamically formed between a node and its neighbors. This paper aims to investigate this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper quantitatively studies the effects of the average number of neighbors in multihop wireless networks on the network connectivity, the number of hops needed to traverse a certain distance, which can be used to determine the hop diameter of a network, and the total energy consumed by packet transmission, which can be used to choose an optimum average number of neighbors that minimizes the energy consumption. This paper also presents an analysis of the energy consumption that can be applied to a wide range of access protocols and show the effect of a variety of factors.

Findings

Results show that the minimum average number of neighbors to guarantee the overall network connectivity depends on the size of a network coverage. There is a sharp knee in the network connectivity with decrease of the average number of neighbors, N. If the distance between a source and destination, d, is known, the number of hops needed to reach the destination is usually between d/R∼2d/R, where R is the transmission range. A larger average number of neighbors N leads to a smaller number of hops to traverse a certain distance, which in turn results in a smaller traffic load caused by relaying packets. However, a bigger N also causes more collisions when a contention medium access scheme is used, which leads to more energy consumed by packet transmission. The results show that the optimum N which minimizes the energy is obtained by balancing several factors affecting the energy.

Originality/value

The paper provides a useful study on the effects of the number of neighbors in multihop wireless networks.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2021

Ch Rajendra Prasad and Polaiah Bojja

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a non-linear mathematical model-based routing protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs). Two non-linear mathematical models for WBANs are used in the proposed protocols Model 1 and Model 2. Model 1 intends to improve the data transmission rate and Model 2 intends to reduce energy consumption in the WBANs. These models are simulated for fixed deployment and priority-based data transmission, and performance of the network is analyzed under four constraints on WBANs.

Design/methodology/approach

Advancements in wireless technology play a vital role in several applications such as electronic health care, entertainment and games. Though WBANs are widely used in digital health care, they have restricted battery capacity which affects network stability and data transmission. Therefore, several research studies focused on reducing energy consumption and maximizing the data transmission rate in WBANs.

Findings

Simulation results of the proposed protocol exhibit superior performance in terms of four network constraints such as residual energy, the stability of the network, path loss and data transmission rate in contrast with conventional routing protocols. The performance improvement of these parameters confirms that the proposed algorithm is more reliable and consumes less energy than traditional algorithms.

Originality/value

The Model 1 of the proposed work provides maximum data extraction, which ensures reliable data transmission in WBANs. The Model 2 allocates minimal hop count path between the sink and the sensor nodes, which minimizes energy consumption in the WBANs.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Nadjib Benaouda and Ammar Lahlouhi

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel delay-bounded and power-efficient routing for in-network data aggregation, called DPIDA, which aims to ensure a compromise…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel delay-bounded and power-efficient routing for in-network data aggregation, called DPIDA, which aims to ensure a compromise between the energy consumed during the collection of data sensed by a set of source sensor nodes and their timely delivery to the sink node.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the ant-colony-optimization metaheuristic, the proposal establishes a routing structure that maximizes the number of overlapping routes and minimizes the total transmission power while ensuring delay-bounded paths and a symmetric transmission power assignment to reliably deliver the sensed data.

Findings

The proposal was extensively compared to two other known protocols regarding different keys factors. Simulation results, including topology snapshots, show the ability of DPIDA to ensure the energy–latency tradeoff. They also show the superiority of DPIDA compared to the two considered protocols.

Originality/value

This paper presents a novel ant-based protocol that uses in-network data aggregation and transmission power-adjustment techniques to conserve the energy of nodes while ensuring delay-bounded paths and a reliable deliverance of data which is ensured by providing a symmetric transmission power assignment.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Chao‐Lieh Chen, Kuan‐Rong Lee and Yau‐Hwang Kuo

The purpose of this paper is to propose an energy‐proportional routing (EPR) algorithm, which effectively extends the lifetimes of sensor networks.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an energy‐proportional routing (EPR) algorithm, which effectively extends the lifetimes of sensor networks.

Design/methodology/approach

The algorithm makes no specific assumption on network topology and hence is suitable for improving sensor networks with clustering. To optimally utilize energy, light‐load units – nodes or clusters that conserve energy are ideal candidates as intermediate units for forwarding data from others. To balance the load, first, the proposed algorithm predicts energy consumption of each node in each round. Then the algorithm controls the energy consumption of each unit as close as possible to the threshold representing the energy utilization mean value among clusters. Finally the algorithm checks satisfaction of the energy constraints in terms of distances and predicted data amounts. The proposed algorithm performs routing by determining whether a cluster head or a node should either undertake forwarding tasks or transmit data to intermediate hops. In this way, energy dissipation is evenly distributed to all units and the lifetime of the whole wireless sensor network is ultimately extended.

Findings

The algorithm applies hierarchically to different levels of network topology. In addition to experiments, the mathematical proofs of lifetime extension by the proposed routing algorithm are given in accordance with three widely accepted criteria – total energy dissipation, the number of live nodes in each round and the throughput (data amount per round).

Originality/value

A new routing algorithm is proposed.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Jun Lu, Lichun Bao and Tatsuya Suda

Sensing coverage is a critical issue in sensor network deployments. The paper aims to propose a novel scheme to maintain the sensing coverage in sensor networks, which is…

Abstract

Purpose

Sensing coverage is a critical issue in sensor network deployments. The paper aims to propose a novel scheme to maintain the sensing coverage in sensor networks, which is termed coverage‐aware self‐scheduling (CASS).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper describes a generic unifying framework to incorporate different connectivity and coverage maintenance schemes. Simulations are carried out under the framework by integrating CASS with an existing connectivity maintenance scheme ‐ the low‐energy adaptive clustering hierarchy.

Findings

Different from the existing work on coverage maintenance, CASS probabilistically schedules sensing activities according to the sensor's contribution to the sensing coverage of the whole sensor network. CASS reduces the number of active sensors to maintain certain coverage. Besides the sensing coverage, the connectivity of the network topologies is required for the purpose of communicating among sensors to collect sensing data. Simulation results show that CASS can considerably improve the energy efficiency of sensing coverage with low communication and computation overhead.

Originality/value

The paper shows that CASS is designed to allow sensors with higher coverage contribution to have more chance to sense.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

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